BERACHOS 11 - Sponsored by Shlomo Wertenteil of Rechovot in memory of his wife, Esther Chaya Riva bas Kalman Zelig, who passed away on 29 Menachem Av 5761.

1)

(a)Why do Beis Shamai not accept Beis Hillel's interpretation of "u've'Shochb'cha" and "u've'Kumecha"?

(b)What do Beis Shamai learn from ...

1. ... "be'Shivt'cha be'Veisecha"?

2. ... "u've'Lecht'cha va'Derech"?

(c)On what grounds does the Beraisa therefore differentiate between someone who marries a Besulah (who is Patur from reading the Sh'ma) and someone who marries an Almanah (who is Chayav)?

1)

(a)Beis Shamai do not accept Beis Hillel's interpretation of "u've'Shochb'cha" and "u've'Kumecha" - because, if the Torah was referring to the time of lying down and of getting up, then it should have written "ba'Erev u'va'Boker".

(b)Beis Shamai learn from ...

1. ... "be'Shivt'cha be'Vei'secha" - the principle 'ha'Osek be'Mitzvah, Patur min ha'Mitzvah' (Someone who is performing another Mitzvah is exempt from reading the Sh'ma).

2. ... "u've'Lecht'cha va'Derech", that even a Chasan (who is not is actually performing a Mitzvah, is nevertheless Patur because he is worrying about performing it).

(c)The Beraisa therefore differentiates between someone who marries a Besulah (who is Patur from reading the Sh'ma) and someone who marries an Almanah (who is Chayav) - because (unlike the former, who is worried about whether his new wife is really a Besulah) the latter is not worried about the Mitzvah.

2)

(a)How does Rav Papa learn the current ruling from the fact that the Torah uses the word "Derech"?

(b)How does he ultimately extrapolate from the words "be'Shivt'cha be'Veisecha" and "u've'Lecht'cha ba'Derech" that the Pasuk is not referring to a journey of a Mitzvah?

2)

(a)Rav Papa learns the current ruling from the fact that the Torah uses the word "Derech" - implying a journey of R'shus, that is voluntary, but on a journey of a Mitzvah one is Patur from reading the Sh'ma.

(b)He ultimately extrapolates from the words "be'Shivt'cha be'Veisecha" and "u've'Lecht'cha ba'Derech" that the Pasuk is not referring to a journey of a Mitzvah - from the suffix "cha" (in "be'Shivt'cha" and in "u've'Lecht'cha"), which implies 'your personal sitting' and 'your personal journey'.

3)

(a)If worry is the key to the P'tur from Keri'as Sh'ma, then why is a person not Patur because he is worried about ...

1. ... his ship that just sunk in the ocean?

2. ... his close relative who just died?

(b)We know that they are Chayav from a statement of Rebbi Aba bar Zavda Amar Rav. What did Rebbi Aba bar Zavda say about an Aveil?

(c)Why is an Aveil Patur from Tefilin?

(d)Seeing as Beis Hillel learn from "u've'Lecht'cha ba'Derech" that one is permitted to recite the Sh'ma walking, from where do they learn that a Chasan is Patur?

3)

(a)Even though worry is the key to the P'tur from Keri'as Sh'ma, a person is nevertheless not Patur because he is worried about ...

1. ... his ship that just sunk in the ocean - since that is not a Mitzvah, as we already explained

2. ... his close relative who just died, since there too, it is (not the Mitzvah, but) his personal loss that he is worried about.

(b)We know that they are Chayav from a statement of Rebbi Aba bar Zavda Amar Rav, who says - that an Aveil is Chayav to observe all Mitzvos, with the sole exception of Tefilin (from which he is Patur on the first day) ...

(c)... because the Navi Yechezkel refers to Tefilin as 'Pe'er' (glory), and a mourner puts on ashes, 'Eifer' instead of Tefilin (Note, that 'Eifer' and 'Pe'er' contain the same letters).

(d)Beis Hillel will explain that although "u've'Lecht'cha ba'Derech" teaches us that a Chasan is Patur from Keri'as Sh'ma - it automatically implies that one is permitted to recite the Sh'ma walking.

4)

(a)Beis Hillel in a Beraisa, permit reciting the Sh'ma in any one of five positions, including whilst doing one's work. What are the other four?

(b)The Tana relates an episode where Rebbi Yishmael and Rebbi Azaryah were sitting together one evening, the former, leaning, the latter, sitting, when the time of Keri'as Sh'ma arrived. What did each one do?

4)

(a)Beis Hillel in a Beraisa, permit reciting the Sh'ma in any one of five positions, including whilst doing one's work. The other four are - standing, sitting, leaning and walking.

(b)The Tana relates an episode where Rebbi Yishmael and Rebbi Azaryah were sitting together one evening, the former, leaning, the latter, sitting, when the time of Keri'as Sh'ma arrived. Rebbi Elazar leaned - whereas Rebbi Yishmael sat upright.

