1) HOW MUCH FRUIT MAY ONE LOWER FROM THE ROOF INTO HIS HOME ON YOM TOV
QUESTIONS: The Mishnah states that one is permitted to lower fruit from his roof into his home through a skylight on Yom Tov. The Gemara asks how much fruit may he lower into the house. The Gemara derives from the Mishnah in Shabbos (126b) that one may lower four or five boxes of fruit into his home on Yom Tov. The Mishnah there says that one may move up to four or five boxes of straw or grain in order to make room for guests or to make room for students who have come to learn Torah.
The Gemara rejects the proof from the Mishnah in Shabbos and says that perhaps only on Shabbos is one permitted to move four or five boxes, but not on Yom Tov. There is no fear that one might become lax in the observance of the laws of Shabbos, because the laws of Shabbos are more stringent than the laws of Yom Tov. Since the laws of Yom Tov are less stringent, there is a fear that if one is permitted to move any amount of fruit he will become lax in the observance of the laws of Yom Tov. Therefore, perhaps on Yom Tov one may not move any amount of fruit ("Klal Klal Lo").
(a) Why does the Gemara suggest that on Yom Tov no amount of fruit may be moved? The Mishnah states explicitly that one is permitted to lower fruit into his home on Yom Tov. (MAHARAM SHIF)
(b) Why does the Gemara say that since additional safeguards must be made to protect the sanctity of Yom Tov, the Rabanan prohibited moving any amount of fruit? The Mishnah itself says the opposite: on Yom Tov one is allowed to lower fruit into his home but not on Shabbos! (RASHBA)
(a) The RE'AH and RABEINU DAVID explain that the Gemara does not mean literally that one may not move any amount of fruit on Yom Tov. Rather, it means that based on the Mishnah in Shabbos there is no basis to permit moving any fruit at all.
The TZELACH and PNEI YEHOSHUA add that the Gemara does not mean that one may not lower any amount of fruit in order to protect it from the rain. Rather, the Gemara means that on Yom Tov even the reason of Bitul Beis ha'Midrash does not permit moving four or five boxes of fruit, and certainly the need to protect them from the rain does not permit moving so many boxes. However, one is permitted to move smaller amounts even to protect them from the rain. "Klal Klal Lo" does not mean that no fruit at all may be moved, but that there is no reason to permit moving four or give boxes of fruit on Yom Tov. One may move less than four or five boxes in order to protect them, as the Mishnah says.
The ME'IRI omits the words "Klal Klal Lo" from the text of the Gemara to avoid the question of the Maharam Shif. This is also the Girsa of the DIKDUKEI SOFRIM.
(b) The RASHBA answers the second question as follows. With regard to permitting an action in the first place on Yom Tov (such as saving fruit from becoming damaged by rain), the Rabanan were lenient, just as the Torah is lenient with regard to Melachah for food preparation (Ochel Nefesh) on Yom Tov. In contrast, with regard to an action which they already permitted on Shabbos or Yom Tov and the only question is how much is permitted, the law requires that one conduct himself stringently on Yom Tov because of the reason which the Gemara gives (so that one not become lax in the observance of Yom Tov). (The MAHARSHA gives a similar answer.)