[38a - 41 lines; 38b - 58 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 38a [line 18]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #7

[2] Gemara 38a [line 35]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #11 (this suggestion is also made by the RASHASH)

[3] Gemara 38a [line 39]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #15 (this suggestion is also made by the RASHASH)

[4] Rashi 38a DH Mishum Mashkeh:

The words "Afilu Adam"

should be "va'Afilu Adam"


1)[line 2]CHISUMO- the rim of [the vessel]

2a)[line 8]ACHORAYIM- the outside of [the vessel]

b)[line 8]L'CHALIKAH- for a distinct, separate Tum'ah

3)[line 25]OGNO- its stand; alt. its rim


(a)The only liquids that are an Av ha'Tum'ah are the Zov (see below), saliva and urine of a Zav, the blood saliva and urine of a Nidah or Zavah, and the semen of any person. These liquids are Metamei vessels and even people.

(b)A Zav (Vayikra 15:1-15) is a man who has a discharge of Zov. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter. A Zavah is a woman who has a discharge of blood at a time that is not part of her normal menstrual cycle. See Background to Avodah Zarah 60:34.

5)[line 33] MITALTEL MALEI V'REIKAN- carried full and empty


See Background to Bechoros 30:15b.

7)[line 39] RIS SHEL AYIN- the eyelid

8a)[line 40]DAK- (O.F. teile) eye's web, a thin film (cataract?) that develops due to an eye-disease (RASHI); alt. a spot on the pupil (RAMBAM)

b)[line 40]TEVALUL- (the Gemara will explain this term)

c)[line 40], CHILAZON, NACHASH- extra flesh that covers the black of the eye which has the shape of a snail or snake

d)[line 40]() [](ETZEV) [EINAV]- (O.F. maille) speck on the eye

e)[last line]SIRA- in the ring that encircles the pupil

9)[last line]SHACHOR- (O.F. prunele) pupil

10)[last line]LAVAN- the white of the eye


11)[line 1] TURA BARA D'EINA- the outer row of the eye

12)[line 2] DAK MESHUKA- a film (or spot) that gives a sunken appearance

13)[line 9] V'SIMANEICH BARKA- a mnemonic to prevent confusing these laws is "Barka" (O.F. maille), which refers to a white spot that gives an appearance of being raised and is known to be a Mum

14)[line 28] TARBA D'EINA IKRI- [the white of the eye] is called the fat of the eye

15)[line 31]CHAVARVAR- white dots on the cornea

16)[line 31] HA'MAYIM HA'KEVU'IM- a permanent condition of producing tears

17)[line 34] ACHAL LACH V'YAVESH SHEL GESHAMIM- it ate moist and dry fodder of a field that does not need to be irrigated (it receives enough water from rainfall). The initial assumption is that the Mishnah is telling us the following: "Feeding an animal moist and dry grass at once will not heal it; the moist grass must be fed first, followed by the dry grass"

18)[line 35]SHELACHIM- a field that needs irrigation

19)[line 43] ' YESHANU SHELOSHAH CHADASHIM- repeat it for the duration of three months

20)[line 43] V'HA TERAVAIHU- but the Mishnah tells us that both have healing properties, and not just grass from well-watered fields! (Rashi; the inference is from the end of the Mishnah, which states unequivocally that moist grass followed by dry grass can heal, implying that it will heal regardless of the field from which it came.)

21)[line 46] : V'HACHI KETANI: ACHAL LACH V'YAVESH- and this is what the Mishnah is saying [when it says that the animal ate "moist and dry fodder of a naturally-irrigated field"]: it ate "moist fodder first and dry fodder afterwards," not like we initially thought (see above, entry #17)

22)[line 52] ADAR V'CHATZI NISAN LACH- the grass that grows in Adar and in the first half of Nisan is moist. The grass that grows during these months is the "moist" grass mentioned in the Mishnah. At this point, the Gemara assumes that we test the animal by feeding it grass during Adar and Nisan, waiting until Elul, and then feeding it the dry grass of Elul and Tishrei for two months

23)[last line]K'GEROGERES- the size of a dried fig