[15a - 38 lines; 15b - 59 lines]

1)[line 3]שלא תעקרSHE'LO SE'AKER- that it should not become impotent [as a result of bestiality]

2)[line 7]מעביד ביה מלאכה חיישינןMA'AVID BEI MELACHAH CHAISHINAN- we are concerned that the Nochri will work the animal on Shabbos

3)[line 8]וניעביד; כיון דזבנה, קנייה!V'NEI'AVID; KEIVAN D'ZAVNAH KANYAH- But [for all that we are concerned], let him work [the animal on Shabbos]; since he has bought it, he has acquired it [to the extent that there are no restrictions regarding its work on Shabbos]

4a)[line 10]שאלה, קנייהSHE'ELAH KANYAH - borrowing [the animal is considered as if the borrower] bought it (FOUR SHOMRIM: SHO'EL)

(a)The Torah (Shemos 22:6-14) mentions four types of Shomrim (watchmen) and the different Halachos that apply to them:

1.SHOMER CHINAM - the Shomer Chinam is one who watches an item without demanding compensation from the owner. He is liable for damages only in cases of Peshi'ah (negligence), but not in cases of theft or loss, and certainly not in a case of Ones (an unavoidable accident).

2.SHO'EL - the Sho'el, the borrower, is one who borrows an item in order to use it and becomes obligated to take care of it. He is liable for damages in cases of Peshi'ah, theft or loss, and Ones. He is exempt from damages only in a case of "Meisah Machmas Melachah," when the item was damaged in the normal manner of usage, or if the item was damaged while its owner was working for the borrower ("Be'alav Imo").

3.NOSEI SACHAR - Nosei Sachar, or Shomer Sachar, is one who is paid to watch an item but is not permitted to use it. He is liable for damages in cases of Peshi'ah, theft or loss, but is not liable in a case of Ones.

4.SOCHER - the Socher, or renter, is one who pays money to rent an item. He is liable for damages in cases of Peshi'ah, theft or loss, but is not liable in a case of Ones, just like a Shomer Sachar, according to some of the Tana'im. Others assert that a Socher is liable for damages only in cases of Peshi'ah, but not in cases of theft or loss, and certainly not in a case of Ones, just like a Shomer Chinam (Bava Metzia 93a).

b)[line 10]ואגרא, קנייהAGRA KANYEI - the rent money [that one pays to rent the animal makes it as if the renter] bought it (FOUR SHOMRIM: SOCHER)

See previous entry, a:3.

5)[line 11]משום נסיוניMISHUM NISYONEI- so that he does not demonstrate [how well the animal walks when loaded]

6)[line 11]דזמנין דזבנה לה ניהליה סמוך לשקיעת החמה דמעלי שבתאZIMNIN D'ZAVNAH LAH NIHALEI SAMUCH LI'SHEKI'AS HA'CHAMAH D'MA'AELI SHABATA- perhaps he will sell it to him (the non-Jew) just before sunset on Erev Shabbos

7)[line 13]ואמר ליה, "תא נסייה ניהליה"V'AMAR LEI "TA NASYEI NIHALEI"- and he will say to him, "Come and try it out"

8)[line 13]ושמעה ליה לקליה ואזלא מחמתיהV'SHAM'AH LEI L'KOLEI V'AZLA MACHMASEI- and [the animal] will hear his (its master's) voice and will walk [while it is loaded] because of him (which is prohibited because of Mechamer - see next entry)

9)[line 15]מחמר אחר בהמתו בשבתMECHAMER ACHAR BEHEMTO B'SHABBOS (SHEVISAS BEHEMTO / ISUR MELACHAH BI'VEHEMTO / MECHAMER)

(a)"Shevisas Behemah" is a positive commandment. One is required to allow his animals to rest on Shabbos as it states (Shemos 23:12) "לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ שׁוֹרְךָ וַחֲמֹרֶךָ" "Lema'an Yanu'ach Shor'cha va'Chamorecha" - "so that your bull and your donkey may rest." If one causes his animal to do work (i.e., one of the 39 categories of Melachah) on Shabbos, whether or not he is present at the time, he transgresses a positive commandment.

