[56a - 17 lines; 56b - 15 lines]

1)[line 5]יין משיקפהYAYIN MISHE'YEKAFEH - [the obligation to separate Ma'aseros from] wine [begins] from the time that it is skimmed (i.e. the layer of scum that floats to the top is removed) (KOVE'A L'MA'ASER)

(a)Every fruit (or other produce) that must be tithed (see Background to Sanhedrin 88:22) may not be eaten b'Achilas Keva (as a normal meal) before its Terumos and Ma'asros have been removed or designated. It may, however, be eaten b'Achilas Ara'i (as a "snack," not as a meal) until it becomes "Hukba l'Ma'aser" (designated for tithing) through an action that demonstrates the final preparation of the fruit for eating. After it is Hukba l'Ma'aser, it is forbidden to eat even b'Achilas Ara'i before the tithes are separated.

(b)Seven actions can designate fruits as Hukba l'Ma'aser:

1.Pickling the fruit

2.Dipping the fruit in salt

3.Starting to prepare the fruit to be eaten through heating (cooking, roasting, etc.)

4.Designating the fruit to be eaten on Shabbos

5.Separating Terumah from the fruit

6.Bringing the fruit into the owner's yard

7.Bringing the fruit to the market for sale

(c)In addition to being "Hukba l'Ma'aser," the fruit or produce must have reached a stage of Gemar Melachah (the completion of processing, e.g. smoothing the top of the pile of grain). In the case of wine, Rebbi Akiva and the Rabanan argue at what point the wine reaches a state of Gemar Melachah (Ma'asros 1:7), as our Gemara mentions.

2a)[line 9]קולט מן הגת העליונהKOLET MIN HA'GAS HA'ELYONAH- he may scoop [wine] from the upper part of the winepress, the vat in which the grapes are placed, which has not yet flowed into the lower part of the winepress, the pit which collects the juice.

b)[line 10]ומן הצינורU'MIN HA'TZINOR- and from the pipe or gutter (that was formed by hewing a channel into the ground, or into a beam and then setting it into the ground, that directed the wine flowing from the grapes into the pit

3)[line 11]והתני רב זביד בדבי רבי אושעיאVEHA'TANI RAV ZEVID BI'DEVEI REBBI OSHAYA- but Rav Zevid learned a different version of the Beraisa of Rebbi Oshaya

4)[line 13]משישלה בחביותMISHE'YISHLEH B'CHAVIYOS- from the time that he draws out the wine [from the pit] into barrels (see above, entry #1)

5)[line 13]תרצה נמי להך קמייתא הכיTARTZAH NAMI L'HACH KAMAISA HACHI- explain the first Beraisa in this manner as well

56b----------------------------------------56b

6)[line 3]שלא החזיר גרגותני לגתSHE'LO HECHZIR GARGUSNI LA'GAS- he did not return the Gargusni to the winepress. A Gargusni is a large basket used in winemaking that is suspended above the collection pit, which strains the juice that flows from the winepress.

7)[line 5]בנצוקBA'NITZOK- with the column of liquid that is flowing / poured [from the Gargusni into the pit]

8)[line 5]נצוק חיבורNITZOK CHIBUR- the column of flowing liquid creates a connection (thus connecting the wine in the pit to the wine in the Gargusni, causing the wine in the Gargusni to become prohibited). Whether or not such a flow of liquid creates a Halachic connection is the subject of a dispute later (72b).

9a)[line 6]שפחסתו צלוחיתוSHE'PACHASTO TZELOCHISO- his jug slapped it (RASHI). The Gemara later (72b) discusses a case in which a Jew was pouring wine from his funnel into the jug of a Nochri, and the jug became so full that the wine "slapped" the funnel, leaving some of the Nochri's wine in the Jew's utensil.

b)[line 7]שפחסתו בורוSHE'PACHASTO BORO- his pit slapped it (RASHI). The wine in the pit reached the top and "slapped" the Gargusni (see above, entry #6), causing some of the prohibited wine to remain in the Gargusni.

10)[line 7]ינוקאYENUKA- a child

11)[line 8]בשית שניB'SHIS SHENEI- when he was six years old

12)[line 11]דציירנא להו לידיהD'TZAYARNA LEHU L'YADEI- we bound his hands (so that the Nochri cannot touch the wine with his hands)

13)[line 13]בנהרדעאNEHARDE'A- a town in Babylon, seat of the Yeshiva founded by Shmuel

14)[line 14]חמראCHAMRA- wine

15)[line 14]ושהייה שמואל תלתא ריגליSHAHAYEI SHMUEL TELASA RIGLEI- Shmuel left it over for three festivals. (It was the practice for the scholars to assemble before each festival in order to expound the Halachos of that festival (see Background to Bava Kama 113:7). In this incident, Shmuel was waiting to find a sage at this assembly who would issue a ruling regarding the wine, as the Gemara explains.)

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