BERACHOS 11 - Sponsored by Shlomo Wertenteil of Rechovot in memory of his wife, Esther Chaya Riva bas Kalman Zelig, who passed away on 29 Menachem Av 5761.

[11a - 55 lines; 11b - 52 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 11a [line 23]:

"u'Beis Shamai, ha'Hu Miba'i Lehu Perat l'Sheluchei Mitzvah" ובית שמאי ההוא מבעי ליה פרט לשלוחי מצוה

(a) The texts of Dikdukei Sofrim and Beis Nasan do not include these words. The Maharsha also says that he found a Girsa in an old Shas without these words. It is apparent that the texts of Rashi and the Rishonim also lacked these words.

(b) If we do include these words, the intention of the Gemara is only to review the point that was proven from the Beraisa. This was necessary since the Gemara's proof was rather lengthy (Rashash, Yefeh Einayim).

(c) In Yalkut Shimoni #845, as quoted by the Maharsha, these words appear at the end of the Sugya, after "u'Beis Hillel ... Nami Kari" ובית הלל ... נמי קרי. This appears to be a misprint.

[2] Gemara [line 7]:

Hagahos Rebbi Yeshayah Berlin [in the left margin near the top of Tosfos DH Tani] :ד"ה תני

The words "Ayein Rashi v'Tosfos" עיין רש"י ותוספות

should be "Ayein Tosfos" עיין תוספות

[3] Gemara 11b [line 29]:

"v'Rebbi Yochanan Mesayem Bah Hachi: Ha'arev Na ..." ורבי יוחנן מסיים בה הכי: הערב נא ...

This was the Girsa of Rashi. The Girsa of Dikdukei Sofrim and of the other Rishonim is:

"v'Rebbi Yochanan Amar: Ha'arev Na..." ורבי יוחנן אמר: הערב נא ...


1)[line 7]עוסק במצוהOSEK B'MITZVAH

The Gemara (Sukah 26a, Sotah 44b) states that a person who is involved in performing one Mitzvah is exempt from performing other Mitzvos at that time. Our Sugya includes the worry of a Chasan in the category of Osek b'Mitzvah, even though he is not actually doing a physical act of a Mitzvah. See Insights to Berachos 11:1 for further elaboration of this concept.

2)[line 12]לקריLI'KRI- [one is obligated] to read [Keri'as Shema]

3)[line 16]טרידTARID- worried; distracted

4)[line 21]פארPE'ER- ornament, crown

5)[line 21]"[האנק דם מתים אבל לא תעשה] פארך חבוש עליך [ונעליך תשים ברגליך ולא תעטה על שפם ולחם אנשים לא תאכל]""[HE'ANEK DOM, MESIM EIVEL LO SA'ASEH;] FE'ERCHA CHAVOSH ALECHA [U'NE'ALCHA TASIM B'RAGLECHA, V'LO SAITEH AL ROSHCHA V'LECHEM ANASHIM LO SOCHEL.]" - "[Do not even sigh and do not mourn (for your deceased wife);] don your headgear (your Tefilin) [and place your shoes on your feet; do not cover your face down to your mustache and do not eat the bread that others send you (the first meal).]" (Yechezkel 24:17) (WHEN YECHEZKEL'S WIFE DIED)

(a)Shortly before the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash, HaSh-m informed Yechezkel that his wife was about to die (she died the following night). He then received this strange prophecy, which contained directives to him to contravene virtually all of the customary practices of mourning.

(b)In fact, many of the laws of Avelus (mourning) are derived from these verses.

(c)Yechezkel's actions were meant to serve as a prediction of events that would take place during the impending Churban, when so many people would die or be killed, when everybody would become an Avel and there would be nobody left to comfort them — and there where the are no comforters, there is no mourning. Moreover, the survivors would be afraid to cry on account of the Babylonians among whom they would be living. As a result, they will pine away in their sins. They will moan to one another without being able even to mourn for their deceased loved ones.

(d)Finally, Yechezkel told the people that when they will see that circumstances will force them to behave in the way that he was behaving now, they would realize that this was the work of Divine providence.

6)[line 22]הכא טריד טרדא דרשותHACHAH TARID TIRDA D'RESHUS- the Tirda of the mourner is not called a Tirda of a Mitzvah. Although there is a Mitzvah to mourn, he is not required to grieve to the extent that he is distraught (RASHI Sukah 25a).

