[54a - 17 lines; 54b - 44 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Rashi 54b DH v'Chi Teima ד"ה וכי תימא:
The words "Lo Mistaber Kra" לא מיסתבר קרא
should be "Lo Meyater Kra" לא מייתר קרא
 Rashi DH mi'Min Al she'Eino Mino ד"ה ממין על שאינו מינו:
We learn from the Shitah Mekubetzes #7 that
the words "d'Mi'utinhu d'Hekeisha" דמיעוטינהו דהיקישא
should be "d'Mi'uta d'Hekeisha" דמיעוטא דהקישא
 Rashi DH d'Hanach Chamesh ד"ה דהנך חמש:
The words "d'Mitztarefes Lehu" דמצטרפת להו
should be "d'Metzarfas Lehu" דמצרפת להו (YA'AVETZ)
1)[line 5]עד שיזרע חטה ושעורה וחרצן במפולת ידAD SHE'YIZRA CHITAH U'SE'ORAH V'CHARTZAN B'MAPOLES YAD (KIL'EI HA'KEREM)
(a)The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture," which refers to two items, each of which is permitted, which the Torah prohibits to combine. Many different types of forbidden mixtures can be referred to by the term "Kil'ayim." Three types of Kil'ayim apply to plants: Kil'ei ha'Kerem (see below), Kil'ei Zera'im (see Background to Chulin 114:25) and Harkavas ha'Ilan (see Background to Kidushin 39:23a:d). Two types of Kil'ayim apply to animals: Harba'ah (see Background to Chulin 114:7), and Charishah b'Shor va'Chamor (see Background to Chulin 115:3). One type of Kil'ayim applies to clothing: Sha'atnez (see Background to Menachos 39:5). (It is also prohibited to cook meat and milk together, but this is not referred to as "Kil'ayim.") Our Gemara refers to Kil'ei ha'Kerem. Of the many different types of Kil'ayim, only Kil'ei ha'Kerem is Asur b'Hana'ah.
(b)Kil'ei ha'Kerem refers to the prohibition of sowing vegetables or grains in a vineyard, as the Torah states, "Lo Sizra Karmecha Kil'ayim, Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah ha'Zera Asher Tizra u'Sevu'as ha'Karem" - "You shall not sow your vineyard with other species, lest the fruit of the seed which you have sown, and the fruit of the vineyard, be forfeited" (Devarim 22:9). According to some Tana'im, even if one finds other crops growing in his vineyard and does not remove them, he transgresses this prohibition (Makos 21b). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to receive Malkus.
1.Many Tana'im maintain that the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem forbids planting any vegetable or grain in a preexisting vineyard, as well as sowing grape seeds together with any vegetable or grain. However, Rebbi Yoshiyah rules that the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem only applies to sowing grape seeds along with wheat and barley kernels in the same throw of a hand (Berachos 22a). According to this view, one who plants grapes, wheat and barley in such a manner transgresses both the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem and the prohibition of Kil'ei Zera'im (see Background to Chulin 114:25; Tosfos to Kidushin 39a DH Lo).
2.It is even prohibited to plant vegetables or grains outside of a vineyard in close proximity to it. Such plants must be planted at least 6 Tefachim away from a single grapevine and at least four Amos away from a vineyard. A wall is considered a sufficient separation such that the vineyard and the vegetables or grains may be planted next to the wall on either side. ("Vineyard," in this respect, refers to at least five grapevines, planted in a formation of two parallel rows of two with a fifth vine between (and behind) the two rows — see Background to Sotah 43:29). The grapevines and the vegetables or grains that grow in a vineyard that has been planted with Kil'ei ha'Kerem are prohibited to be eaten. They must be burned, as the Torah states, "Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah...," which the Gemara translates as, "lest the produce (of that vineyard) have to be burned ('Tukad Esh')" (RAMBAM Hilchos Kil'ayim 5:7). The amount of growth that causes them to be prohibited is when the grapevines, vegetables or grains grow more than one part in 200 of their previous, permitted growth.
3.Although the Torah only prohibits Kil'ei ha'Kerem in Eretz Yisrael, as with any other Mitzvos ha'Teluyos ba'Aretz, the Rabanan prohibited it in Chutz la'Aretz as well (Kidushin 38b).
(c)If Kil'ei ha'Kerem or Orlah (see Background to Chulin 115:21) falls into or is otherwise mixed with permitted food and there were 200 parts of permitted food to one part Kil'ei ha'Kerem, the entire mixture is permitted to be eaten. If it falls into or is otherwise mixed with less than 200 parts of permitted food, the entire mixture is prohibited (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 15:14).
2)[line 27]כמלא רגל בהמה רועהK'MELO REGEL BEHEMAH RO'EH- in the amount of area that a shepherd can supervise
3)[line 28]ט''ז מילSHESH ESREI MIL (MEASURES OF LENGTH AND DISTANCE)
(a)The Talmud uses the following standards for measuring distance:
1.3 Parsa'os = 24,000 Amos = 90 Ris = 12 Mil
2.1 Parsah = 8,000 Amos = 30 Ris = 4 Mil
3.1 Mil = 2,000 Amos = 7.5 Ris
4.1 Ris (or Rus) = 266.66 Amos
5.1 Amah = 2 Zerasos = 6 Tefachim
6.1 Zeres = 3 Tefachim
7.1 Tefach = 4 Etzba'os
(b)In modern-day units, the Mil is approximately 912, 960 or 1,152 meters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.
4)[line 32]"... עוד תעבורנה הצאן על ידי מונה...""... OD TA'AVORNAH HA'TZON AL YEDEI MONEH"- "[In the cities of the mountains, in the cities of the lowland, and in the cities of the Negev, and in the land of Binyamin, and in the places about Yerushalayim, and in the cities of Yehudah], the flocks will pass again under the hands of him that counts them" (Yirmeyahu 33:13) - The Gemara learns from here that only sheep within the shepherd's radius of vision pass together under the rod for Ma'asar Behemah.
5)[line 34]שלטא ביה עינא דרועהSHALTA BEI EINA D'RO'EH- the eye of the shepherd can see it
6)[line 41]הני חמש חזיא להכא וחזיא להכאHANEI CHAMESH CHAZYA L'HACHA V'CHAZYA L'HACHA- these five (in the middle) are suitable to be joined with the animals on this side and with the animals on this side