DICED TIRYAS (Yerushalmi Halachah 9 Daf 17a)

אי זו הטרית שאינה טרופה כל שהראשים והשזרות שלה קיימין.


(Tosefta): What is considered a Tiryas that is not diced? As long as the head and the spine of each fish is intact.

רבי לעזר בשם רבי חנינה מעשה בספינה אחת משל בית רבי שהיו בה יותר משלש מאות חביות ובדק רבי את כולהון ולא מצא אלא אחת שהראשים והשזרות שלה קיימין והתיר את כולהן.


(R. Elazar citing R. Chaninah): There was once a boat of the House of Rebbi on which there were 300 barrels of Tiryas. Rebbi checked all of the barrels and he only found one barrel in which the head and spine of each fish was intact, and he permitted all of the barrels.

ר' יעקב בר אחא אמר ר' אסי מקשי לה מסתברא דלא אותה חבית תהא מותרת ושאר כל חביות יהא אסורו'. אלא על ידי עילא


Question (R. Yaakov bar Acha citing R. Asi): Isn't it more logical to say that only that barrel would be permitted? Rather, since strictly speaking diced Tiryas is permitted and it was the Rabbis who were stringent with it, in this case they were able to be lenient since one was found to be certainly clean of any non-Kasher fish.

(שבינתא)[גבונתא] איתקלקלת. שאל ר' חגיי לרבי בא בר זבדא א"ל אין דבר של רבים נאסר.


The river Gevunta was worshipped by gentiles. R. Chagai asked R. Ba bar Zavda if it was prohibited to derive benefit from the river. R. Ba bar Zavda answered that a public thing cannot become prohibited.

רבי יעקב בר זבדי אמר רבי יצחק מקשי ואילין איגרתא לא נכרים לוקין כתיב בהן ואת אמר על ידי עילא והכא על ידי עילא.


Question (R. Yaakov bar Zavdi citing R. Yitzchak): (Questioning R. Asi's position (above (c)) that he did not want to permit all of the other barrels) If Gitin (divorce documents) came from overseas and there are witnesses with non-Jewish names signed on it, they are valid. Why aren't we concerned that the witnesses are actually non-Jewish? Rather, since Jews overseas use non-Jewish names, we assume that they were Jews. Here also, once we find that one barrel is Kasher, we can assume that they are all Kasher.

תני עולא שכפא קומי רבי דוסא דג טמא משריץ דג טהור מטיל בי


Beraisa (Ulla Shachpa before R. Dosa): A non-Kasher fish gives birth to fish (but does not lay eggs); a Kasher fish lays eggs.

חזר ותנא קומוי מעי דגים וקירבי דגים אינן נאכלין אלא על פי מומחה.


Another Beraisa (Ulla Shachpa before R. Dosa): If fish eggs and fish intestines aren't clearly recognizable to be Kasher or non-Kasher, only an expert can permit them to be eaten.

א"ל חזור בך הדא תני או הדה


(R. Dosa to Ulla Shachpa): Retract from one of the Beraisos that you taught, because if non-Kasher fish do not lay eggs, it should always be permitted to buy fish eggs.

הוה בעי מיחזור ביה


Ulla Shachpa wanted to retract from the first Beraisa that said that a non-Kasher fish does not lay eggs.

א"ל רבי זעירא לא תחזור בך ביציאתן הן נגמרות


R. Zeira told him not to retract from it (as there is a way of explaining it that does not create a contradiction) - Non-Kasher fish also have eggs, although when still inside the fish, the eggs open up and the young fish continue to grow inside womb.

רבי בא בשם רב יהודה אם אמר לך מלחתים נאמן


(Rebbi citing Rav Yehuda): If the seller said that he had salted them and seen that they are Kasher fish, it is permitted.

נתן בר בא אמר קומי שמואל ידע אנא מפרשה בין עוברי דגים טמאין לעוברין דגים טהורין עוברי דגים טמאים עגולין עוברי דגים טהורין ארוכין


(Nasan bar Ba to Shmuel): I know how to differentiate between the eggs of tameh fish and a tahor fish - from a tameh fish the eggs are round; the eggs of a tahor fish are long.

אחוי ליה הדא סלפיתא א"ל כזה מהו א"ל טמא א"ל לא ביש לי דאמרת אלא סופך דאמר על טמא טהור


Shmuel showed Nasan bar Ba an egg of a Kasher fish called a Salfisa. Shmuel asked him whether it is the egg of a Kasher or non-Kasher fish. Nasan bar Ba answered that it is from a non-Kasher fish. Shmuel responded - it is bad enough that you prohibit that which is Kasher, but eventually you will even come to permit that which is non-Kasher!

תני אין לוקחין מעי דגים וקירבי דגים אלא על פי מומחה


Beraisa: One may only buy fish eggs and fish innards from a reliable person (otherwise they might contain non-Kasher fish).