(b)It is forbidden to lead a laden animal on Shabbos, even by calling to it, as it states, "Lema'an Yanu'ach Shorcha va'Chamorecha" - "so that your bull and your donkey may rest" (Shemos 23:12), and "וְכָל בְּהֶמְתֶּךָ" "v'Chol Behemtecha" - "and all of your animals" (Devarim 5:14). One who does so transgresses a negative prohibition, but is not liable to Kares or Sekilah. (RAMBAM Hilchos Shabbos 20:1-2, 6). (RASHI DH Mechamer notes that there is one opinion from Shabbos 154a that rules that Mechamer is liable to bring a Korban Chatas; our Gemara refers to this opinion.)

10)[line 18]אף במקום שאמרו להשכירAF B'MAKOM SHE'AMRU L'HASKIR (LO SECHANEM)

(a)It is forbidden to have mercy on idolaters, as the verse states, "וּנְתָנָם ה' אֱ-לֹקֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ וְהִכִּיתָם; הַחֲרֵם תַּחֲרִים אֹתָם, לֹא תִכְרֹת לָהֶם בְּרִית, וְלֹא תְחָנֵּם" "... Hacharem Tacharim Osam, Lo Sichros Lahem Beris, v'Lo Sechonem" - "And when HaSh-m, your El-kim, shall deliver them (the seven nations that originally inhabited Eretz Kena'an) before you, you shall strike them; you shall completely destroy them, you shall make no covenant with them, nor show mercy to them" (Devarim 7:2). The Torah warns the Jews to distance themselves from idolaters so that they do not learn from their wicked ways. The Gemara (Avodah Zarah 20b) learns from this verse many ways in which we must distance ourselves from idolaters.

(b)Among the prohibitions included in this verse is not to sell houses or fields in Eretz Yisrael to idolaters. They may rent storehouses, as long as an entire Shechunah (a neighborhood, consisting of at least three houses) is not rented to idolaters. Renting them living quarters, however, is prohibited, since they will introduce objects of idol worship into Jewish houses, which is prohibited, as the verse states, "וְלֹא תָבִיא תוֹעֵבָה אֶל בֵּיתֶךָ" "v'Lo Savi So'evah El Beisecha" - "You shall not bring an abomination into your house" (Devarim 7:26).

(c)Even renting fields in Eretz Yisrael to idolaters is forbidden, for two reasons. First, according to one opinion (and the RAMBAM rules as such - see Hilchos Avodah Zarah 10:3), the produce that they grow will be exempt from tithes. Selling or renting them fields, therefore, removes the inherent Kedushah (sanctity) of the land. Second, ownership of a field gives them "Chanayah" in Eretz Yisrael, that is, an occupation of the land (from the word Sechonem - this is one of the interpretations of the prohibitions of this verse). Selling them houses or fields outside of Eretz Yisrael, however, is permitted.

11)[line 21]שאני עבודת כוכבים דחמיראSHANI AVODAS KOCHAVIM D'CHAMIRA- idol worship is different because it is [a] more stringent [prohibition]

12)[line 22]"וְלֹא תָבִיא תוֹעֵבָה אֶל בֵּיתֶךָ, [וְהָיִיתָ חֵרֶם כָּמֹהוּ]""V'LO SAVI SO'EVAH EL BEISECHA [V'HAYISAH CHEREM KAMOHU]"- "You shall not bring an abomination into your house [and you will become shunned like it (the item of Avodah Zarah)]" (Devarim 7:26).

13)[line 25]יאכילנה כרשיני תרומהYA'ACHILENAH KARSHINEI TERUMAH - he may feed it Karshinim of Terumah

(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, the owner must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Kohanim and members of their households are allowed to eat Terumah, as long as they are Tehorim.

(b)Karshinim are the beans of a species of vine, probably the horse bean (O.F. vece - vetch), which is rarely used as human food. One is obligated to separate Terumah from them since at times humans consume them. It is usually forbidden to feed Terumah that is Tehorah to animals. However, since Karshinim are usually only consumed by animals, one is permitted to feed Karshinim of Terumah to animals that belong to Kohanim.

