(a)Kaiser's daughter herself answered: There are two potters in our city, one makes Kelim out of water, and the other out of clay. Which is better?

(b)Kaiser: The one who makes Kelim out of water is better.

(c)His daughter: If he makes Kelim out of water, and all the more so he can make out of clay. Likewise, Hash-m can make people out of a drop of semen, and all the more so he can make out of dirt!

(d)(Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): Glass Kelim are made through the breath of man. If they are broken, they can be fixed. People are made through the Ru'ach of Hash-m, and all the more so if they die, they can be revived!

(e)Question (a Min): You say that the dead will live. They are dirt! Dirt does not live!

(f)Answer (R. Ami): A parable explains this. A king told his servants to build palaces in a place where there is no water or dirt. They did so. Later, they fell. He told them to rebuild them in a place with water or dirt; they said that they cannot.

1.The king was angry. If you can build where there is no water or dirt, and all the more so where there is! (Likewise, Hash-m makes living people out of a puny drop of semen (alternatively - he made the world out of nothing), and all the more so he can make people from dirt!)

2.R. Ami: If you do not believe me (that Hash-m can make life from dirt) go look at a (special kind of) mouse (that spontaneously generates) that is currently half-dirt. Later, it will be a full mouse!

3.Suggestion: Perhaps Hash-m needs much time to make life from dirt.

4.Rejection: Look on the mountain. There is only (Aruch - not even) one Chilazon (Rashi - the sea worm from which we get dye for Techeiles; Aruch - locust; Ramah - a spontaneously generating land creature). Tomorrow, rain will fall, and the mountain will be full of them!

(g)A Min (to Gaviha ben Pasisa): You say that the dead will live. The living die, and all the more so the dead will not live!

(h)Gaviha: You say that the dead will not live. Those who were never alive come to life, and all the more so those who already lived!


(a)(Beraisa): On Nisan 24 the marauders' claims were silenced. Africans (Girgashim, a Kena'ani nation that fled to Africa when Bnei Yisrael entered Eretz Yisrael) came to debate with Yisrael in front of Alexandrus Mukdon.

1.The Africans: Eretz Yisrael is "Eretz Kena'an li'Gvuloseha." It belongs to us, for we descend from Kena'an!

(b)Gaviha ben Pasisa asked Chachamim 'allow me to answer them. If they defeat me, you can say that they defeated a commoner. If I win, you can say that the Torah defeated them!' Chachamim agreed.

1.Gaviha: What is your source that Eretz Kena'an belongs to you?

2.The Africans: The Torah.

3.Gaviha: Also I will bring a proof from the Torah! "Arur Kena'an Eved Avadim Yihyeh l'Echav" - a slave's properly belongs to its master! Also, you owe us for many years that you have not worked for us!

4.The Africans asked Alexandrus for three days to find an answer. They did not find an answer. They fled, leaving their fields and vineyards (in Eretz Yisrael) planted. (It was Shemitah, and the Peros were very useful.)

(c)Similarly, Miztrayim came to debate with Yisrael in front of Alexandrus Mukdon. Chachamim allowed Gaviha to answer.

1.Miztrayim: "...Va'Yash'ilum" - return the gold and silver that you borrowed! (Rashbam and R. Yonah - really, "va'Yash'ilum" means that Yisrael requested gifts. Gaviha answered them according to their misunderstanding that it was a loan.)

2.Gaviha: Your source that we borrowed from you is the Torah, and it says "u'Moshav Bnei Yisrael...b'Miztrayim..." - you owe us wages for 600,000 people working for 430 years!

3.Miztrayim asked for three days to find an answer. They did not find an answer. They fled, leaving their fields and vineyards planted (it was Shemitah).

(d)Bnei Yishmael and Bnei Keturah came to debate with Yisrael in front of Alexandrus Mukdon. Chachamim allowed Gaviha to answer.

1.Bnei Yishmael and Bnei Keturah: We are partners with you in Eretz Yisrael. "V'Eleh Toldos Yishmael ben Avraham... v'Eleh Toldos Yitzchak ben Avraham"!

2.Gaviha: Also I will bring a proof from the Torah! "Va'Yiten Avraham Es Kol Asher Lo l'Yitzchak veli'Vnei ha'Pilagshim... Matanos (va'Yshalchem... El Eretz Kedem)" - if a father divided his properly among his children and sent them away from each other, neither has any claim to what the other received!

i.Question: What gifts did he give to them?

ii.Answer (R. Yirmeyah bar Aba): He gave them the Shem Tum'ah (witchcraft).


(a)Antoninus (the Roman emperor who was a Talmid of Rebbi): The body and Neshamah can each exempt itself from judgment!

1.The body can say 'the Neshamah sinned. Since it left me, I have sat in the grave like a rock!'

2.The Neshamah can say 'the body sinned. Since I left it, I have been flying like a bird (without sinning)!'

(b)Rebbi: A parable answers this. A king had a nice orchard. He appointed two guards, one lame and one blind. The lame man said to the blind man 'there are nice figs here. Carry me. I will take them, and we will eat them.' They did so.


