[91a - 53 lines; 91b - 56 lines]

1)[line 1]ברתיהBARTEI- his daughter

2)[line 1]שבקיה ואנא מהדרנאSHAVKEI- leave him, and I will respond [to his question]

3)[line 2]יוצריםYOTZRIM- potters

4)[line 3]טיטTIT- clay

5)[line 3]משובחMESHUBACH- more praiseworthy

6)[line 4]צרTZAR- narrow

7)[line 6]כלי זכוכיתKLEI ZECHUCHIS- glass vessels

8)[line 7]שעמלןSHE'AMALAN- that their labor

9)[line 7]בשר ודםBASAR V'DAM- flesh and blood (i.e. a human being)

10)[line 8]תקנהTAKANAH- a way to be fixed

11)[line 13]פלטרין גדוליםPALTERIN GEDOLIM- great palaces

12)[line 14]לימיםL'YAMIM- some days later

13)[line 15]נפלוNAFLU- they (the palaces) collapsed

14)[line 20]לבקעהL'BIK'AH- to the plain (of an open field)

15)[line 20]עכברACHBAR- mouse (RASHI here defines this as a squirrel; some sources include a rat in the definition of Achbar as well)

16)[line 21]חציו בשר וחציו אדמהCHETZYO BASAR V'CHETZYO ADAMAH- half of it is flesh and half of it is earth

17)[line 21]למחר השריץ ונעשה כולו בשרL'MACHAR HISHRITZ V'NA'ASEH KULO BASAR- the next day, it turns into a creeping creature and becomes entirely flesh; see Insights

18)[line 23]חלזוןCHILAZON- the underwater snail murex trunculus, from which Techeles is made (see Insights to Menachos 44:1)

19)[line 23]נתמלא כולו חלזונותNISMALEI KULO CHILZONOS- its entirety became full of Chilazons

20)[line 23]אמר ליה ההוא מינאAMAR LEI HA'HU MINA- a certain heretic said to him

21)[line 24]לגביהא בן פסיסאL'GEVIHA BEN PESISA- Geviha ben Pesisa, a very wise scholar

22)[line 24]ווי לכון חייביאVAI LECHON CHAYAVAYA- woe to you sinners

23)[line 24]דאמריתון מיתי חייןD'AMRISON MEISEI CHAYIN- that you say the dead will live

24)[line 25]אמר ליה חייביא קרית ליAMAR LEI CHAYAVAYA KARIS LI?- he (the heretic) said to him, "Did you call me a sinner?"

25)[line 25]אי קאימנא בעיטנא בךIY KA'IMNA BA'ITNA BACH- if I would stand up, I would kick you

26)[line 26]ופשיטנא לעקמותך מינךU'FASHITNA LA'AKMUSACH MINACH- and I would straighten out your hump from upon you. (Geviha was a hunchback. The heretic was saying that although he denied that the resurrection will take place, if he would be resurrected he would straighten out Geviha's hump for him; see HAGAHOS YA'AVETZ.)

27)[line 26]רופה אומן תקראROFEI UMAN TIKRA- you will be called a skillful healer

28)[line 26]ושכר הרבה תטול -U'SECHAR HARBEH TITOL- and lots of reward you would take (for your medical services)

29)[line 27]בעשרים וארבעה בניסן איתנטילו דימוסנאי מיהודה ומירושלים -B'ESRIM V'ARBA'AH B'NISAN ISNATILU DIMOSNA'EI MI'YEHUDAH UMI'YERUSHALAYIM- on the twenty-fourth of Nisan, the challengers were removed from Judea and from Jerusalem. (According to the ARUCH, they were foreign governors who had ruled in Jerusalem until that day.)

30)[line 27]כשבאו בני אפריקיא לדון עם ישראל לפני אלכסנדרוס מוקדוןKESHE'BA'U BENEI AFRIKIYA LA'DUN IM YISRAEL LIFNEI ALEXANDRUS MOKDON- when the Africans came to contend with the Jews in front of Alexander the Macedonian

31)[line 28]ארץ כנען שלנו היאERETZ KENA'AN SHELANU HI- [the Africans claimed,] "The land of Canaan is ours!"

32)[line 28]וכנען אבוהון דהנהו אינשיU'CHENA'AN AVUHON D'HANHU INSHEI- And Kena'an was the ancestor of these very people [the Africans, standing before you]

33)[line 29) ואלך ואדון עמהם V'ELECH V'ADUN IMAHEM - and I will go and debate with them 34) [line 30]אם ינצחוניIM YENATZCHUNI- if they defeat me in the debate

35)[line 30]הדיוט שבנו נצחתםHEDYOT SHE'BANU NITZACHTEM- an ordinary person among us you have defeated (i.e. your victory is meaningless)

36)[line 31]מהיכן אתם מביאים ראייהME'HECHAN ATEM MEVI'IM RE'AYAH?- from where do you bring a proof [that the former land of Canaan belongs to you]?