אין לוקחין גבינה ותינייקי אלא על פי מומחה


One may only buy Uniki cheese from a reliable person. (Note: The phrase Gevina VeTireiki was adjusted and translated according to the text of the Bavli, as above in daf 34-2 (a)).

אין לוקחין יין בסורייא אלא על פי מומחה


One may only buy wine in Suria from a reliable person.

אין לוקחין בשר שאין בו סימן אלא על פי מומחה


One may only buy meat, without a identifying mark of Kashrus, from a reliable person.

וכולן נאכלין אצל מי שאינו מומחה ואינו חושש.


And all of these may be eaten together with someone, even if one is unaware if the person is reliable (as the person would not eat it himself unless it was Kasher).

רבי אחא רבי תנחום בשם רבי יהושע בן לוי שילח לו חלתית נאמן


(R. Acha/ R. Tanchum citing R. Yehoshua ben Levi): (But if it is not a sale but rather) someone sent him (a gift of) Chiltis (a spice), he is believed (that it may be eaten).

רבי יעקב בר אחא רבי יעקב בר אידי בשם רבי יהושע בן לוי שילח לו תכלת נאמן.


(R. Yaakov bar Acha/ R. Yaakov bar Idi citing R. Yehoshua ben Levi): If someone sent him Techeles (blue dyed thread to be used for Tzitzis), he is believed.

טלניא דלוי צנבריא היה מזבן פירין


The young children of Levi Tzanbaria would sell fruit that they claimed was tithed and people would rely on them (since their father was known to be trustworthy).

רבי יעקב בר אחא בשם רבי יסא עבדו של נאמן כנאמן


(R. Yaakov bar Acha citing R. Yasa): The slave of someone trustworthy is also considered trustworthy.

גרמנא עבדיה דר' יודן נשייא הוה ליה תוכלא. רבי יסא בשם רבי יוחנן עבדו של מומחה כמומחה:


Germana the slave of R. Yehuda HaNasi was trying to sell Techeles for use as Tzitzis. R. Yasa citing R. Yochanan said that the slave of a reliable person is also considered reliable (and the Techeles could be bought and used for Tzitzis.)

ומלח סלונקרית. אית תניי תני שחורה אסורה ולבנה מותרת אית תניי תני לבנה אסורה ושחורה מותרת מאן דמר שחורה אסורה שנותן לתוכה שרץ שחור ומאן דמר לבנה אסורה שנותן לתוכה שרץ לבן.


(The Mishnah listed) Selonkaris salt (amongst the items of idolaters that are prohibited to consume but not prohibited to derive benefit). One Tana taught that black is prohibited and white is permitted. Another Tana taught that white is prohibited and black is permitted. There is no dispute - the first was talking about when they put the intestines of black creatures in it. The second Tana was talking about when they use the intestines of white creatures.

רבי חנניא בן גמליאל אמר משום רבי יהודה בן גמליאל זו וזו אסורה


(R. Chananya ben Gamliel citing R. Yehuda ben Gamliel): Both are prohibited, as both black and white creatures are mixed with the salt.

א"ר חנניא שכן חד הוה לנא והיה נותן לתוכה שומן של חזיר.


(R. Chananya): Both are prohibited because we had a neighbor who would add pig fat to the salt.

הן סככות הן פרעות


(The Mishnah taught that Keluska olives, which are pickled in a round vessel to soften them, are permitted to eat. The Gemara now lists other examples in Mishnayos that use two terms that both mean the same thing...) Sechachos (overhanging trees) and Pera'os (stones or trees that protrude). (These can act as a tent to transfer tumah under them.)

הן רפפות הן רעלות


Refafos (women who go out wrapped in a covering that is weighed down with a stone to prevent it from falling off) and Re'alos (women who go out with their heads and faces covered) (Both of these are ways in which women wrap themselves.)

הן איסטגיות הן ספיות


Istagios and Safios (are different words for rims around a stove, that cause an oven to be able to contract tumah).

הן כוסות הן גומות


Kosos and Gumos (both refer to pits from which hairs grow, that if a red heifer had two black or white hairs coming out of one pit, it is disqualified as a red heifer).

היא מקום תחת הכוסות היא מקום הנחת חתיכות


The space under the cups is the same as the space for placing pieces of meat. (If the tabletop of a serving table broke, the table can still contract tumah as long as there is still a small space on it usable for placing cups or pieces of meat.)

[דף יח עמוד א] הן זיתי קלוסקא הן זיתים מגולגלין:


And similarly, our Mishnah used two words to describe the same thing - 'Keluska olives' (their shape is like a round cake) are the same thing as 'olives that are round'.

והשלוחין אסורין.


The Mishnah (above 39-2(b)) taught that very soft olives of idolaters are prohibited.

רבי חייה בשם רבי יוחנן אמר מין הוא והן נותנין לתוכן חומץ שהיו חולצין את גלעיניהן


(R. Chiya citing R. Yochanan): Shluchin is a certain species of olive in which they put vinegar to soften them in order to be able to remove their pits.