AVODAH ZARAH 4 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

1)

TOSFOS DH CHEIMAH

תוספות ד"ה חימה

(SUMMARY: Tosfos discusses how there could still be Heavenly anger if Moshe killed the anger.)

ואין להקשות מפרק ד' נדרים (נדרים לב.) דמוכח דמשה הרגו לחימה

(a)

Implied Question: One cannot ask that in Nedarim (32a) the Gemara implies that Moshe killed this anger. (Why not?)

דאיכא לשנויי תרי חימה הוו כדמשני נמי התם

(b)

Answer: It is possible to answer that there are two types of anger, as the Gemara there answers as well.

2)

TOSFOS DH V'HAYNU

תוספות ד"ה והיינו

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains what previous statement this is referring to.)

פ"ה דקאי אההיא דקאמרינן לעיל דאין הקדוש ברוך הוא בא בטרוניא עם בריותיו

(a)

Opinion#1: Rashi explains that this is referring to the earlier statement (3a) that Hash-m does not come with unreasonable complaints against his creations.

ולא נהירא פירושו דהא איפסיק ליה טובא

(b)

Implied Question: This explanation does not appear correct, as our statement is said quite awhile after the statement quoted by Rashi.

ונראה לר"ת דקאי אהא דסליק כאן בישראל כאן בעובדי כוכבים וקאמרינן דבעל חימה קאי אעובדי כוכבים

(c)

Opinion#2: Rabeinu Tam understands that this is referring to the difference made between the anger of Hash-m regarding Jews and His anger regarding idolaters. The Gemara just stated that Hash-m is called "An owner of anger" regarding the idolaters.

והיינו דרבי אלכסנדרי דקאמר ביום ההוא אבקש שאם לא ימצא להם זכות ישמידם והיינו נמי דרבא דאמר שיש חילוק בין ישראל לעובדי כוכבים

1.

Opinion(cont.): This is like Rebbi Aleksandri's statement that when the Pasuk says, "And on that day I will seek out" it means that if Hash-m will not find they have merit on that day, he will destroy them. This is also relative to Rava's statement that there is a difference between a Jew and an idolater.

3)

TOSFOS DH B'NIGNI

תוספות ד"ה בניגני

(SUMMARY: Tosfos translates and gives a source for this word.)

פירוש במעשה שלהם

(a)

Explanation: This means "in their action."

מה נורא מעשיך (תהלים סו) מתרגמינן מה דחילין אינון מניגניא דילך

(b)

Proof: This is apparent from the Pasuk, "How awesome are Your actions" (Tehilim 66:3) which is translated in the Tarum as, "How awesome are they, Your Manig'naya."

4)

TOSFOS DH SHE'HAYAH

תוספות ד"ה שהיה

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why the rule in Bava Basra does not apply here.)

והא דאמרי' בסוף חזקת הבתים (ב"ב דף ס:) מוטב שיהיו שוגגין ואל יהיו מזידין

(a)

Implied Question: The Gemara states in Bava Basra (60b) that it is better that they should do so accidentally and not on purpose. (Why, then, should they have protested and made their sin more serious?)

היינו בדבר שידוע שלא יקבלו אם ימחו

(b)

Answer: This (the statement in Bava Basra) is only stated regarding rebuke that it is known will not be accepted.

4b----------------------------------------4b

5)

TOSFOS DH V'YODEI'A

תוספות ד"ה ויודע

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains the Gemara's question.)

משמע מעצמו ולא בנבואה ולהכי פריך דעת בהמתו לא הוה ידע

(a)

Explanation: This implies that he knew what Hash-m thought on his own, and did not require prophecy. This is why the Gemara asks, how can this be if he did not even know what his animal was thinking?

6)

TOSFOS DH REGA

תוספות ד"ה רגע

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains what Bilam could have said in such a short amount of time.)

וא"ת מה היה יכול לומר בשעה מועטת כזאת

(a)

Question: What could he have said in such a small amount of time?

ויש לומר היה אומר כלם והקב"ה הפכו ואמר מלך כדכתיב (במדבר כג) ותרועת מלך בו

(b)

Answer#1: It is possible to answer that he would say, "Kalem" -- "destroy them." Hash-m turned this around to read "Melech" -- "king." This is as the Pasuk says (that Bilam was forced to say), "And the shofar blast of the king was in it."