14)[line 31]רב אדא שרא לזבוני חמרא אידא דספסיראRAV ADA SHARA LI'ZEVUNEI CHAMARA A'YADA D'SAFSIRA- Rav Ada permitted [a Yisrael] to sell a donkey [to a Nochri] by means of a middleman (who was also a Yisrael)

15a)[line 34]לא מושילLO MOSHIL- he will not lend it out (since it is not his)

b)[line 35]ולא מוגרLO MOGAR- he will not rent it out

16)[line 35]ועוד, משום דלא ניגלי ביה מומאV'OD, MISHUM D'LO NIGLEI BEI MUMA- and also, [he will not lend or rent out the animal because he bought it to sell to others. As such] he does not want any of its blemishes to be revealed

15b----------------------------------------15b

17)[line 2]לא ימכור אדם פרה החורשת בשביעיתLO YIMKOR ADAM PARAH HA'CHORESHES BI'SHEVI'IS- during the Shemitah year (see Background to Avodah Zarah 10:7b), it is prohibited because of "Lifnei Iver" (see Background to Avodah Zarah 14:10) for someone to sell to a person who is suspected of transgressing the prohibitions of Shevi'is, a cow that is trained for plowing

18)[line 5]אדם מצווה על שביתת בהמתו בשבתADAM METZUVEH AL SHEVISAS BEHEMTO B'SHABBOS- see above, entry #9

19)[line 9]שדה נירSEDEH NIR- a plowed field

20)[line 10]להובירהL'HOVIRAH- to leave it fallow

21a)[line 14]המחרישה וכל כליהHA'MACHAREISHAH V'CHOL KELEHA- the plow and all of its implements

b)[line 15]העולHA'OL- the yoke

c)[line 15]והמזרהHA'MEZAREH- (a) (O.F. pele) a spade (RASHI); (b) one of the implements of the plow (TOSFOS)

d)[line 15]והדקרHA'DEKER- (a) (O.F. fossoir) a hoe; (b) (O.F. coltre) plowshare, a sharp blade that is attached to the front of a plow to make a vertical cut in the ground (TOSFOS)

22)[line 33]כותיםKUSIM

(a)The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).

(b)After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)

23a)[line 37]ללמדו ספרL'LAMDO SEFER- to teach him scholarly subjects (ME'IRI)

b)[line 37]וללמדו אומנותL'LAMDO UMNUS- to teach him a trade

24a)[line 39]זייןZAYIN- arms, such as a sword or a spear

b)[line 39]כלי זייןKELEI ZAYIN- implements used in conjunction with arms, such as the handle of a spear or the sheath for a sword

25)[line 39]משחיזיןMASHCHIZIN- sharpen

26)[line 40]סדןSADAN- (O.F. stok) stocks

27)[line 40]קולריןKOLARIN- iron neck collars; the Kolar was the [Roman] prisoner's band or chain around the neck, with which the authorities led out prisoners when they were about to be executed

28)[line 41]כבליםKEVALIM- (O.F. buies) shackles

29)[line 41]שלשלאות של ברזלSHALSHELA'OS SHEL BARZEL- (O.F. ferges) chains of iron

30)[line 50]רהיט בתריהRAHIT BASREI- he (Rabah) ran after him [to buy back the donkey]

31a)[line 50]תלתא פרסיTELASA PARSEI- three Parsa'os (three Persian miles, or twelve Mil, approximately 10.994, 11.52, or 13.818 kilometers, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions)

b)[line 50]פרסא בחלאPARSA B'CHALA- the distance of one Parsah while running in the sand

32)[line 51]ולא אדרכיהV'LO ADRECHEI- he did not catch up with him

33)[line 52]אסור למכור ללסטים ישראלASUR LIMKOR L'LISTIM YISRAEL- [similarly,] it is prohibited to sell [weapons] to Jewish armed bandits

34a)[line 55]במשמוטאMASHMOTA- an armed bandit who steals and then slips away (who only kills in self-defense)

b)[line 56]דזימנין דעביד לאצולי נפשיהZIMNIN D'AVID L'ATZULEI NAFSHEI- at times he does [kill] to save his own life

35)[line 57]תריסיןTERISIN- shields

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