7)[line 34]"אמר להם "יהיה כנגד המשחיתיםAMAR LAHEM, "YIHEYEH KENEGED HA'MASHCHISIM"- (a) "Since you praised my beard I will now shave it off" (RASHI); (b) "I am growing my beard to counter all those who shave off their beards" (RASHBA)

8)[line 47]ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושלחנו בתוך הביתROSHO V'RUBO B'SUKAH, V'SHULCHANO B'SOCH HA'BAYIS (SUKAH)

(a)Jewish males above the age of thirteen are commanded to sit in a Sukah (a small hut or booth) for the seven days of the holiday of Sukos, as it states, "ba'Sukos Teishevu Shiv'as Yamim" - "You shall sit in Sukos for seven days" (Vayikra 23:42). Women are exempt because it is a Mitzvas Aseh sheha'Zeman Gerama. Sleeping, eating meals and all respectable daily tasks must be done in the Sukah instead of in one's house. Eating snacks and doing temporary duties are permissible outside of the Sukah.

(b)The main part of the Sukah is the roof, or Sechach, for which the Sukah is named. The Sechach is taken from materials that once grew in the ground such as cut branches, wood or bamboo. They must be detached at the time that the Sukah is built, and they cannot be Mekabel Tum'ah (receive Tum'ah, Halachic impurity — see Background to Nazir 54:13). If they have any Beis Kibul (a part that acts as a container — see Background to Nidah 58:1), they are invalid, since utensils are Mekabel Tum'ah.

(c)The Sukah may not be less than ten Tefachim or more than twenty Amos high. The length and width may not be less than seven Tefachim. At least three walls are required, but as long as two adjacent walls are complete, a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai states that the third wall need not be wider than a Tefach (see RAMBAM Hilchos Sukah 4:2).

(d)Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel disagree as to whether a person's table must also be in the Sukah while he is eating. The Halachah is like Beis Shamai, that he must bring his table into the Sukah, since we are worried that he will be drawn out of his Sukah while eating (RAMBAM Hilchos Sukah 6:8).

9)[line 54]אחת ארוכה ואחת קצרהACHAS ARUKAH, V'ACHAS KETZARAH- (a) one long Berachah (Emes v'Emunah) and one short Berachah (Hashkivenu) (RASHI); (b) whether it ("Emes v'Emunah") is said in its lengthy version or its short version (TOSFOS DH Achas); (c) one Berachah that begins and ends with "Baruch Atah" ("Yotzer Or" in the morning and "ha'Ma'ariv Aravim" in the evening) and one that does not ("Ahavah Raba"/"Ahavas Olam" which only concludes with "Baruch Atah") (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos)


10)[line 2]נוגהNOGAH- splendor; light

11)[line 25]לתנויי פרקיןL'SENUYEI PIRKIN- to learn our lesson

12)[line 26]וקא משי ידיהV'KA MASHI YADEI- he would wash his hands

13)[line 29]הערב נאHA'AREV NA- please make pleasant

14)[line 36]מעולה שבברכותME'ULAH SHEB'BERACHOS- the choicest of the blessings

15)[line 40]ברכו את העםBARCHU ES HA'AM- they recited along with the non-Kohanim

16)[line 41]ברכת כהניםBIRKAS KOHANIM (BIRKAS KOHANIM)

(a)The Kohanim are required to bless the people with the three-fold blessing, as described in Bamidbar 6:22-27. (The Gemara (Menachos 44a) refers to the three verses as three separate Mitzvos Aseh.) In the Beis ha'Mikdash the blessing was said with the Shem ha'Meforash (the Tetragrammaton, the Holy Name of HaSh-m). According to TOSFOS (Sotah 38a DH Harei Hu Omer), this applies only when there is Giluy Shechinah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Since there was no Giluy Shechinah after the passing of Shimon ha'Tzadik, the Kohanim stopped saying Birkas Kohanim with the Shem ha'Meforash.

(b)It is called "Nesi'as Kapayim," which literally means "Elevating of the Hands," since the Kohanim recite the blessing with raised arms.

(c)For a discussion of the various opinions of the "Birkas Kohanim" that is mentioned in our Sugya, see Insights to Tamid 32:2.

17)[line 51]ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זוBERACHOS EIN ME'AKVOS ZO ES ZO- the Berachos of Keri'as Shema do not hinder one another, i.e. a person does not have to say all of the Berachos to perform the Mitzvah; rather, each one is a Mitzvah by itself