ורבי אליהו היה מפרש שאין צריך רק להתחיל קללתו באותו רגע

(c)

Answer#2: Rebbi Eliyahu explained that he only had to start his curse at this instant.

תדע שהיה רוצה להאריך בקללתו כדאיתא בחלק (סנהדרין דף קה:) מברכותיו של אותו רשע אתה למד מה היה בלבו

(d)

Proof: This is apparent from the fact that he clearly wanted to curse them for a long time. This is as stated in Sanhedrin (105b) that from the blessings of this evildoer we can see what he had in his heart (to curse).

7)

TOSFOS DH HACHI GARSINAN

תוספות ד"ה ה"ג

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why an alternate text is incorrect.)

ול"ג ומנלן דרגע כמימריה

(a)

Text: We do not have the text, "How do we know that an instant is enough time to say a word." (The Maharsha explains that this is as Tosfos stated above, that it is enough time to say "Kalem.")

דאם לא כן היכי מפיק מהאי קרא דרגע כמימריה

(b)

Proof: Otherwise, what would be the proof from this Pasuk that it is enough time to say a word?

8)

TOSFOS DH B'TLAS

תוספות ד"ה בתלת

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why Hash-m is upset at this time.)

פי' בשלישית כדאמרינן בסמוך בשעה שהחמה זורחת מלכי מזרח ומערב מניחים את כתריהן ודרכן של מלכים לעמוד בג' שעות כדאמרינן פ"ק דברכות (דף ט:)

(a)

Explanation: This means specifically the third hour of the day. This is as stated later that at the time when the sun shines, the kings of the east and west put on their crowns (and bow down to the sun). [This is why Hash-m is upset at this time, see Rashi in Sanhedrin (105b, DH "b'Tlas").] It is common for kings to rise at the third hour into the day, as stated in Berachos (9b).

9)

TOSFOS DH SHEMA MINAH

תוספות ד"ה שמע מינה

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains this Gemara both according to the text that the villain was an idolater, and the text that he was a heretic.)

לספרים דגרסי' ההוא עובד כוכבים ניחא

(a)

Explanation: This is understandable according to the Sefarim that have the text "There was an idolater."

דעובדי כוכבים לא מעלין ולא מורידין (לקמן כו.) והוא שבקש לקללו להזיקו בקללתו נתכוין ולא להרגו ולא דמי להורדה לבור

1.

Explanation(cont.): This is because an idolater is not brought up nor lowered into a pit, as the Gemara states later (26a). When he wanted to curse him, he intended to damage him with his curse, not to kill him. This is why it is not similar to lowering him into a pit.

ואפילו לספרים דגרסי ההוא מינא אע"פ שהכופרים מורידין לבור נמי ניחא דודאי ביקש להרוג בקללתו

2.

Explanation(cont.): Even according to the Sefarim that have the text, "There was a heretic," even though we do lower such people into a pit, this is understandable. According to this text, he did want to kill the heretic through his curse.

ומ"מ קאמר בתר הכי ש"מ לאו אורח ארעא כי לא היה לו לדחוק בידי שמים ולהעניש מי שאינם רוצים להעניש אע"פ שבזמן הבית הי' מותר להרגו בידים

3.

Explanation(cont.): Even so, he said afterwards that we see from here that this is not the normal way to do things. This is because he should not have pushed the hands of Heaven to punish someone who Hash-m apparently did not want to punish. This is despite the fact that it would have been permitted to physically kill the heretic during the time of the Beis Hamikdash.

10)

TOSFOS DH KIVAN

תוספות ד"ה כיון

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains that this means the Tefilah is not pushed aside, not that it is accepted.)

פי' ר"ת הא דמשמע הכא דמהני אפי' כשהצבור מתפללין במקום אחר היינו דוקא דלא מדחי אבל אינה נשמעת אלא במקום שהצבור מתפללין כדאמרינן בפ"ק דברכות (דף ו.) אין תפלתו של אדם נשמעת אלא עם הצבור

(a)

Explanation: Rabeinu Tam explains that the implication that this helps even when the public is Davening in another place is specifically regarding the Tefilah not being cast aside. However, the Tefilah is only heard in a place where the public is Davening. This is as stated in Berachos (6a) that a person's Tefilah is only heard together with the public.

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