[70a - 51 lines; 70b - 42 lines]

1)[line 4]עָל עובד כוכביםAL OVED KOCHAVIM- a Nochri came up into [and entered the house]

2)[line 5]אחדה לדשא באפיהACHADAH L'DASHA B'APEI- he closed/locked the door in front of him (lit. in his face)

3)[line 5]והוה ביזעא בדשאHAVAH BIZ'A B'DASHA- there was a crack in the door [through which the Jewish owner of the wine could potentially watch the Nochri]

4)[line 6]אישתכח עובד כוכבים דקאי ביני דניISHTAKACH OVED KOCHAVIM D'KAI BEINEI DANEI- he found that the Nochri was standing among the barrels

5a)[line 7]כל דלהדי ביזעא שריKOL DEL'HADEI BIZ'A SHARI- all [of the barrels of wine] that are opposite the crack are permitted

b)[line 7]דהאי גיסא והאי גיסא אסורD'HAI GISA V'HAI GISA ASUR- [the barrels of wine] that are on this side and on this side [of the crack, out of the view of the Jew] are forbidden

6a)[line 9]בעליונהELYONAH- the upper story (from which the Jew can see his wine in the lower story)

b)[line 10]בתחתונהTACHTONAH- the lower story

7)[line 10]שמעו קל תיגראSHAM'U KAL TIGRA- they heard the sound of a quarrel outside

8)[line 11]נפקיNAFKEI- they went out (leaving the Jew's wine unsupervised in the lower story of the house)

9)[line 11]קדם אתא עובד כוכביםKADIM ASA OVED KOCHAMIM- the Nochri came back before [the Jew]

10)[line 14]אושפיזאUSHPIZA- lodging or inn

11)[line 16]בי דניBEI DANEI- in his storage house for barrels of wine

12)[line 17]אם נתפס עליו כגנב, שריIM NITPAS ALAV K'GANAV, SHARI- [if he is not a gangster, but rather he abides by the laws of the city and has fear of its judges, and he would react with surprise and fear] if he would be caught as a thief [had he touched the wine of a Jew, the wine is] permitted (RASHI to Avodah Zarah 61b)

13)[line 20]אי אית ליה לאישתמוטיIY IS LEI L'ISHTAMUTEI- if he has a way to justify (lit. slip away) [his presence in the Jew's house with some alibi for why he entered]

14)[line 21](ננעל) [נעל] הפונדק(NIN'AL) [NA'AL] HA'PUNDAK- if he (the Nochri) locked the inn (the Girsa is from DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #100)

15)[line 25]שמע ישראל קל צלויי בי כנישתאSHAMA YISRAEL KAL TZELUYEI BEI KENISHTA- the Jew heard the sound of prayers coming from the synagogue

16)[line 27]השתא מדכר ליה לחמריה והדר אתיHASHTA MADKAR LEI L'CHAMREI V'HADAR ASI- he will remember his wine and come back now

17)[line 29]קל שיפורי דבי שימשיKAL SHIFUREI D'VEI SHIMSHEI- the sound of the Shofar blowers at dusk (announcing the arrival of Shabbos)

18)[line 32]האמר (רבא, אמר) לי איסור גיוראHA'AMAR (RAVA, AMAR) LI ISUR GIYORA- but Isur the convert said to me... (see Background to Bava Metzia 110:14)

19)[line 33]כי הוינן בארמיותןKI HAVEINAN B'ARAMAYUSAN- when we were in our heathen ways (before we converted)

20)[line 34]לא מנטרי שבתאLO MENATREI SHABATA- they do not observe the Shabbos

21)[line 35]כמה כיסי קא משתכחי בשוקאKAMAH KISEI KA MISHTAKCHEI B'SHUKA- how many wallets would be found in the marketplace

22)[line 37]מוליכו פחות פחות מד' אמותMOLICHO PACHOS PACHOS MI'ARBA AMOS - he may carry it for distances of less than four Amos (HOTZA'AH: HA'MA'AVIR ARBA AMOS BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM)

(a)HOTZA'AH - Hotza'ah is the general term for the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either 1. Hotza'ah, transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) to a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain), 2. Hachnasah, transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid, 3. Ma'avir Arba Amos b'Reshus ha'Rabim, carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos, 4. Moshit, passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah in Shabbos 96a, see Background to Shabbos 96:3). These are all Biblical prohibitions.

