WHO PROHIBITED THEIR OIL? (Yerushalmi Halachah 8 Daf 16a)

מי אסר את השמן


Question: Who prohibited their oil? (See above daf 35-3(a)1.)

רב יהודה אמר דניאל אסרו וישם דניאל על לבו וגו'


Answer (Rav Yehuda): Daniel prohibited it, as the pasuk states (Daniel 1:8), "Daniel resolved (not to be defiled by the king's food or by his drinking-wine). (The word 'Shetav' - 'his drinking-wine' is written in the plural, indicating two types of liquids - wine and oil.)

]רבי אחא רבי תנחום בר חייה בשם רבי חנינה ואמרי לה בשם רבי יהושע בן לוי שהיו עולין להר המלך ונהרגין עליו[


(R. Acha/ R. Tanchum bar Chiya citing R. Chaninah or some say he cited R. Yehoshua ben Levi): It was not prohibited by Daniel, but rather, it was decreed at a later time because people would go to Har HaMelech to buy it and would be attacked by the enemies there. They therefore prohibited Jews from consuming it in order to prevent this danger from arising. (Note: This entry and the next are repositioned by Tosefos (Avodah Zarah 36b) from later in this sugya, see below.)

ומי התירו רבי התירו ובית דינו.


It was permitted by R. Yehuda the Nasi (grandson of Rebbi) and his Beis Din.

בשלשה מקומות נקרא רבי יהודה הנשיא רבותינו בגיטין ובשמן ובסנדל


In three places, R. Yehuda HaNasi is called 'Rabbosainu' (our Rabbis) - in Gitin, oil and sandal, and they called him, "The Beis Din that permits oil". (The case of Gitin is a Mishnah that teaches that if a man gave a Get (divorce document) to his wife and said, "This is your Get if I do not come back within 12 months" and he died within that time, it is not a valid Get. There is a Beraisa that states that Rabbosainu permitted her to remarry with such a Get.)

(וקרו)[וליקרו] ליה בי דינא דשרו מישחא. כל ב"ד דשרו שלשה דברים נקרא בי דינא שריא


Question: Why were they not referred to as "a permissive Beis Din" since any Beis Din that permits three things is called, "A permissive Beis Din"?!

אמר רבי יודן בית דינו חלוק עליו בגיטין.


Answer (R. Yudan): In the case of Gitin, his Beis Din disagreed with his leniency (thereby preventing them from being referred to as "a permissive Beis Din").

מהו שתהא מותרת להינשא


Question: According to Rabbosainu (if her husband died), may she remarry immediately (within the 12 months of the original stipulation)?

רבי חגיי אמר מותרת להינשא רבי יוסי אמר אסורה להינשא.


Answer: R. Chagai permits it and R. Yosi prohibits it.

(רבי אחא רבי תנחום בר חייה בשם רבי חנינה ואמרי לה בשם רבי יהושע בן לוי שהיו עולין להר המלך ונהרגין עליו). יצחק בר שמואל בר מרתא נחת לנציבין אשכח שמלאי הדרומי יתיב דרש רבי ובית דינו התירו בשמן.


Yitzchak bar Shmuel bar Marsa went (from Eretz Yisrael) to Netzivin. He found that R. Simlai from the South was teaching that Rebbi and his Beis Din permitted their oil.

(אמר) שמואל אכל רב לא קביל עליה מיכול


Shmuel accepted this ruling and would consume it, but Rav did not accept it and did not consume their oil.

אמר ליה שמואל אכול דלא כן אנא כתב עליך זקן ממרא


(Shmuel to Rav): Eat it, or I will write about you that you are a Rebellious Elder (Zaken Mamre), as you disagree with the majority opinion.

אמר ליה עד דאנא תמן אנא ידע מאן ערר עליה שמלאי הדרומי


(Rav to Shmuel): When I was still in Eretz Yisrael, I knew that it was R. Simlai of the South who questioned the prohibition of their oil (so I do not wish to rely on his words to annul the prohibition).

אמר ליה מר בשם גרמיה לא בשם ר' יודן נשייא אטרח עלוי ואכל.


(Shmuel to Rav): Did R. Simlai say it in his own name? He said it in the name of R. Yehuda HaNasi and his Beis Din. Shmuel thereby convinced Rav to consume their oil.

רבי (יוחנן)[יונתן] בעי ולא כן תנינן שאין בית דין יכול לבטל דברי בית דין חבירו עד שיהא גדול ממנו בחכמה ובמניין ורבי ובית דינו מתירין מה שאסר דניאל וחביריו.


Question (R. Yonasan): Does the Mishnah (in Maseches Eduyos) teach that a Beis Din cannot cancel the ruling of another Beis Din unless they are greater in wisdom and number? So how could R. Yehuda HaNasi's Beis Din permit that which Daniel and his colleagues prohibited?

רבי יוחנן כדעתיה אמר רבי יוחנן מקובל אני מר' לעזר בי ר' צדוק שכל גזירה שבית דין גוזרין ואין רוב ציבור מקבלין עליהן אינה גזירה


Answer: R. Yochanan follows his reasoning, as he said that he received as a tradition from R. Elazar bei R. Tzadok that any decree that a Beis Din makes that is not accepted by most of the people is not a decree.

בדקו ומצאו בגזירתו של שמן ולא מצאו שקיבלו רוב ציבור עליהן.


They investigated the matter and discovered that the prohibition of their oil was not accepted by most of the people.