23b - Mishnah: One may not trap fish from a Biver (an enclosure of game) on Yom Tov. One may trap a Chayah or bird (from a Biver).


R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, not all Bivrin are the same. The rule is, one may trap only what can be trapped without exertion.


24a - Rav Yosef: The Halachah follows R. Shimon ben Gamliel.


14a - Mishnah - Beis Hillel: One may crush spices normally with a stone pestle. One may crush salt using a wooden pestle.


Question: Why is a Shinuy required for salt?


Answer #1 (Rav Huna or Rav Chisda): All foods require salt, but not all require spices (one should have prepared salt, for he knew that he will need it);


Answer #2 (the other of Rav Huna and Rav Chisda): All spices weaken if they are crushed in advance; salt does not weaken.


Shmuel: One may crush all Nidochim (things normally crushed) normally, even salt.


Shmuel holds like R. Meir, who permits in a Beraisa.


Rav Acha Bardela (to his son): When you crush, tilt the bowl (a small Shinuy).


Shabbos 134a - Beraisa #1: One may not sweeten mustard with a coal.


Contradiction - Beraisa #2: One may sweeten it with a coal.


Answer: It is permitted with a metal coal (one is never liable for extinguishing it), it is forbidden with a coal from wood.


Question (Abaye): Why is this different than roasting meat over coals?


Answer (Rav Yosef): That is not possible. Here, it is possible (this will be explained).


Question (Abaye): May one make cheese (on Yom Tov)?


Answer (Rav Yosef): It is forbidden.


Question (Abaye): Why is this different than kneading?


Answer (Rav Yosef): That is not possible. Here, it is possible (this will be explained).


Question: But Chachamim of Neharda'a say that cheese is superb on the day it was made!


Answer: It is superb even on the day it was made.




Rif (Beitzah 12a): One may not sweeten mustard with a coal, because it extinguishes. One may roast meat over coals, for it does not extinguish. One may not make cheese on Yom Tov, because cheese made before Yom Tov is no worse (it is even better) than cheese made on Yom Tov.


Ba'al ha'Ma'or: The Rif is unlike our text, which concludes that roasting meat over coals is not possible, but sweetening mustard is. I.e. there is no alternative to roasting meat, but sweetening mustard is not essential. It is only for finicky connoisseurs; it is not Shavah l'Chol Nefesh. Similarly, Rabah said that kneading is not possible, but making cheese is possible. I.e. cheese is not essential; milk is better on the same day. We challenge this from Chachamim of Neharda'a, who say that cheese is superb on the day it was made, i.e. better than milk. We answer that even cheese is superb on the day it was made, for it still has the taste of milk; all the more so, milk is better! Some texts do not say 'even cheese is superb', rather, 'even on the day it was made it is superb. This is like Rashi, who says that old cheese is better than new cheese.


Rebuttal (Milchamos Hash-m): Any food is permitted, just like deer. (The Gemara forbids incense and heating water to bathe the entire body because they are not Shavah l'Chol Nefesh. These are not food.) If the only accompaniment one has for bread is mustard, surely he will sweeten it. This is Shavah b'Chol Nefesh. The Rif's text is correct. We thought that the extinguishing is not needed for Ochel Nefesh. We ask why this is different than roasting meat over coals; also there, the extinguishing is not needed for Ochel Nefesh, for one can roast without extinguishing. The best roasting is not resting on coals, rather, near them or in an oven from which the coals were swept out. Nevertheless, one may roast in a way that extinguishes. The Gemara answers that roasting does not extinguish. Rav Nachman forbids fumigating produce because it extinguishes, i.e. and this is not Ochel Nefesh. Rava brings a proof that it is permitted from roasting meat on coals. We must say that also this is not Ochel Nefesh (because one can roast without extinguishing), and it is permitted because it is not extinguishing. If Rava held that fumigating produce is Ochel Nefesh, like Shmuel, he adds nothing to Shmuel's words. Also, he should have said so. Then we would know that one may even make a fire for this! Fumigating (like roasting) is not extinguishing, because in the end the coals burn like before. For the same reason, it is not considered burning. The Gemara says that sweetening mustard is possible from before Yom Tov; it is normal to do much at a time, like grinding wheat. Roasting meat is not possible from before Yom Tov, therefore it is permitted on Yom Tov in any way. Sweetening mustard is Tikun, like grinding wheat. It is not included in baking or cooking.


Question (Taz OC 510:5): Also baking is Tikun!


Rambam (Hilchos Yom Tov 1:5): Chachamim forbid on Yom Tov any Melachah that could be done before Yom Tov without a loss, even if it is for eating. This is a decree lest people leave Melachos that could be done before for Yom Tov; if he will do much Melachah on Yom Tov be will refrain from Simchas Yom Tov and not have time to eat and drink.


Rebuttal (Ra'avad): The concern is lest he cause himself extra exertion on Yom Tov.


Rambam (Hilchos Yom Tov 3:12): One may not make cheese on Yom Tov because it would be just as good if it was made before Yom Tov. One may crush spices normally, for they would weaken if they were crushed before Yom Tov. One may not crush salt unless he tilts the mortar or crushes in a bowl, for a Shinuy. This is because salt would not weaken if it was crushed before Yom Tov.


Rosh (3:1): One may not trap on Yom Tov something that requires exertion. Rashi connotes that this is mid'Oraisa. This is unlike Shechitah, baking and cooking, because they are better if done the same day. One could trap from before Yom Tov and leave the animal in the trap.




Shulchan Aruch (OC 495:1): Every Melachah forbidden on Shabbos is forbidden on Yom Tov, except for Melachah for Ochel Nefesh, Hotza'ah, burning, and Machshirei Ochel Nefesh that could not have been done before Yom Tov.


Rema: Some are stringent about Ochel Nefesh itself if the taste would not be any worse if it was done before Yom Tov. However, if he did not do it before Yom Tov and there is a need for it on Yom Tov, it is permitted through a Shinuy.


Source (Gra DH v'Yesh): Rashi (29b DH a'Gava) says that a Shinuy was used to sift on Yom Tov.


Magen Avraham (3): One may not crush almonds to extract their 'butter'. Even though it is not as good if done the day before, it is forbidden due to squeezing. Even though it is unlike squeezing, since people call the butter 'milk', we forbid.


Mishnah Berurah (8,10): Some permit to intentionally wait until Yom Tov to do Meleches Ochel Nefesh through a Shinuy; others forbid. If one did not have time before Yom Tov, it is permitted on Yom Tov without a Shinuy. Even Machshirin are permitted in this case!


Kaf ha'Chayim (17): Even if one forgot or was distracted, since it was not Ones he should use a Shinuy.


Kaf ha'Chayim (16): One should make noodles from before Yom Tov, but one may cut them on Yom Tov, for they were already ground. Perhaps one should cut them beforehand to minimize exertion on Yom Tov.


Shulchan Aruch (510:3): (On Yom Tov) we may not sweeten mustard with a wooden coal.


Beis Yosef (DH Ein): It is forbidden because it could have been done from before Yom Tov.


Magen Avraham (6): The Bach permits if one did not have time before Yom Tov. This should be forbidden, like crushing salt! Perhaps he permits through a Shinuy.

See also:

HOTZA'AH ON YOM TOV (Beitzah 12)

MITOCH (Kesuvos 7)