[19a - 33 lines; 19b - 44 lines]
1)[line 6]אשכחתינהוASHKACHTINHU- I found them
2)[line 16]גתוGITO- (lit. his winepress) the crop of grapes that he intends to squeeze for wine
3)[line 16]כדוKADO- (lit. his pitcher; alternate Girsa, BADO - his olive press) the crop of olives that he intends to press for oil
4)[line 17]ורוצה לאכול בחבורה אחרתV'ROTZEH LE'ECHOL B'CHABURAH ACHERES
6)[line 18]שלמיםSHELAMIM (SHALMEI YACHID)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only (Shetayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar ibid.
(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten for two days and the intervening night.
(d)Although the Korban Shelamim that is offered by an individual is generally a voluntary sacrifice (Shalmei Nedavah), some Korbenos Shelamim are obligatory (Shalmei Chovah). Two types of Korbenos Shelamim that are obligatory are the Shalmei Chagigah (see below, #9) and the Shalmei Simchah (see below, #13). At the time of the Milu'im (when the Mishkan was inaugurated), Shalmei Chovah were offered as well.
7)[line 19]וסומכיןSOMCHIN (SEMICHAH)
Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press his hands with all his might on the head of his sacrifice before it is slaughtered, as described in Vayikra (1:4).
8)[line 19]ועולתOLOS (OLAS YACHID)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice (Olas Nedavah), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Olah are Kodshei Kodashim and therefore they may only be slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah. Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the is cast on the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only (Shetayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar ibid.
(c)The skin of the Olah is given to the Kohanim and the rest of the animal is dismembered and entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.
(d)A Korban Olah offered by an individual that is obligatory (Olas Chovah) is the Olas Re'iyah. Every Jewish male is required to bring a Korban Olas Re'iyah on the three festivals (Devarim 16:16). If the Korban was not brought on the first day of the festival, it may be brought on any of the other days of the festival (i.e. the next six days of Pesach, or the next seven days of Sukos). On Shavu'os, if it was not brought on Yom Tov, it may be brought on the six days following the festival (Chagigah 17a).
9)[line 20]בשלמי חגיגהSHALMEI CHAGIGAH
Every Jewish male is obligated to come to the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash on Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos, and bring an animal as a Korban Chagigah, as the Torah states, "Shalosh Regalim Tachog Li ba'Shanah" (Shemos 23:14). They are also called "Shalmei Chovah."
10)[line 25]שלמים שהן של יום טובSHELAMIM SHE'HEN SHEL YOM TOV- this refers to the Korban Chagigah and Shalmei Simchah which are brought because of Yom Tov
11)[line 31]תנאי שקלת מעלמאTANA'EI SHAKALT ME'ALMA- (lit. "Have you cast out all of the Tana'im from the world?") i.e. why do you not consider the fact that Ula's opinion is in accordance with a Tana of the same opinion?
(a)The Todah (thanksgiving-offering) was a form of Shelamim (see above, entry #6) that was eaten for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15).
(b)An animal that was sacrificed as a Todah was brought together with forty loaves of bread, ten each of the following:
1.unleavened loaves mixed with oil;
2.flat unleavened Matzos saturated with oil;
3.unleavened loaves made of boiled flour mixed with oil;
4.loaves of leavened bread.
(c)One loaf of each type of bread was given to the Kohen who performed the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (These four loaves were known as Terumas Lachmei Todah.) The owner eats the rest of the loaves of bread of the Todah along with the meat, as above (entry #6).
(a)The Mitzvah of Simchah (Devarim 27:7) that applies on the three Holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos requires a person to eat from sacrifices every day of the holiday. If no other sacrifice is available, the person brings a special Korban, known as Shalmei Simchah, for the purpose of fulfilling this Mitzvah. Women are also obligated in this Mitzvah (RAMBAM Hilchos Chagigah 1:1).
