AVODAH ZARAH 39 (8 Adar) - dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of Sarah bas Baruch Hersh Rosenbaum, who passed away on 8 Adar 5776, by her husband Zev Dov Rosenbaum.

[a - 55 lines; b - 51 lines]

1)[line 1]התם ידיע ממשו הכא לא ידיע ממשןHASAM YEDI'A MAMASHO HACHA LO YEDI'A MAMASHAN- there (in the case of Muryis) the wine is recognizable; here, it is not recognizable (it merely serves to preserve the food)

2)[line 4]סולתניתSULTANIS- a type of fish that, when young, lacks fins and scales, but that develops them in time

3)[line 4]שערבונהSHE'ARVONAH- that its mixture (of non-Kosher fish of similar appearance)

4)[line 6]והעפיץVEHA'AFITZ- and the Afitz fish (even though it does not have scales and fins now, they grow later and thus it is permitted)

5a)[line 8]אקונסAKUNAS- a certain type of fish. (The Beraisa now gives a list of Persian names of fish that lose their fins or scales after they are caught and removed from the water. The identities of these fish are subject to doubt.)

b)[line 8]ואפונסV'AFUNAS- a type of mullet

c)[line 9]כטספטייסKATASPATIYAS- a type of salmon

d)[line 9]ואכספטייסV'AKASPATIYAS- a type of swordfish

e)[line 9]ואוטנסV'UTNAS- and a type of tuna

6)[line 10]קירבי דגיםKIRVEI DAGIM- the intestines of fish

7)[line 11]מפלוסא ואספמיאMI'PILUSA V'ASPAMYA- [if there are fish that come] from Pilusa and Aspamya, [they are permitted to eat because non-Kosher fish are not commonly found there]

8a)[line 12]צחנתאTZACHANTA- the Tzachanta fish, a type of small fish preserved in brine. (Rashi identifies it as the Chilak fish; see Background to Avodah Zarah 35:22.)

b)[line 13]דבב נהראD'BAV NAHARA- found in the River Bav, a tributary or a canal branching off of the Euphrates

9)[line 14]דרדיפי מיאD'REDIFEI MAYA- that the water flows swiftly

10)[line 15]חוט השדרהCHUT HA'SHEDRAH- the spinal cord

11)[line 17]קלפיKILFEI- scales

12)[line 19]טינאTINA- silt (mud at the bottom of the river)

13)[line 20]שפכי ביה נהר גוזא ונהר גמדאSHAFCHEI BEI NAHAR GUZA V'NAHAR GAMDA- the Guza and Gamda rivers flow into the River Bav

14)[line 22]חמרא דימאCHAMRA D'YAMA- a sea-donkey

15)[line 22]תורא דימאTORA D'YAMA- a sea-ox

16)[line 28]לחיפושאL'CHIPUSHA- [it was similar] to a Chipusha, a type of non-kosher fish

17)[line 28]חפייה בדיקולאCHAFYEI B'DIKULA- he covered it (the fish) with a basket (and the fish thrashed about, causing its skin to rub against the sides of the basket)

18)[line 30]לצלופחאL'TZELUFCHA- [it was similar] to an eel

19)[line 32]במשיכלי חיוריB'MESHICHLEI CHIVREI- [he covered the fish] with white bowls

20)[line 34]באטיBATI- the name of a non-Kosher fish

21)[line 37]דמפסקי ליה בסכינאD'MAFSEKEI LEI B'SAKINA- because they cut it with a knife [which is not Kosher]

22)[line 37]אגב חורפיה דחילתיתא מחליא ליה שמנוניתאAGAV CHORFEI D'CHILTISA MECHALYA LEI SHAMNUNISA- because of the sharpness of the Chiltis, it sweetens the [non-Kosher] fats of the knife

23)[line 42]לא הוה בידיהLO HAVAH B'YADEI- he did not know how to answer the question (lit. in was not in his hand)

24)[line 42]חנן חייטאCHANAN CHAYATA- Chanan the tailor

25)[line 45]נפלת לידNAFALAT L'YAD- you fell into my hand; i.e., you now need me for an answer

26)[line 46]חברCHAVER - a Talmid Chacham who is meticulous in his observance of Halachah

A person is called a Chaver if he accepts upon himself four things: 1. never to give Terumah and Ma'asros to an Am ha'Aretz; 2. never to prepare Taharos in the vicinity of an Am ha'Aretz; 3. to always eat Chulin b'Taharah; 4. to take Ma'aser from all produce that one eats, sells and buys (Tosefta Demai 2:2-3). The Gemara in Bechoros 30b explains exactly how one goes about accepting this distinguished status.

27)[line 54]למוכסL'MOCHES- [she was married] to the tax collector (and would tie the tax receipts on his hand)


28)[line 3]איחלופי קרירא בחמימא מידע ידיעICHLUFEI KERIRA B'CHAMIMA MEIDA YEDI'A- [we are not concerned that the Nochri will exchange your warm bread with his cold bread, because] the difference between cold [bread] and warm [bread] is surely known

29)[line 17]נתארחNIS'ARE'ACH- he was hosted as a guest

30)[line 24]סלקונדרי רומיSALKUNDREI ROMI- a Roman baker

31)[line 31]מחליק פניהMACHALIK PANEHA- he would coat the surface of the salkundris salt with lard

32)[line 34]והדבדבניותV'HA'DAVDEVANIYOS- a cluster of grapes

33)[line 35]הכשרHECHSHER OCHLIN L'TUM'AH

(a)Food becomes Tamei when it comes into contact with a source of Tum'ah - but only if it had first come into contact with one of the seven liquids which enable food to become Tamei. From then on, even after it dries, it can still become Tamei. The seven liquids which enable food to become Tamei are: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey. Wetting foods in a manner which enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher."

(b)Food can only become Tamei if the owner of the food is pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse (Vayikra 11:38) "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." ("If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei.") The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, like the word "Yiten" - "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" - "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food, as it is when he himself applies them.

(c)It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. Therefore, even if the owner desired the liquid for an entirely different purpose and only at a later point did it come into contact with food, that liquid will enable the food to become Tamei. If, however, the owner intended to dispose of the liquid, then it will not enable the food to become Tamei, for such a liquid is not considered valuable.

34)[line 35]וכבשיןU'CHEVASHIN- and preserved foods

35)[line 36]וטרית שאינה טרופהV'TARIS SHE'EINAH TERUFAH- and tuna that is not minced; i.e., the pieces are distinct and recognizable and thus one can determine that all of the pieces are Kosher

36)[line 36]וצירV'TZIR- and fish brine

37)[line 37]וזיתי גלוסקאות המגולגליןV'ZESEI GELUSKA'OS HA'MEGULGALIN- and cakes of soft olives. Olives are placed in round containers where they become naturally heated, softened in their own oil, and pressed into a cake-like shape.

38)[line 38]הסלולהHA'SELULAH- [grasshoppers from] the shopkeeper's basket

39)[line 38]ההפתקHA'HEPTEK- the storehouse

40)[line 43]אירתותי מירתתIRTUSEI MIRTAS- he (the idolater) is afraid (of being caught)

41)[line 47]הבוצר לגתHA'BOTZER L'GAS- one who harvests grapes for the winepress (i.e., for the purposes of winemaking)

42)[line 51]שכילבית אחתSHE'CHILBIS ACHAS- [brine in which there is fish refers to any brine in] which one [or two] Kilbis fish [swims in] (see Background to Avodah Zarah 35:1)