[10a - 48 lines; 10b - 50 lines]

1)[line 1] 'SAVUR RABANAN KAMEI D'RAV'- (the Girsa of the printed Vilna edition of the Gemara is Rav', which stands for Rava. However, the Girsa of the manuscripts (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #2), the ROSH, and the SEFER HA'TERUMOS (Sha'ar #56) is Rav Nachman, which corresponds to the ensuing statement of Rav Nachman in the next lines of the Gemara.)

2)[line 2] HAI SHTAR ME'UCHAR HU- it is a post-dated loan document (i.e. the date written in the document is later than the date on which the document was actually signed). Such a document is valid because the bearer of the document (i.e. the lender) may use it only to collect from property that the borrower sold to buyers after that date, even though the loan occurred before it.

3a)[line 2] NI'AKVEI AD D'MATYA ZIMNEI- let us (as Beis Din) hold on to it until its time (six years from now, when it will be possible for the creditor to collect the value of the loan from the lands of the borrower, if he sells them from then on. Until then, the creditor cannot use the document to extract the land from buyers.)

b)[line 3] V'LO TARIF- and he may not extract the land from buyers

4)[line 4] SAFRA DAVKANA KASVEI- a precise, exacting scribe wrote it

5)[line 13], NAFAK DAK V'ASHKACH- (lit. he went out, checked and found) he checked into the sources and found the following Beraisa

6a)[line 16] ROSH HA'SHANAH LI'MELACHIM- the first day of the new year for kings. That is, kings who start their reign anytime during the year, even as late as the end of the month of Adar, count the following Nisan as the first month of the second year of their reign.

b)[line 16]LI'REGALIM- for festivals. The Pesach festival in Nisan is considered the first festival with regard to the prohibition of "Bal Te'acher," not to delay the offering of a voluntary sacrifice. As such, if a person pledged a sacrifice immediately after Pesach, he only violates the prohibition of Bal Te'acher after the Sukos festival of the following year (i.e. after five festivals).

7a)[line 18] ROSH HA'SHANAH L'SHANIM- the first day of the new year


(a)The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2). 3. The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.

(b)One may not do any work that makes improvements with the land or with trees growing from the land.

(c)The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six years in which they work their own fields.

8)[line 32]" ; ""HINEH KATON... BAZUY ATAH ME'OD"- "Behold, I will make you small among the nations; you shall be greatly despised" (Ovadyah 1:2).

9a)[line 34]KESAV- script

b)[line 34]LASHON- language. (The Roman Empire is termed "an improper kingdom" (Yevamos 91b) because (a) they did not have their own language or script. The Latin language was not native to Italy but was brought into the Italian Peninsula by Italic peoples who migrated from the north. The Roman alphabet was adapted from the early form of the Etruscan alphabet. (RASHI to Yevamos ibid.); (b) they do not have a distinct idiom spoken only by the monarchy (TOSFOS here DH she'Ein, quoting RI, TOSFOS YESHANIM to Yevamos ibid.))

10)[line 35] YOM HA'LEIDAH- the day of birth [of the current king]

11)[line 41] AL YEDEI SHE'ELAH MUKMEI- through a special petition [of the father to the Roman Senate] they do appoint [the son to succeed his father as king]

12)[line 42] TIS'AVID TEVERYA KELANYA- Teverya should be made into a Roman colony, whose inhabitants were exempt from paying the royal taxes

13)[line 43] AISI GAVRA- [Rebbi] brought a man

14)[line 43] ARKEVEI A'CHAVREI- he had him ride on [the shoulders of] another man

15)[line 44] V'YAHAV LEI YONAH L'ILA'I B'YEDEI- and he gave a dove into the hands of the man on top

16)[line 44] V'AMAR LEI L'SATA'AH- and he said to the man on the bottom

17)[line 44] EIMAR L'EILA DEL'MIFRACH MIN YEDEI YONAH- tell the man on top to let the dove fly from his hands

18)[line 47] ME'AYEIL LEI L'GINA- he (Rebbi) brought him (Antoninus) into his garden

19)[line 47] KOL YOMA AKAR LEI PUGLA MI'MISHRA KAMEI- every day he pulled up before him a radish from a radish patch

20)[last line] LO SISGAREH BEHU B'CHULHU- do not start with all of them [at one time]


21)[line 3]"[ , ;] , [ ]""[GAM B'MADA'ACHA MELECH AL TEKALEL, UV'CHADREI MISHKAVCHA AL TEKALEL ASHIR;] KI OF HA'SHAMAYIM YOLICH ES HA'KOL, [U'VA'AL KENAFAYIM YAGED DAVAR]"- "[Even in your mind, do not curse a king, and in the chamber of your sleeping, do not curse the rich;] because a bird of the sky will bring the sound, [and a winged creature will tell of the matter]" (Koheles 10:20).