1.Later, the king came and saw that the figs were missing. The lame man said 'I could not walk to take them.' The blind man said 'I could not see them to take them.' The king put the lame man on the blind man and judged them (for together, they can see and walk).

2.Similarly, Hash-m will put the Neshamah in the body and judge them together - "Yikra El ha'Shamayim me'Al" refers to the Neshamah, and "v'El ha'Aretz la'Din Amo" refers to the body.

(c)Antoninus: Why does the sun rise in the east and set in the west?

(d)Rebbi: Also if it were the opposite, you would ask me why!

(e)Antoninus: I ask, why doesn't it make a full circle and set in the place it started?

(f)Rebbi: It goes to greet its Maker (the Shechinah is in the west) - "u'Tzva ha'Shamayim Lecha Mishtachavim."

(g)Antoninus: Why doesn't it go to the middle of the sky, bow and set there (it is normal to bow from a distance)!

(h)Rebbi: If so, people would not know when it is about to set. This would cause problems for workers and travelers.

(i)Question (Antoninus): When is the Neshamah put in a person? Is it at the time of Pekidah (Rashi - when Hash-m decrees the nature of the person that will result from the drop of semen; Ramah - conception), or at the time the fetus is formed?

(j)Answer #1 (Rebbi): It is when the fetus is formed.

(k)Rejection (Antoninus): A piece of unsalted meat cannot stand for three days. Likewise, if the Neshamah did not enter the drop of semen immediately, it would rot.

(l)Answer #2 (Antoninus): Rather, it enters at the time of Pekidah.

(m)(Rebbi): A verse supports you - "u'Fkudasecha Shomrah Ruchi."

(n)Question (Antoninus): When does the Yetzer ha'Ra begin to rule over a person. Is it when the fetus is formed, or at birth?

(o)Answer #1 (Rebbi): It is when the fetus is formed.

(p)Rejection (Antoninus): If so, it would kick in the womb and leave prematurely!

(q)Answer #2 (Antoninus): Rather, it rules from birth.

(r)(Rebbi): A verse supports you - "la'Pesach Chatas Rovetz."


(a)Contradiction (Reish Lakish): It says "(Hash-m will gather the exiles) Bam Iver u'Pise'ach (implying that they are still blemished)...", and it says "Az Yedaleg ka'Ayal Pise'ach (which implies that they are healed)"!

(b)Resolution: They will be revived blemished, and then Hash-m will heal them.

(c)Contradiction (Ula): It says "Bilah ha'Maves la'Netzach", and it says "ha'Na'ar Ben Me'ah Shanah Yamus"!

(d)Resolution: Death will cease from Yisrael. Nochrim will live long (but not eternal) lives.

(e)Question: Will Nochrim be in the world to come?!

(f)Answer: Yes. They will serve us - "v'Omdu Zarim v'Ra'u Tzonchem..."

(g)Contradiction (Rav Chisda): It says "v'Chofrah ha'Levanah u'Voshah haChamah" (they will be dim), and it says "v'Hayah Ohr ha'Levanah k'Or haChamah... Shiv'asayim k'Or Shiv'as ha'Yamim"!

(h)Resolution #1: In Yemos ha'Mashi'ach they will be bright. In the world to come they will appear dim (due to the great radiance of Tzadikim).

(i)Resolution #2: According to Shmuel, who says that the only difference between this world and Yemos ha'Mashi'ach is that the kingdoms will cease to rule over Yisrael, both refer to the world to come;

1.In the place of Tzadikim they will be bright, in the place of the Shechinah they will appear dim.

(j)Contradiction (Rava): It says "Ani Amis va'Achayeh" (blemished people will be revived (blemished) like they were), and it says "Machatzti va'Ani Erpa" (they will be healed)!

(k)Resolution: First Hash-m will revive people the way He killed them. Then, He will heal what He struck.


(a)(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps "Ani Amis va'Achayeh" is like we find in this world, that Hash-m brings new (babies) to life, but not people who He killed!

(b)Rejection "Machatzti va'Ani Erpa" - just like He will heal the same people He struck, he will bring to life the same people He killed;

1.This refutes those who say that there is no source in Torah for Techiyas ha'Mesim.

(c)(Beraisa - R. Meir): A source in Torah for Techiyas ha'Mesim is "Az Yashir Moshe" (the future tense).

1.Similarly, "Az Yivneh Yehoshua Mizbe'ach...", is a source for Techiyas ha'Mesim.

2.Question: It also says "Az Yivneh Shlomo Bamah li'Chmosh Shikutz Mo'av." Surely this does not allude to the future!

3.Answer: The Torah considers it as if he built a Bamah (because he did not stop his wives from serving idolatry).

(d)(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): A source in Torah for Techiyas ha'Mesim is "Ashrei Yoshvei Veisecha Od Yehalelucha" (future tense).

(e)(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Anyone who sings Shirah in this world merits to sing in the world to come - "Od Yehalelucha (those who sang will sing again)."

(f)(R. Chiya bar Aba): A source in Torah for Techiyas ha'Mesim is "Kol Tzofayich Nos'u Kol Yachdav Yeranenu."