5)

(a)What did Rebbi Elazar comment to Rebbi Yishmael?

(b)What exactly, was his complaint?

(c)What parable did he give to illustrate his 'complaint'?

(d)What did Rebbi Yishmael reply?

(e)What did Rebbi Yishmael mean when he added 've'Lo Od, Ela Shema Yir'u ha'Talmidim ve'Yikbe'u Halachah le'Doros'?

5)

(a)Rebbi Elazar commented to Rebbi Yishmael - that if the latter was leaning whilst he was sitting upright, why did he opt to sit upright the moment he leaned ...

(b)... thereby demonstrating that he agreed with Rebbi Yishmael, that the time had arrived to lean.

(c)And he illustrated his 'complaint' with the parable of - Reuven who, the moment the people told him what a nice beard he had, he promptly shaved it off.

(d)Rebbi Yishmael replied that - whereas he did like Beis Hillel, he (Rebbi Elazar ... ) did like Beis Shamai.

(e)When Rebbi Yishmael added 've'Lo Od, Ela Shema Yir'u ha'Talmidim ve'Yikbe'u Halachah le'Doros' he meant - that even though Beis Hillel agree that one is permitted to lean, that is only if he leaning already leaning, but to deliberately lean Lechatchilah conveys the false impression that the Halachah is like Beis Shamai.

6)

(a)Rav Yechezkel quotes a Beraisa, that whether one does like Beis Shamai or like Beis Hillel, one is Yotzei. What does Rav Yosef say to that?

(b)He bases his ruling on a Mishnah in Succah, which discusses someone who sits inside a Succah but whose table is in the house. What do Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel respectively, rule there?

(c)How did Beis Hillel try to support their ruling with an episode that occurred when the elders of both schools once went to visit Rebbi Yochanan ben ha'Choranis? What was he doing when they arrived?

(d)What did Beis Shamai retort?

(e)Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak goes even further. Based on the episode with Rebbi Tarfon in our Mishnah, what does he say about someone who rules like Beis Shamai?

6)

(a)Rav Yechezkel quotes a Beraisa, that whether one does like Beis Shamai or like Beis Hillel, one is Yotzei. Rav Yosef rules - that one is not.

(b)He bases his ruling on a Mishnah in Succah, which discusses someone who sits inside a Succah but whose table is in the house. Beis Shamai rule - 'Pasul', Beis Hillel - 'Kasher.

(c)Beis Hillel tried to support their ruling with an episode that occurred when the elders of both schools once went to visit Rebbi Yochanan ben ha'Choranis, and found him - sitting inside the Succah, whereas his table was in the house, and they did not object.

(d)To which Beis Shamai retorted - that they did in fact, announce that 'If that was what he always did, then he had never fulfilled the Mitzvah of Succah in his life.

(e)Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak goes even further. Based on the episode with Rebbi Tarfon in our Mishnah, he says that someone who rules like Beis Shamai - Chayav Misah.

7)

(a)In the morning, the Mishnah obligates the recital of two B'rachos before the Sh'ma and one B'rachah after it. What about in the evening?

(b)To which two Berachos is the Mishnah referring, when it writes 'one long B'rachah and one short one'?

7)

(a)In the morning, the Mishnah obligates the recital of two B'rachos before the Sh'ma and one B'rachah after it; in the evening - two before and two after it.

(b)When the Mishnah writes 'one long B'rachah and one short one', it is referring to - the two B'rachos after the Sh'ma in the evening ('Emes ve'Emunah' (which is long) and 'Hashkiveinu' (which is short [See Tosfos DH 'Achas ... ']).

8)

(a)What does the Tana say about a B'rachah which the Chachamim specifically said should ...

1. ... be long or one that should be short?

2. ... terminate with 'Baruch ... ' ('Lach'tom') or one which they said should not('she'Lo Lach'tom')?

(b)Which category of B'rachah is he referring to when he says 'she'Lo Lachtom, Eino Rashai Lachtom'?

8)

(a)The Tana says that if the Chachamim require a B'rachah to ...

1. ... be long or to be short, to ...

2. ... terminate with 'Baruch ... ' ('Lach'tom') or not to terminate with 'Baruch' ('she'Lo Lach'tom') - one is not permitted to deviate from their specifications.

(b)When he says 'she'Lo Lachtom, Eino Rashai Lachtom' , he is referring to - Birchos ha'Peiros and Birchos ha'Mitzvos.

11b----------------------------------------11b

9)

(a)Discussing the two B'rachos before Keri'as Sh'ma shel Shachris, based on the Pasuk in Yeshayah, Rebbi Ya'akov Amar Rebbi Oshaya presents the first B'rachah as 'Yotzer Or u'Vorei Choshech'. On what grounds do we suggest that the Nusach ought to be 'Yotzer Or u'Vorei Nogah', despite the wording in the Pasuk?