37)[line 32]עבד שקנה נכסים עבד למי ונכסים למיEVED SHE'KANAH NECHASIM EVED L'MI U'NECHASIM L'MI- a slave that acquires property, to whom does the slave belong and to whom belongs the property belong? (Clearly, both the slave and the property belong to the master. Accordingly, since your ancestor Kena'an was the slave of Shem and Yefes, the land belongs to us, the descendants of Shem.)

38)[line 32]כמה שנים שלא עבדתונוKAMAH SHANIM SHE'LO AVADTUNU- it is many years that you have not served us. (We therefore lay claim to compensation for the many years of servitude that you owe us.)

39)[line 33]החזירו לו תשובהHECHEZIRU LO TESHUVAH- respond to them with an answer

40)[line 34]והינוחו שדותיהן כשהן זרועות וכרמיהן כשהן נטועות ואותו שנה שביעית היתהV'HENICHO SEDOSEIHEN K'SHE'HEN ZERU'OS V'CHARMEIHEN K'SHE'HEN NETU'OS V'OSO SHANAH SHEVI'IS HAYESAH- they abandoned their fields when they were sown, and their vineyards when they were planted, and that year was Shemitah. (Consequently, the Jews, who are not allowed to work the land during the Shemitah year and food is scarce during that year, were left with an unexpected supply of food.)

41)[line 34]שוב פעם אחתSHUV PA'AM ACHAS- and yet another time. (Hagahos ha'Gra omits these words, because in Megilas Ta'anis it is recorded that all of these debates happened at the same time, when the Yishmaelim joined with the Africans and Egyptians in petitioning Alexander against the Jews.)

42)[line 36]וישאילום"VA'YASH'ILUM"- "and they lent them." (Shemos 12:36) The verse relates that the Jewish people found favor in the eyes of the Egyptians, and the Egyptians lent them gold and silver which the Jews never returned.

43)[line 41]שכר עבודהSECHAR AVODAH- wages for the labor

44)[line 41]ששיעבדתםSHE'SHIBADETEM- that you enslaved

45)[line 41]שלשים שנה וארבע מאות שנהSHELOSHIM SHANAH V'ARBA ME'OS SHANAH- 430 years. (Geviha spoke of 430 years of enslavement, even though the Jews were in Egypt for only 210 years, and the period of enslavement was even shorter. See MAHARSHA.)

46)[line 49]בני הפלגשיםBENEI HA'PILAGSHIM- sons of the concubines. (Both Yishmael and the sons of Ketura were sons of concubines.)

47)[line 49]אגטיןAGATIN- legacy documents. A father may distribute his property in writing among his sons so that there should be no dispute as to how to divide the estate after his death. (See RASHI, MAHARSHA)

48)[line 49]ושגר זה מעלזהV 'SHIGER ZEH ME'AL ZEH- and then he sent one son away from the other (to prevent rivalry after his death)

49)[line 50]כלום יש לזה על זהKELUM YESH LA'ZEH AL ZEH?- does one son have any claim whatsoever over the other? (You have no claim to Eretz Yisrael, since Avraham gave your ancestors part of his possessions and then sent them out of Eretz Yisrael to a different land.)

50)[line 50]שם טומאהSHEM TUM'AH- he gave them secrets of sorcery and demons

51)[line 51]לפטור עצמן מן הדין -LIFTOR ATZMAN MIN HA'DIN- to exempt themselves from judgment

52)[line 51]חטאתCHATA'AS- [the soul] sinned

53)[line 51]שפירשה ממניSHE'PIRSHAH MIMENI- which has separated from me (the soul has departed from the body)

54)[line 52]מוטל כאבן דומםMUTAL K'EVEN DOMEM- it is lying like a silent rock [in the grave, unable to move and sin]

55)[line 53]פרדס נאהPARDES NA'EH- a beautiful orchard

91b----------------------------------------91b

56)[line 1]בכורות נאותBECHOROS NA'OS- beautiful early figs

57)[line 1]והושיבV'HOSHIV- and he stationed [in the orchard]

58)[line 2]חיגרCHIGER- a lame person

59)[line 2]סומאSUMA- a blind person

60)[line 4]והרכביניV'HARKIVENI- and mount me [on your shoulders]

61)[line 4]ונביאםUNEVI'EM- and we will bring them

62)[line 10]וזורקאV'ZORKA- and throws it (the soul into the body)

63)[line 14]חמה יוצאה במזרח ושוקעת במערבCHAMAH YOTZA'AH BA'MIZRACH V'SHOKA'AS BA'MA'ARAV- why does the sun rise in the east and set in the west?