(b)Besides offering extra Korbanos, the Mitzvah of Simchah also requires that all of the Jews be happy on the holidays. Buying food and clothing that cause one to be happy, each person according to his taste, fulfills this Mitzvah. One must also remember to support the poor and downtrodden on Yom Tov, for if one spends one's time eating and drinking without helping the poor, it is not considered a Simchah Shel Mitzvah; rather, it is Simchas Kreiso (a feast for one's stomach). (RAMBAM Hilchos Yom Tov 6:17-18)
14)[line 16]אין מביאין קדשים לבית הפסולEIN MEVI'IN KODASHIM L'VEIS HA'PESUL
(a)Every Korban has specific Halachos with regard to when, where and by whom it may be eaten. Some are eaten on the day that they are slaughtered and the following night, while others are eaten for two days and the night in between. Some may be eaten in all of Yerushalayim, while others must be eaten only in the Azarah (courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). Some may be eaten by any Jew, while others may only be eaten by the Kohanim. According to those who rule Ein Mevi'in Kodshim l'Veis ha'Pesul, it is prohibited to bring a Korban in a way which will limit the amount of time, places or people with which the Korban is eaten. Doing so may cause part of the Korban to not be eaten and to become Nosar.
(b)A person who offers a Todah also brings ten loaves that are Chametz as part of his Korban. As with the meat of the Todah, the loaves are also eaten on that day and the following night. On Erev Pesach eating Chametz is prohibited from after the fourth hour (mid'Rabanan, and from after the sixth hour mid'Oraisa). Since these loaves are not able to be eaten for the prescribed time limit of the Korban, this curtails the amount of time in which they must be eaten, which might lead to their becoming Nosar. For this reason a Korban Todah is not brought on Erev Pesach.
15)[line 27]סלותי מסלתינןSELUTEI MESALTINAN- (a) chopping wood from trees [is permitted] (RASHI); (b) [Melachah is permitted, such as] making baskets (RABEINU CHANANEL)
16)[line 29]בבל תאחרBAL TE'ACHER
(a)It is forbidden to delay fulfilling one's sacrificial commitments. For example, if one is obligated to bring a Korban (such as a free-will offering which he committed himself to bring), he must bring it by the first Regel. If he delays bringing it past the Regel, he has transgressed the Aseh of "ve'Heveisem Shamah..." (Rosh Hashanah 4a-b). If he delays bringing it for three Regalim, he has transgressed the Lo Sa'aseh of "Lo Se'acher l'Shalmo" (Devarim 23:22). The Tana'im argue as to how to count the three Regalim (see Beitzah Chart #7).
(b)Bal Te'acher applies not only to Korbanos, but to other vows as well, such as Tzedakah (Rosh Hashanah 6a) or Nezirus (Nedarim 3b).
17)[line 40]לומר שזה גורםLOMAR SHE'ZEH GOREM- this teaches that one transgresses the prohibition of Bal Te'acher when the first festival of Sukos passes after he became obligated to bring his Korban
18)[line 42]וכל דבר שבחובה אינו בא אלא מן החוליןKOL DAVAR SHEB'CHOVAH EINO BA ELA MIN HA'CHULIN
(a)Every Korban that a person is required to bring must be set aside from animals that are Chulin (non-consecrated). This applies whether the obligation to bring the Korban stems from the Torah, such as Pesach, Chatas, Asham, etc., or whether it stems from the person himself, such as if he vowed to bring a Korban Olah, Shelamim or Todah. He does not fulfill his obligation unless he sets aside and offers as the Korban an animal that is Chulin. If he owns an animal that he already set aside as a Korban by declaring it a Nedavah (e.g. by saying, "This animal shall be a Shelamim"), or if it is Kadosh because it is Ma'aser Behemah, or he bought it with Ma'aser Sheni funds, he cannot fulfill his obligation with this animal (Menachos 81b).
(b)If a person vows to bring a Korban and specifies at the time of his vow that he may bring an animal that is Ma'aser as his Korban, he does fulfill his obligation with this animal (ibid.).
(a)If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to
1.cut his hair;
2.become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse;
3.consume any products of the grapevine.
(b)When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour) which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves his hair and burns it under the pot in which the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18).