[51a - 51 lines; 51b - 39 lines]

1)[line 1]בידוע שלפני שחיטהB'YADU'A SHE'LIFNEI SHECHITAH- it is certain the puncture occurred before the animal's slaughter, since a puncture made after Shechitah would not have bled

2)[line 2]הגליד פי המכהHIGLID PI HA'MAKAH- if a scab formed over the opening of the puncture wound

3)[line 5]המוציא מחבירו עליו הראיהHA'MOTZI ME'CHAVEIRO ALAV HA'RE'AYAH

The general rule in monetary claims is that the burden of proof rests with the one who wishes to extract payment or other items of value from the other person. Hence, when ownership is in doubt, all money or real estate remains with the one who has possession.

4)[line 5]דאף על גב דליכא דם טריף מרD'AF AL GAV D'LEIKA DAM TARIF MAR- even though there is no blood at the site of the puncture, the master rules it a Tereifah?

5)[line 6]התם ליכא מידי למיסרךHASAM LEIKA MIDI L'MISRACH- there (in the case of other punctures), there is nothing to which the blood can adhere to

6)[line 9]צורבא מרבנןTZURBA ME'RABANAN- a Talmid Chacham (RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 21:4, SHULCHAN ARUCH Choshen Mishpat 17:2)

7)[line 10]רב עוירא שמניRAV AVIRA SHAMNI- my name is Rav Avira

8)[line 13]הוה קאי אאיגראHAVAH KAI A'IGRA- Rav Avira was standing on the roof

9)[line 13]ניחות מר וניתיNEICHOS MAR V'NEISI- let the master descend and come

10)[line 15]אימא לי גופא דעובדא היכי הוהEIMA LI GUFA D'UVDA HEICHI HAVAH- [Abaye said to him:] tell me the actual facts of the case

11)[line 16]מפטיר כניסיות אנאMAFTIR KENESIYOS ANA- I am the one who admits and dismisses the students at the study hall

12)[line 16]לעילא מרבי רבהL'EILA ME'REBBI RABAH- I am the attendant to the great Rebbi (Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi)

13)[line 21]טרח (טרייה) [טריח] לההוא גבראTARACH (TARYEI) [TARI'ACH] L'HA'HU GAVRA- he has troubled that man (for nothing)

14)[line 24]אין חוששין משום ריסוקי אבריםEIN CHOSHESHIN MISHUM RISUK EIVARIM- we are not concerned about the possibility that the animal fell and suffered crushed limbs

15)[line 26]דחזא חושלא באיפומאD'CHAZA CHUSHLA B'IPUMA- it looked through an opening in the roof and saw barley on the floor (in the house)

16)[line 26]דגרDAGAR- it leaped

17)[line 27]נפל מאיגרא לארעאNAFAL ME'IGRA L'AR'A- it fell from the roof to the floor below (and it did not walk or stand, TOSFOS)

18)[line 30]דאית לה מידי למסרך משוםMISHUM D'IS LAH MIDI L'MISRACH- because [when descending from the roof] it has something to grasp

19)[line 31]משום דאמדה נפשהMISHUM D'AMDAH NAFSHAH- because the animal gauged itself capable of making the jump safely, i.e. an animal would not jump from a height too great for its safety

20)[line 34]אימרתאIMRETA- a sheep

21)[line 34]דהוו שדרן כרעיה בתרייתאD'HAVU SHADRAN KAR'EI BASRAISA- [a sheep on Rav Chaviva's homestead] whose hind legs dragged behind her

22)[line 35]האי שיגרונא נקטיהHAI SHIGRONA NAKTEI- this sheep has a cramp

23)[line 39]זכרים המנגחין זה את זהZECHARIM HA'MENAGCHIN ZEH ES ZEH- rams that butt each other

24)[line 41]אף על גב דמידוו וקיימיAF AL GAV D'MIDVU V'KAIMEI- even though they are in continual pain

25)[line 41]צימרא בעלמא הוא דנקט להוTZIMRA B'ALMA HU D'NAKAT LEHU- it is a mere fever that has seized them (but they are not seriously injured)

26)[line 42]הני דכרי דגנבי גנביHANEI DICHREI D'GANVEI GANAVEI- these rams that thieves steal (and throw over the wall of the yard)

27)[line 44]כי שדו להוKI SHADU LEHU- when the thieves throw them

28)[line 44]אמתנייהו שדו להוA'MASNAIHU SHADU LEHU- they (the thieves) throw them on their loins

29)[line 45]כי היכי דלירהטי קמייהוKI HEICHI D'LIRHATEI KAMAIHU- so that the rams should run ahead of them

30)[line 46]תשובה מעלייתא הוא דעבדיTESHUVAH MA'ALYASA HU D'AVDEI- it is proper repentance that they are doing (they return the animals, making sure that the animals land in a way that does not injure them)

31)[line 47]הכה על ראשה והלכה לה כלפי זנבהHIKAH AL ROSHAH V'HALCHAH LAH KELAPEI ZENAVAH- he struck her (the animal) and the stick [with which he struck her] reached [from her head] to her tail

32)[line 48]כנגד כל השדרה כולהKENEGED KOL HA'SHIDRAH KULAH- if the stick struck the animal along the entire length of the spine

33)[line 49]ואי שלים חוטרא אפלגי דגבאV'IY SHALIM CHUTRA A'PALGEI D'GABA- if the stick finished at (i.e. it reached only until) the middle of the back [of the animal]

34)[line 49]קיטריKITREI- [the stick] has knobs in it; i.e. the bough that serves as the stick still has the stubs of branches protruding from it

35)[line 50]ואי מחיי אפסקיהV'I MACHYEI A'PASKEI- and if he struck the animal across the width of the back

36)[line 50]בית הרחםBEIS HA'RECHEM- the cervical canal


37)[line 1]בזיבהB'ZIVAH (ZAV)

(a)A Zav (Vayikra 15:1-15), a man who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter. A man who emits Zov one time is Tamei like a Ba'al Keri (see Background to Bava Kama 25:6) and must immerse and wait for nightfall to become Tahor.