22a)[line 5] SHADAR LEI GARGIRA- he sent him a plant called the Gargir (O.F. orugue) Eruca sativa, the rocket plant, a medicinal plant that is beneficial for the eyes that grows in meadows; meadow-grass. Using this symbol, Antoninus informed Rebbi that (a) "Nigrera Gira," that his daughter named Gira was led astray (Nigrera) by an adulterer (RASHI); (b) "Gairas Gira," that his daughter named Gira committed adultery (the Targum Yerushalmi of the words, " " "ha'No'ef veha'No'afes" - "the adulterer and the adulteress," is "Gaira v'Gayarta") (TOSFOS DH Shadar, citing RABEINU CHANANEL and the ARUCH).

b)[line 6]KUSBARTA- (O.F. aillendre) coriander. Using this symbol, Rebbi answered Antoninus, (a) "Kos Brata," that he should execute ("Kos" means "slaughter") his sinful daughter (Brata) (RASHI); (b) "Kaseh Brata," that he should cover [up (Kaseh) the shame of] his daughter (Brata) (TOSFOS DH Shadar, citing RABEINU CHANANEL and the ARUCH)

c)[line 6]KARTI- (O.F. porels) leek. Using this symbol, (a) Antoninus informed Rebbi that his lineage will be cut off (Nichras) if he kills his daughter (RASHI) since his son had already died in his lifetime (YA'AVETZ); (b) Antoninus, who misinterpreted Rebbi's answer (see previous entry, (b)) and thought that Rebbi was suggesting that he kill his daughter, could not deal with this piece of advice. He questioned whether Rebbi was suggesting that his lineage should be cut off (Nichras) (TOSFOS DH Shadar, citing RABEINU CHANANEL and the ARUCH)

d)[line 6]CHASA- (O.F. laitugue) lettuce. Using this symbol, Rebbi answered Antoninus, that he should have mercy on her ("Chus Lah")

23)[line 7] DAHAVA PERICHA- (lit. gold that crumbles) gold nuggets the size of wheat kernels (SEDER YAKOV)

24)[line 7]METAR'ASA- leather grain sacks

25)[line 8] V'CHITEI A'PUMAIHU- with wheat kernels in the mouths [of the sacks]

26)[line 10], ( ) [, ]AMAR (LIHAVU L'MAN D'VASRACH D'YAHAVEI L'VASRA'I D'ASU VASRACH UD'ASI MINAIHYU NEIPUK ALAIHU) [LEI, LEHEVEI LI'VRACH BASRACH D'YEHAVEI LI'VRI BASRAI D'ASI MINAIHU NEIPUK ALAIHU]- they should be for your descendants who will need them to give to my descendants (the Girsa is from DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #90)

27)[line 12]NIKRESA- a tunnel

28)[line 19] D'GANI A'BAVA- who is sleeping at the gate

29)[line 22] EIN MESHIVIN AL HA'KALKALAH- we try not to be the one who brings a bad report

30)[line 24] ZUTEI D'IS BECHU MECHAYEH MESIM- the lesser one of you are able to revive the dead

31a)[line 27] KI HAVAH BA'I REBBI L'MEISAK L'PURYA- when Rebbi wanted to go to bed

b)[line 28] HAVAH GACHIN KAMEI PURYA- he (Antoninus) would bend down before the bed

32)[line 30]MATZA- a mat, something upon which to tread

33)[line 31]SARID- a remnant

34)[line 33]" , [ ; ]""SHAMAH EDOM MELACHEHA V'CHOL NESI'EHA..."- "There is Edom, her kings and all her princes, [who, for all their might, were laid with those who were slain by the sword; they shall lie with the uncircumcised, and with those who descend to the pit]" (Yechezkel 32:29).

35a)[line 33]MELACHEHA- its kings

b)[line 33]NESI'EHA- its princes

c)[line 34]SAREHA- it officials

36)[line 37]KEISARA- Caesar. (The Roman emperors became known by the term "Keisar" after the almost absolute reign of Gaius Julius Caesar)

37)[line 38] / NIMA / NOMI- corroding sore

38)[line 38]YIKTA'ENAH- shall he cut it off

39)[line 40]"[ , ';] , [ ']""... KI K'ARBA RUCHOS HA'SHAMAYIM PERASTI ES'CHEM..."- "['Ho! Ho! Flee from the land of the north,' says HaSh-m;] 'for I have spread you abroad like the four winds of the heaven,' [says HaSh-m]" (Zecharyah 2:10).

40)[line 41]BADARTEHON- that He scattered them

41)[line 42] KARU LACH MALCHUSA KETI'AH- they will call you (i.e. you will go down in history as) [the king of] a kingdom that cuts off [a substantial portion of its populace]

42a)[line 43] []KOL D'ZACHI [L']MALKA- all those who triumph over the king (silencing and embarrassing him in an argument)

b)[line 43] SHADU LEI L'KAMONYA CHALILA- will be thrown into a house (or pit) full of potash

43)[line 44]MATRONISA- a Roman noblewoman

44)[line 44] VAI LEI L'ILFA D'AZLA B'LO MICHSA!- Woe unto the ship that is travelling without paying the tax! (i.e. Woe unto you who are about to die for defending the Jews, and you cannot be considered one of them since you have not performed Bris Milah and have not accepted upon yourself to become Jewish!)

45)[line 46] CHALFIS V'AVRIS- I may now go and pass on [from the world as a Jew]

46)[line 46] KI KA SHADU LEI- when they were throwing him [into the Kamonya Chalila]

47a)[line 47]"() [] ""(V'HAYAH) [V'HAYESAH] L'AHARON UL'VANAV"- "It shall be given to Aharon and to his sons" (Vayikra 24:9) - This verse is discussing the weekly distribution of the 12 loaves of the Lechem ha'Panim (see next entry) to the Kohanim, which are to be divided between the Kohen Gadol and the other Kohanim. The Kohen Gadol receives half of them, while the other Kohanim receive the other half.


The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol ("Aharon") and half to the other Kohanim ("l'Vanav") (see previous entry).

48)[last line] NISPARDAH CHAVILAH- the package (i.e. the pact between us) has been separated