THE REASON BEHIND YERAVAM'S ACTIONS (Yerushalmi Halachah 1 Daf 1b)

גסות רוחו של ירבעם היא החליטתו.


It was the haughtiness of Yeravam that destroyed him.

א"ר יוסי בר יעקב במוצאי שמיטה מלך ירבעם על ישראל הה"ד מקץ שבע שנים במועד שנת השמיטה בחג הסוכות בבוא כל ישראל לראות את פני ה' אלהיך במקום אשר יבחר תקרא את התורה הזאת נגד כל ישראל באזניהם.


(R. Yosi bar Yaakov): Yeravam came to power immediately after the Shemita year. The pasuk states (Devarim 31:11), "(Then, Moshe commanded them, saying), "At the end of [every] seven years, at an appointed time, in the Festival of Succos, [after] the year of Shemita. When all Yisrael comes to appear before Hash-m, your God, in the place He will choose, you shall read this Torah before all Yisrael, in their ears."

אמר אנא מיתבעי מיקרי קאים אנא ואינון אמרין מלכא דאתרא קדם. ואין מיקרי תיניין גנאי הוא לי ואין לא ניקרי ביזיון הוא לי.


(Yeravam): I am supposed to read (as he was crowned by the prophet Achiyah HaShiloni), but the people will say that Rechavam, king of Yehuda, who reigns over Yerushalayim, should read before me. And if I read after him, it will be a disgrace for me; and if I do not read, it will be embarrassing for me (as it would indicate that he is the real king and I am not).

ואין מרפינון אזלון סלקין אינון שבקין יתי אזלין לון גבי רחבעם בן שלמה


And if I let the people travel to Yerushalayim and I refrain, they will certainly defect and begin to follow Rechavam ben Shlomo.

הה"ד אם יעלה העם הזה לעשות זבחים בבית ה' בירושלם ישוב לב העם הזה אל אדניהם אל רחבעם.


This is seen in the pasuk (Melachim 1:12:27), "When this people goes up to offer sacrifices in the House of Hash-m, in Yerushalayim, the hearts of this people will turn to their master to Rechavam (the king of Yehuda, and they will kill me and return to Rechavam, the king of Yehuda)".

מה עשה עשה שני עגלי זהב וכתב על ליבן והרגוך אמר כל מלך דיקום יסתכל בון.


What did he do? He made two golden calves and the people thought that he intended to kill anyone who does not serve them. Yeravam said - any king that removes those idols will be killed.

א"ר חונה חובר חברי' מחוכם כל מי שהיה חוברו היה חוברו


(Rav Chunah): Explains the pasuk (Tehilim 58:6), "(Which will not hear the voice of charmers), 'Chover Chavarim Mechukam' - the most cunning caster of spells." Rav Chuna explains - (understanding 'L'Chaber' to mean - to join and 'Chaver' meaning friend) - whoever joined Yeravam to help him to convince Yisrael to serve idols, became his friend, that Yeravam would promote him to a position of authority.

א"ר חונה ושחטה שטים העמיקו שהעמיק ברשע אמר כל דמפרסים אנא קטיל ליה


(Rav Chunah): Explains the pasuk (Hoshea 5:2), "(By preventing) the slaughter of sacrifices, the sinners deepened (their sin)" - he deepened his evil by saying that whoever publicizes the real reason that he set up idols (in order not to lose his kingship), Yeravam would kill him.

א"ר אבין בר כהנא אף שבתות וימים טובים מצינו שבדה להם ירבעם מלבו


(R. Avin bar Kahana): He deepened his evildoing by also removing Shabbos and Yom Tov from their hearts.

הה"ד ויעש ירבעם חג בחדש השמיני בחמשה עשר יום לחדש (בחג)[כחג] אשר ביהודה ויעל על המזבח כן עשה בבית אל לזבוח בחדש אשר בדה מליבו מלבד כתיב כמה דאת אמר מלבד שבתות ה'.


This is seen in the pasuk (Melachim 1:12:32-33), "And Yeravam made a festival in the eighth month on the fifteenth day of the month like the festival that was in Yehuda, and he brought up offerings on the altar; so he did in Beis El to slaughter... in the month that he had fabricated from his heart" - but the word 'Milibo' - 'from his heart' is actually written 'Milevad', which is the same word used in a pasuk that discusses Shabbos (Vayikra 23:38), "aside from Hash-m's Shabbosos". This shows that he also removed keeping Shabbos from their hearts, in order that they would not be aware of the calendar dates and not go up to Yerushalayim for the festivals.