(b)What is the basis of the question?

(c)How does Rava (or Rava or Rabah bar Ula) answer the question? Why do we say 'u'Vorei Choshesh' and not 'u'Vorei Nogah'?

9)

(a)Discussing the two B'rachos before Keri'as Sh'ma shel Shachris, based on the Pasuk in Yeshayah, Rebbi Ya'akov Amar Rebbi Oshaya presents the first B'rachah as 'Yotzer Or u'Vorei Choshech'. Despite the wording in the Pasuk, we suggest that the Nusach ought to be 'Yotzer Or u'Vorei Nogah' - because 'Nogah' (in the form of Lashon 'Sagi Nahor' [the opposite of what it really says]) is more refined than 'Choshesh' (with its unpleasant connotations).

(b)The basis of the question - lies in the fact that we use 'Lashon 'Sagi Nahor' in the continuation of the B'rachah, when we replace "u'Vorei Ra" with 'u'Vorei es ha'Kol'.

(c)Rava (or Rava or Rabah bar Ula) answers that in this case, we opt to retain the Lashon of the Pasuk - in order to mention 'the night-time in the day Sh'ma (and the daytime in the night Sh'ma').

10)

(a)We have explained 'the nighttime in the day Sh'ma' ('Yotzer Or u'Vorei Choshech'). How does Abaye explain 'the daytime in the night Sh'ma'?

(b)Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel presents the second B'rachah as 'Ahavah Rabah'. What did Rebbi Elazar teach his son (See Hagahos ve'Tziyunim)?

(c)The Tana Kama of the Beraisa too, specifically states that the correct Nusach is 'Ahavah Rabah' and nor 'Ahavas Olam' (like we say at Ma'ariv). Based on the Pasuk in Yirmiyah, what do the Chachamim say?

(d)What does the Pasuk in Yirmiyah say?

10)

(a)We have explained 'the nighttime in the day Sh'ma' ('Yotzer Or u'Vorei Choshech'). Abaye explains 'the daytime in the night Sh'ma' - in the words ''Golel Or Mipnei Chochesh ve'Choshesh Mipnei Or').

(b)Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel presents the second B'rachah as 'Ahavah Rabah' - and that is what Rebbi Elazar taught his son (See Hagahos ve'Tziyunim).

(c)The Tana Kama of the Beraisa too, specifically states that the correct Nusach is 'Ahavah Rabah' and not 'Ahavas Olam' (like we say at Ma'ariv). Based on the Pasuk in Yirmiyah however, the Chachamim say that it is - 'Ahavas Olam'.

(d)The Pasuk in Yirmiyah says - "Ahavas Olam Ahavtich".

11)

(a)What does Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel say about someone who sits down to learn in the morning after he has recited the Sh'ma?

(b)Why is that?

(c)We now discuss Birchas ha'Torah with regard to Mikra (T'nach), Medrash, Mishnah and Gemara. What does 'Medrash' incorporate?

(d)According to our text (See Hagahos ve'Tziyunim on the Sugya), which of the above unanimously require Birchas ha'Torah?

11)

(a)Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel rules that someone who sits down to learn in the morning after he has recited the Sh'ma - does not recite Birchas ha'Torah ...

(b)... because he has already been Yotzei with 'Ahavah Rabah'.

(c)We now discuss Birchas ha'Torah with regard to Mikra (T'nach), Medrash - (Mechilta, Sifra and Sifri), Mishnah and Gemara.

(d)According to our text (See Hagahos ve'Tziyunim), Mikra unanimously requires Birchas ha'Torah.

12)

(a)According to Rabah Amar Rav Huna, Mikra requires a B'rachah, Medrash does not. What does Rebbi Elazar say?

(b)According to Rebbi Yochanan, Mishnah too, requires a B'rachah. What does Rava say?

(c)What is his reason?

(d)What is the definition of Gemara?

12)

(a)According to Rabah Amar Rav Huna, Mikra requires a B'rachah, Medrash does not. Rebbi Elazar maintains - that Medrash requires a B'rachah too.

(b)According to Rebbi Yochanan, Mishnah too, requires a B'rachah (but not Gemara), whereas Rava holds that even Gemara requires a B'rachah

(c)... because it is the main topic of Torah, and forms the basis of Halachah.

(d)The definition of Gemara is - the reasons behind the Mishnah's rulings, resolving the contradictions that sometimes appear and adding missing words or phrases to them when necessary.

13)

(a)On which earlier Gadol, cited by Rav Chiya bar Ashi, is Rava's ruling based?

(b)What two things did he see Rav do 'many a time' before teaching his Talmidim Sifra de'bei Rav?