(b)According to Rebbi Yitzchak, under certain circumstances one may carry an object in Reshus ha'Rabim on Shabbos by walking distances of less than four Amos at a time.

23)[line 38]אריאARYA- lion

24)[line 38]דהוה נהים במעצרתאD'HAVAH NAHIM B'MA'ATZARTA- which was roaring in the pressing room

25)[line 39]טשאTASHA- he hid

26)[line 44]רובא גנבי, ישראל נינהוRUBA GANAVEI YISRAEL NINHU- a majority of the thieves are Jewish. This statement was made only with regard to 1. the city of Pumbedisa, where the Jewish population was known to be plagued with swindlers and frauds (TOSFOS to Bava Basra 55b, DH Rebbi Eliezer, and the ROSH here); 2. in a place where the population is exclusively Jewish (see ROSH and RA'AVAD; see also TOSFOS to Bava Basra 24a, DH v'Atznu'i, and the ROSH to Bava Basra 2:22, 8:40), and 3. with regard to a specific object which only Jews have any interest in having (such as Tefilin; see Beitzah 15a, and the TOSFOS RI MI'PARIS). (SEDER YAKOV)

27)[line 46]ספק ביאה, טהורSAFEK BI'AH TAHOR- in the case of a doubt as to whether one entered [the place that contains the Tum'ah], he is Tahor (see next entry)

28a)[line 47]לבקעהBIK'AH- a valley containing agricultural fields

b)[line 47]הנכנס לבקעה בימות הגשמיםHA'NICHNAS L'VIK'AH BI'YEMOS HA'GESHAMIM - one who enters a valley in the rainy season (SAFEK TUM'AH BI'RESHUS HA'YACHID / BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM)

(a)When there is a doubt as to whether an object is Tahor or Tamei, if the object is found in Reshus ha'Rabim the object is Tahor. If it is found in a private, concealed place, it is judged to be Tamei. During the winter (i.e. the field has been planted) a Bik'ah is a considered Reshus ha'Yachid and Sefeiko Tamei. During the summer it is a Reshus ha'Rabim and Sefeiko Tahor.

(b)This is learned from the case of the Sotah woman. In the case of a Sotah, where only two people were present at the time that there arose a question as to her status, she is judged Teme'ah/culpable and is prohibited to her husband. Similarly, whenever there are only two people present (i.e. a Reshus ha'Yachid l'Tum'ah), if a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tamei. Whenever more than two people frequent a certain area it is a Reshus ha'Rabim l'Tum'ah. If a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tahor.

29)[line 49]הלכתי במקום הלזHALACHTI B'MAKOM HA'LAZ- I walked through that place

30)[line 49]ואיני יודע אם נכנסתי לאותה שדהEINI YODE'A IM NICHNASTI L'OSAH SADEH- I do not know if I went into that [specific] field (that contains the Tum'ah)

31)[line 50]ספק מגעSAFEK MAGA- in the case of a doubt as to whether one touched [the item of Tum'ah in the field]

32)[last line]כיון דאיכא דפתחי לשום ממונאKEIVAN D'IKA D'FASCHEI L'SHUM MAMONA- since there are those [Nochri thieves] who open [the barrels of wine] looking for money (and not looking to make it Yayin Nesech, the wine is permitted, because even if the thieves were Nochrim, it is possible that they opened the barrels looking for money and left when they found none)


33)[line 1]רביתאREVISA- young girl

34)[line 1]והות נקיטא אופיא בידהHAVAS NEKITA UFYA B'YADAH- she was holding the froth (O.F. escume) of the wine in her hand

35)[line 3]מגבה דחביתאMI'GABAH D'CHAVISA- from the back (outside) of the barrel

36)[line 4]אתרמויי איתרמי להISRAMUYEI ISRAMI LAH- it happened by chance to be there (that is, there happened to be a little froth on the outside of the barrel at the time the girl touched it)

