AVODAH ZARAH 39 (8 Adar) - dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of Sarah bas Baruch Hersh Rosenbaum, who passed away on 8 Adar 5776, by her husband Zev Dov Rosenbaum.

1)

FOODS THAT CAN BE EATEN RAW (Yerushalmi Halachah 8 Daf 16b)

חוורנס אין בו משום בישולי נכרים ויוצאין בו משום עירובי תבשילין.

(a)

If an idolater roasted Chavarnes (a type of small salted fish), they are not prohibited (as they can be eaten raw) but it is nevertheless considered a cooked dish for use as Eiruv Tavshilin.

רבי בא בשם רב אחי מרטיסה אין בו משום בישולי נכרים ויוצאין בו משום עירובי תבשילין

(b)

(R. Ba citing Rav Achi): If an idolater cooked Martisa (salted Kasher grasshoppers) they are not prohibited (as they can be eaten raw) but it is nevertheless considered a dish for use as Eiruv Tavshilin.

ר' יוסי בי ר' בון בשם רב הונא כל אוכל שהוא נאכל חי כמות שהוא אין בו משום בישולי נכרים ויוצאין בו משום עירובי תבשילין:

(c)

(R. Yosi bei R. Bun citing Rav Huna): Any food that can be eaten raw is not prohibited when an idolater cooks it (since the cooking is not significant), but it is nevertheless called a dish for use as Eiruv Tavshilin.

2)

FOODS OF IDOLATERS THAT MAY BE EATEN (Yerushalmi Halachah 9 Daf 16b)

משנה אילו מותרין באכילה חלב שחלבו נכרי וישראל רואהו הדבש והדבדבניות אע"פ שמנטפות אין בהן משום הכשר משקה וכבשים שאין דרכן לתת בהן יין וחומץ וטרית שאינה טרופה וציר שיש בו דגה ועלה של חלתית וזיתי קלוסקא המגולגלין

(a)

(Mishnah): The following may be eaten - milk that was milked by an idolater in the presence of a Jew, honey and clusters of grapes (and even if the juice is dripping from them they are not a liquid to make other foods susceptible to Tumah); their boiled foods and pickled foods into which it is unusual to add wine or vinegar; undiced Tiryas (a Kasher fish), brine in which there is the Kilbis fish, Chilek (fish that are late to grow fins and scales), a leaf of Chiltis (a spice) and Keluska olives (which are pickled in a round vessel to soften them).

רבי יוסי אומר השלוחין אסורין והחגבים מן הסלילה אסורין ומן ההפתק מותרין

(b)

(R. Yosi): Very soft olives are prohibited (as wine may have been added to soften them); Kasher grasshoppers taken from the basket outside the idolaters shop are prohibited (as he may have poured Yayin Nesech on them). However, grasshoppers that were stored in barrels in the storehouse are permitted (since wine is not sprinkled on them until they are sold).

וכן בתרומה:

(c)

The same rule applies to Terumah. (Kohanim are suspected of selling their Terumah as Chulin (non-Terumah) in order to receive a higher price. A non-Kohen may not buy produce that is in a Kohen's shop because of this concern, but produce the Kohen took from his storehouse is permitted since the Kohen is afraid to sell Terumah as Chulin, lest the Chachamim discover him and render all of his storehouse Hefker (ownerless).

גמרא אמר רבי לעזר הדא דאת אמר בתבשיל שאין דרכו לתת לתוכו [דף יז עמוד א] יין וחומץ הא דבר בריא שנתן אסור אפילו בהנאה.

(d)

(Gemara - R. Elazar): When the Mishnah taught that it is permitted to consume their pickled foods into which it is unusual to add wine or vinegar, it means that if they certainly have had these things added, they are prohibited even to derive benefit, as they contain Yayin Nesech.

רבי יעקב בר אחא רבי חייה בשם רבי יוחנן ישראל ונכרי שהן שותפין בקדירה ישראל שופת והנכרי מנער

(e)

(R. Yaakov bar Acha/ R. Chiya citing R. Yochanan): A Jew and an idolater who jointly own a pot of food - if the Jew put the pot on the fire, there is no prohibition of it being an idolater's food, even if the idolater stirred it.

מי מחזיר

(f)

Question: If the pot was removed from the fire, may the idolater return it?

סברין מימר ישראל מחזיר

(g)

Answer: They suggested that only the Jew may return it, but not the idolater.

אמר רבי בנימין בר ליואי והוא שנתבשל כמאכל בן דרוסאי.

1.

(R. Binyamin bar Livai): Even if the food reached the level of Ma'achal Ben Derusai (1/3 or 1/2 cooked - Ben Derusai was a highway robber who was always on the run, so he would eat his food only partially cooked), the idolater may still not return it.

רבי יוסי בעי אם בשנתבשל כאכילת בן דרוסאי למה ליה ישראל מחזיר אפילו הנכרי מחזיר.

2.

Rejection (R. Yosi): If it already reached Ma'achal Ben Derusai, why can't even the idolater return it? (It is considered already cooked and there is no longer a prohibition for an idolater to cook it!)

3)

CHILEK AND OTHER ITEMS (Yerushalmi Halachah 9 Daf 17a)

אי זהו החילק

(a)

Question: What is Chilek? (It was listed in the earlier Mishnah amongst the items of idolaters that are prohibited to consume but not prohibited to derive benefit. See above daf 35-3(a)).

רב אמר סולתניתא

(b)

(Rav): It is a Sultan fish (a small, kasher fish that when young, has not yet developed fins and scales. They prohibited it since it could be mixed with non-Kasher fish without the consumer's awareness.)

אמר רבי יוחנן הוא חילק הוא טרית טרופה.

(c)

(R. Yochanan): Chilek is the same as diced Tiryas (in that Mishnah, that there is only a concern of non-Kasher fish being mixed in if they are diced, but if they are whole, there is no concern.)

רבי זעירא כהנא בר תחליפא חנן בר בא בשם רב לחלוחתא אסורה משום תערובת דגים טמאים

(d)

(R. Zeira/ Kahana bar Tachlifa/ Chanan bar Ba citing Rav): Lachluchta (Tzachanta) fish is prohibited since it could be mixed with non-Kasher fish.

רבי בא בשם רב יהודה הדא דאת מר במקום שאין המים מהלכין אבל במקום שהמים מהלכין אין דג טהור מהלך עם דג טמא.

(e)

(R. Ba citing Rav Yehuda): It is prohibited specifically when take from a collection of water, but when taken from flowing water, there is no concern that non-Kasher fish are mixed with it.

והא ימא דטיבריה

(f)

Question: Surely Lake Kinneret (which one would assume is a collection of water, but it does not contain a mixture of Kasher and non-Kasher fish)?

כגון המים המהלכין הן

(g)

Answer: It is considered to be flowing water (since it eventually flows into the Dead Sea).

א"ר יוסי בי רבי בון ובלבד בשעה שהדג טורף.

(h)

(R. Yosi bei R. Bun): The prohibition on diced Tiryas (that it might be mixed with non-Kasher fish) is only when the bodies of the fish are diced so much that they are not distinguishable.

שמואל אמר הדא חפיתה יהבי גו קליפתה אין עבדת לחלוחי שרייא ואי לאו אסירה.

(i)

(Shmuel): This (non-Kasher) Chafisa fish - the way to identify it is by putting it in its skin; if it releases moisture and sticks to its skin, it certainly has fins and scales and is Kasher; if not, it is not Kasher.

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