(c)According to Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel, Birchas ha'Torah consists of 'asher Kid'shanu be'Mitzvosav ... La'asok be'Divrei Sorah'. What did Rebbi Yochanan add to that?

13)

(a)Rava's ruling is based on - Rav, as cited by Rav Chiya bar Ashi.

(b)'Many a time' he saw how, before teaching his Talmidim Sifra de'bei Rav - Rav washed his hands and recited Birchas ha'Torah.

(c)According to Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel, Birchas ha'Torah consists of 'asher Kid'shanu be'Mitzvosav ... La'asok be'Divrei Sorah'. To which Rebbi Yochanan added ... 'Veha'arev lanu ... ve'Oskei Sorasecha. Baruch ... ha'Melamed ... '.

14)

(a)What did Rav Hamnuna say about the text of Birchas ha'Torah?

(b)What did Rav Hamnuna himself (See Mesores ha'Shas) say about this B'rachah

(c)Like which of the above opinions do we therefore trule?

14)

(a)Rav Hamnuna cites Birchas ha'Torah as 'asher Bachar banu mi'Kol ha'Amim ... '.

(b)Rav Hamnuna himself (See Mesores ha'Shas) said - that this the best of the B'rachos.

(c)We therefore rule - like all of the above opinions (Rebbi Elazar, Rebbi Yochanan and Rav Hamnuna) and say them all.

15)

(a)The Mishnah in Tamid, discusses the Kohanim's tight Davening schedule. When did they assemble in the Lishkas ha'Gazis to Daven?

(b)Why did they not Daven the full Davening?

(c)The Memuneh would instruct them to recite one B'rachah, followed by the Aseres ha'Dibros. Who was tha Memuneh? What other title did he bear?

(d)How many Parshiyos of the Sh'ma did they then recite?

(e)What did they do before proceeding with 'Emes ve'Yatziv'?

15)

(a)The Mishnah in Tamid, discusses the Kohanim's tight Davening schedule. They assemble in the Lishkas ha'Gazis to Daven - after they had arranged the limbs of the Korban Tamid on the ramp and salted them.

(b)They did not Daven the full Davening - because there was not time to do so.

(c)The Memuneh - (alias the S'gan [deputy] Kohen Gadol) would instruct them to recite one B'rachah, followed by the Aseres ha'Dibros.

(d)They then recited- all three Parshiyos of the Sh'ma.

(e)Before proceeding with 'Emes ve'Yatziv' - they blessed the people.

16)

(a)Which two B'rachos of the Amidah did they then recite?

(b)What did they add on Shabbos?

(c)What did Rebbi Aba and his son Rav Yosef (or Rav Yosef S'tam) reply when they were asked which B'rachah the Memuneh instructed the Kohanim to recite?

(d)When they asked Rav Yehudah, quoting Shmuel he replied 'Ahavah Rabah'. What did Rebbi Z'rika quoting Resh Lakish say?

16)

(a)They then recited - the B'rachos of Avodah and Birchas Kohanim (See Tosfos DH 'u'Birchas Kohanim').

(b)On Shabbos, they added - a B'rachah in honor of the outgoing group of Kohanim.

(c)When Rebbi Aba and his son Rav Yosef (or Rav Yosef S'tam) were asked which B'rachah the Memuneh instructed the Kohanim to recite - they did not know.

(d)When they asked Rav Yehudah, quoting Shmuel he replied 'Ahavah Rabah', whereas Rebbi Z'rika quoting Resh Lakish said - 'Yotzer Or'.

17)

(a)What did Rebbi Yitzchak bar Yosef comment on the ruling of Rebbi Z'rika Amar ... Resh Lakish when he arrived from Eretz Yisrael?

(b)What did the latter actually say (concerning the order of the B'rachos before Keri'as Sh'ma)?

17)

(a)When Rebbi Yitzchak bar Yosef arrived from Eretz Yisrael, he commented that Rebbi Z'rika Amar ... Resh Lakish - did not actually say that in so many words, but that one can extrapolate it from something else that he said.

(b)What he actually said was - that from the fact that the Kohanim only recited one B'rachah, one can extrapolate that the order of the B'rachos is not crucial.

(c)How does this indicate that the Kohanim must have recited 'Yotzer Or'? Why would his statement have been meaningless had they recited 'Ahavah Rabah'?

18)

(a)If Resh Lakish did not specifically say 'Yotzer Or', what do we conclude Resh Lakish may well hold?

(b)How do we then re-interpret 'Ein B'rachos Me'akvos Zu es Zu' to reconcile it with that?

18)

(a)If Resh Lakish did not specifically say 'Yotzer Or', what do we conclude Resh Lakish may well hold?

(b)How do we then re-interpret 'Ein B'rachos Me'akvos Zu es Zu' to reconcile it with that

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