37)[line 4]פולמוסאPOLMOSA- army battalion

38)[line 10]אי הכי, האי ספק ביאה ספק מגע הוא!IY HACHI, HAI SAFEK BI'AH SAFEK MAGA HU!- if this is so, then it is not a "Safek Bi'ah," but rather it is a "Safek Maga!" (That is, if Rav Dimi's first suggestion (for why Rebbi Elazar permitted the wine) is true (i.e. because the battalion was comprised of Nochrim who doubtfully tampered with the wine, and Rebbi Elazar follows the view of Rebbi Eliezer (see above, entry #27) who says that when one is in doubt whether he entered a public place containing Tum'ah, he remains Tahor), then this case is not a case of "Safek Bi'ah," a case of a doubtful entry (for the Nochrim certainly entered), but rather it is a case of "Safek Maga," a doubt whether or not the Nochrim touched the wine!)

39)[line 11]כיון דמפתחי טובא, אימא אדעתא דממונא פתחו, וכספק ביאה דמיKEIVAN D'MEFATCHEI TUVA, EIMA A'DA'ATA D'MAMONA PASCHU, UCH'SAFEK BI'AH DAMI- since many barrels were opened, we should say that they opened the barrels for the sake of searching for money (and not for using the wine), and it is like a "Safek Bi'ah" (even though, in truth, it remains a doubt whether they touched the wine, a "Safek Maga," nevertheless this doubt is treated leniently, like a "Safek Bi'ah")

40)[line 12]מסוביתאMESOVISA- a female wine-seller

41)[line 13]איקלידא (מפתחה)IKLIDA (MAFTECHAH)- the key

42)[line 14]עובדא הוה בי מדרשאUVDA HAVAH BEI MIDRASHA- an incident was [discussed] in the Beis ha'Midrash

43)[line 19]יין נסך מיבעיא?YAYIN NESECH MIBA'YA?!- is it any question that the wine should become Yayin Nesech?! (Rather, it certainly does not become Yayin Nesech, since we see that in an identical case regarding Taharos, the Jew's Taharos remain Tahor, and yet the law concerning Taharos, presumably, is more stringent than Yayin Nesech.)

44)[line 21]חצר שחלקה במסיפסCHATZER SHE'CHALAKAH B'MESIFAS- a courtyard that was divided with a small, low fence (see Background to Bava Basra 2:15)

45a)[line 25]שוטח שם פירותSHOTE'ACH SHAM PEIROS- he may spread out his fruits (which are Tahor) there (in the inner courtyard - RASHI; and we are not concerned that his neighbor, the Am ha'Aretz, might touch them and make them Tamei)

b)[line 25]ומניח שם כליםMENI'ACH SHAM KELIM- he may leave his utensils (used for Taharos) there (and we are not concerned that his neighbor, the Am ha'Aretz, might touch them and make them Tamei)

46)[line 31]קשיא לרבי יוחנןKASHYA L'REBBI YOCHANAN- it is a difficulty on the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan, because Rebbi Yochanan says that the Taharos of the Chaver remain Tahor, even when his neighbor is an Am ha'Aretz and their adjoining properties are separated by merely a small, low fence (and the Am ha'Aretz certainly can reach the Taharos), while Raban Shimon ben Gamliel states that the Taharos on the roof of the Chaver that is higher than the roof of the Am ha'Aretz are not Tahor if the Am ha'Aretz can reach there.

47)[line 33]אימצורי קא ממצר[נ]אIMTZUREI KA MEMATZR[N]A- (a) [he can vindicate himself by saying] I was just trying to measure the area [and that is why I stretched out my hand over your roof] (RASHI, 1st explanation; DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #70); (b) אימצודי קא ממצדנא IMTZUDEI KA MEMATZDENA - (O.F. estendeilier) I was just stretching [out my body, and that is why I stretched out my hand over your roof] (RASHI, 2nd explanation; DIKDUKEI SOFRIM ibid.)

48)[line 39]בולשתBOLESHES- a battalion of troops (who normally enter a city to pillage)

49)[line 40]בשעת שלוםBI'SHE'AS SHALOM- during a time of peace