[57a - 28 lines; 57b - 22 lines]

1)[line 1]כרבי נתןK'REBBI NASAN- like the opinion of Rebbi Nasan, who prohibits wine (even b'Hana'ah) that has been touched by a Nochri, even though he did not perform Nisuch (pouring a libation to his Avodah Zarah) or even Shichshuch (shaking his fingers in the wine for the sake of their Avodah Zarah) (see Chart)

2)[line 2]מדדוMEDADO- he measured it

3)[line 6]בבירםBEIRAM- Beis Baltin, between Syria and Mesopotamia (one of the mountain-peak stations of the Masu'os (signal fires), where messengers lifted lighted torches between Yerushalayim and Bavel to notify Bnei Yisrael of the proclamation of the new month. Its exact location is not known. See ha'Ge'ografiyah ba'Mishnah, B.Z. Segal, Rav Y.A. Devorkas (ed.), Yerushalayim 5739, pp. 35-36.)

4)[line 7]דהוה קא סליק בדיקלאHAVAH KA SALIK B'DIKLA- who was climbing up a date palm tree

5)[line 8]ואייתי לוליבאV'AISI LULEIVA- and he [cut and] brought down a palm branch

6)[line 8]בהדי דקא נחיתBA'HADEI D'KA NACHIS- when he was descending

7)[line 15]שמלו ולא טבלוSHE'MALU V'LO TAVLU - who had Bris Milah performed on them but has not as yet immersed in a Mikvah (GERUS: OVED KOCHAVIM SHE'MAL V'LO TAVAL)

(a)When a Nochri converts, a male must be circumcised, and both a male and a female must immerse in a Mikvah, and bring an animal or two birds as a Korban Olah. (Today, since there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Korban is not required for conversion.) Three Jews must be present when the convert immerses, and they must inform him of the Mitzvos.

(b)Milah and Tevilah are also required for a new Eved Kena'ani to leave his previous status of Nochri.

8)[line 15]בני השפחות שמלו ולא טבלוBENEI HA'SHEFACHOS SHE'MALU V'LO TAVLU- sons of Nochri maidservants who have had Bris Milah performed on them but have not immersed in a Mikvah (RASHI explains that when they were born, their mothers had not as yet immersed in a Mikvah, hence they, too, are required to immerse.)


(a)TUM'AS NOCHRIM - Even though mid'Oraisa, Nochrim cannot become Teme'im, Chazal decreed (Shabbos 83a, Nidah 34a) that they have the status of Zavim (see Background to Bava Kama 24:5 and to Bava Metzia 105:30). The Zov of a Zav, his semen, blood, saliva, and urine are all Avos ha'Tum'ah and are Metamei people and utensils mid'Oraisa. These liquids, when emitted by a Nochri, are Metamei mid'Rabanan. When emitted by Nochri slaves bought from the Nochrim or the sons of maidservants, who have had Bris Milah performed on them but have not immersed in a Mikvah (see previous two entries), our Gemara records a difference of opinion as to whether these liquids are Metamei mid'Rabanan or are completely Tehorim.

(b)TUM'AS MIDRAS - A Zav can cause certain objects that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah like the Zav himself, whether he touches them directly or not. Any object made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon (e.g. chair, mattress, shoes) becomes Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), also known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav (or the Tachton of a Zav). Klei Cheres - earthenware objects - are not subject to Tum'as Midras.

(c)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or the Zav himself gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.

(d)Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav.

10)[line 17]ואלו הן גדולים, ואלו הן קטניםV'ELU HEN GEDOLIM, V'ELU HEN KETANIM- and the following people are considered adults, and the following people are considered minors

11)[line 18]יודעין בטיב עבודת כוכבים ומשמשיהYOD'IN B'TIV AVODAS KOCHAVIM U'MESHAMSHEHA- one who is aware of the nature of idolatry and its service

12)[line 20]הניחא למאן דאמר טמא, אלא למאן דאמר טהור, מאי איכא למימר?HANICHA L'MAN D'AMAR TAMEI, ELA L'MAN D'AMAR TAHOR MAI IKA L'MEIMAR?- this answer is reasonable according to the opinion that rules that Rokan and Midrasan of these people is Tamei (i.e. that the words "v'Chen Benei ha'Shefachos" refer to Rokan and Midrasan). According to the opinion that rules that Rokan and Midrasan of these people is Tahor, what can we say? (That is, since the Rok and Midras of Nochri slaves is Tahor, it is completely unnecessary to record that the Rok and Midras of Benei ha'Shefachos is also Tahor.)

13)[line 26]שֶׁתִּשָּׁקַעSHE'TISHAKA- until it disappears


14)[line 15]במחוזאMECHOZA- a large Jewish trading town on the Tigris River, where Rava presided as the communal Torah leader

15)[line 17]הוה יתיב חמרא בדוולאHAVAH YASIV CHAMRA B'DAVLA- wine was placed (lit. sitting) in a bucket

16)[line 18]שדי ביה ידיהSHADI BEI YADEI- he stuck in his hand

17)[line 18]שיכשך ביהSHICHSHECH BEI- he shook his fingers in the wine

18)[line 19]שקליה האיך בריתחיהSHAKLEI HA'ICH B'RISCHEI- that one (the Jewish shop owner) grabbed it (the bucket) in his wrath

19)[line 20]שדייה לדנאSHADYEI L'DANA- and threw it back into the barrel

20)[last line]נפקי שיפורי דרבא ושרוNAFKEI SHIFOREI D'RAVA V'SHARU- the Shofar blowers (that announce the ruling) of Rava went out and proclaimed that the wine was permitted