(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked" to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If this discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. The seven ways are: 1. eating too much; 2. drinking too much; 3. carrying a heavy load; 4. jumping; 5. being sick; 6. (a) seeing a frightening sight (RASHI to Nazir 65b); (b) seeing a woman, even without having unclean thoughts (ROSH to Nazir ibid.); 7. having unclean thoughts.

(c)A Zav must count seven "clean" days (Shiv'ah Nekiyim) in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).

(d)If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. Even if the first time was b'Ones, as long as the second emission was not, he is Tamei. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

(e)In the case of three emissions, however, he is only obligated in a Korban if the first two were not b'Ones. The third emission may come about b'Ones according to the Rabanan. According to Rebbi Eliezer, he is only obligated in a Korban if all three emissions are not b'Ones (Nazir 65b). However, if the Zav had an emission during Shiv'ah Nekiyim, even b'Ones, all agree that this emission stops his count, and he must start counting again (Zavim ibid.).

38)[line 3]שיצא דרך דופןSHE'YATZA DERECH DOFEN- the baby was born by Caesarean section

39)[line 5]שאם נולד הוא ומומו עמו שזה מן המוכןSHE'IM NOLAD HU U'MUMO IMO SHE'ZEH MIN HA'MUCHAN- [both of them agree] that if the Bechor was born with its blemish that this is considered "prepared" [and it may be slaughtered and eaten on Yom Tov]

40)[line 8]לענין קדשים שאינו קדושL'INYAN KODSHIM SHE'EINO KADOSH- with regard to Kodshim, it (an animal born by Caesarean section) has no Kedushah and cannot be used as a Korban

41)[line 9]שהפריס על גבי קרקעSHE'HIFRIS AL GABEI KARKA- that it stood on its hooves upon the ground

42)[line 10]בית המטבחיםBEIS HA'MITBECHAYIM- [an animal in the] slaughterhouse

43)[line 11]ואישתמע קל נגיחותיהV'ISHTAMA KAL NEGICHUSEI- (O.F. plaindres) [the ox fell] and its groan was heard

44)[line 12]שקל משופרי שופריSHAKAL MI'SHUFREI SHUFREI- he took the choicest meat [of that ox]

45)[line 14]צפרניו נועץ עד שמגיע לארץTZIPORNAV NO'ETZ AD SHE'MAGI'A LA'ARETZ- it digs its nails into the ground until it reaches the ground (so that it does not fall with impact)

46)[line 16]מעת לעתME'ES L'ES- for a twenty-four hour period

47)[line 20]עקרה רגלה להלךAKRAH RAGLAH L'HALECH- if the animal raised its hind leg in an attempt to walk (even if it did not actually walk, it is like walking)

48)[line 21]ניערה לעמודNI'ARAH LA'AMOD- if it stirred itself to stand (even without sticking out a limb, this is like standing)

49)[line 29]כנגד בית החלל כולוKENEGED BEIS HE'CHALAL KULO- [the animal requires examination] along the length of the entire insides

50)[line 30]סימניןSIMANIN- [what about] the pipes (the esophagus and windpipe)?

51)[line 31]עוף שנחבט על פני המיםOF SHE'NECHBAT AL PNEI HA'MAYIM- a bird that was thrown against the surface of the water

52)[line 31]ששטSHE'SHAT- that it swam

53)[line 32]ממטה למעלהMI'MATAH L'MAILAH- [where the bird swims] upstream (lit. from below to above)

54)[line 32]מיא הוא דאשפלוMAYA HU D'ASHPELU- it is the water that is carrying it downstream

55)[line 33]מים קיימיMAYIM KAIMEI- [if] the waters are standing still

56)[line 33]ואי שדא ציבי וקדמיהV'IY SHADA TZIVEI V'KADMEI- and if there are twigs strewn (and floating) in the water and the bird overtakes them

57)[line 33]גלימא מתיחGELIMA MASI'ACH- a garment that was stretched out tightly

58)[line 34]עוף ומעופףOF U'ME'UFAF- [if the garment] was folded over

59a)[line 34]איזלאIZLA- a bird that flew into a net spread out in the air

b)[line 34]ומקרבי קיטריU'MEKARVEI KITREI- and its knots are made close together

60)[line 35]כיתנא דעביד בטוניKISNA D'AVID B'TUNEI- [if a bird fell into] flax that was made into bundles

61)[line 36]דהאי גיסא ודהאו גיסאD'HAI GISA UD'HAI GISA- [if the bird struck the bundle] on either side (rather than at the peak)

62)[line 36]אסורייתאASURYASA- a bundle of reeds

63)[line 36]כיתנא דדייק ונפיץKISNA D'DAYIK V'NAFITZ- flax that was beaten (O.F. batud) and shaken (O.F. escos)

64)[line 37]דעביד ביזריD'AVID BIZREI- (O.F. popedes) flax made into combed bundles

65)[line 38]דקתאDAKSA- stubble that comes off of flax

66)[line 38]דקדקתאDAKDEKASA- very thin flax

67)[line 38]נבראNAVRA- [if a bird fell onto] palm-bast (the fibrous inner bark of a palm tree used in the production of rope)

68)[line 39]תימחתאTIMCHESA- (O.F. til) lime-tree, linden-tree

69)[line 39]קיטמא נהילאKITMA NEHILA- sifted ash