64)[line 15]נמי הכי הוהNAMI HACHI HAVAH- you would have asked me this question also (i.e. why does the sun rise in the west and set in the east?)

65)[line 16]הכי קאמינא לךHACHI KA'AMINA LECHA- this is what I meant to say to you

66)[line 17]כדי ליתן שלום לקונהKEDEI LITEN SHALOM L'KONAH- in order to offer greetings to its Creator. HaSh-m's Presence resides in the west, as it dwells on the Holy Ark in the Holy of Holies (see Rashi to Bava Basra 25a)

67)[line 18]ותיתי עד פלגא דרקיעV'SEISI AD PALGA D'RAKI'A- then it should travel to the middle of the sky (halfway between east and west)

68)[line 18) ותעול V'TE'OL - and then set there. The sun should not descend all the way to the west but should bow from the highest point by descending slightly to the west and set immediately at that point (RASHI) 69) [line 20]עוברי דרכיםOVREI DERACHIM- wayfarers. Had the sun set from the middle of the sky, there would be an abrupt shift from sunshine to darkness. This would adversely affect the workers and wayfarers, who would have no warning that night is about to fall so that they could return home or seek a place to stay before dark. By the sun setting gradually, it alerts them to the advent of night and enables them to plan accordingly (RASHI)

70)[line 21]משעת פקידהMI'SHE'AS PEKIDAH- from the time of conception (i.e. from the moment the angel appointed to oversee conception turns his attention to the human and brings the single cell before HaSh-m, Who decrees what its physical and intellectual qualities will be)

71)[line 22]יצירהYETZIRAH- [or at the time of the embryo's] formation [it receives a soul]

72)[line 24) מסרחת MASRACHAS - rots 73) [line 28]שולטSHOLET- rules over; influences

74)[line 36]מאי בעו התםMAI BA'U HASAM- what are they doing there?

75)[line 39]לימות המשיחLI'YEMOS HA'MASHI'ACH- for the days of Mashi'ach, the era when the Jews will be redeemed from the subjugation of the nations (RASHI)

76)[line 39]לעולם הבאLA'OLAM HA'BA- for the World to Come

77)[line 40]שיעבוד גליותSHIBUD GALUYOS- the subjugation of the Jews in the various exiles

78)[line 40]מחנה צדיקיםMACHANEH TZADIKIM- the camp of the righteous

79)[line 40]מחנה שכינהMACHANEH SHECHINAH- the camp of the Divine Presence

80)[line 41]מחצתיMACHATZ'TI- that I wounded

81)[line 45]שרSHAR- he sang

82)[line 46]"AZ YIVNEH YEHOSHUA MIZBE'ACH LA'HASH-M B'HAR EIVAL" - "Then Yehoshua built a Mizbe'ach to HaSh-m on Har Eival." (Yehoshua 8:30) (HAR EIVAL)

(a)Immediately after crossing the Jordan River, Yehoshua built a Mizbe'ach to Hash-m on Har Eival, using the twelve giant stones that the people took from the riverbed as they crossed the river. They sacrificed Olos and Shelamim on the Mizbe'ach, and inscribed the Mishneh Torah (Sefer Devarim) on the stones.

(b)The Kohanim who carried the Aron positioned themselves between the two mountains, Har Gerizim and Har Eival (see Background to Sotah 32:8), while the rest of the Jewish people, including the elders, the judges, the law-officers and the converts, surrounded them. Half of the tribes of Yisrael (Shimon, Levi, Yehudah, Yisachar, Yosef, and Binyamin) ascended the slopes of Har Gerizim, and the other half (Reuven, Gad, Asher, Zevulun, Dan, and Naftali) ascended the slopes of Har Eival.

(c)The Kohanim then faced Har Gerizim and announced in a loud voice the first of the curses listed in Parshas Ki Savo in the form of a Berachah ("Blessed be the man who does not make for himself an image..."), and all of the people replied in a loud voice, "Amen." They then faced Har Eival and announced the curse in its original form, and all of the people answered in a loud voice, "Amen." In this manner they proclaimed each of the thirteen curses mentioned there, one at a time, first in the form of a blessing then in the form of a curse.

(d)Yehoshua then read the Parshah of Berachah ("v'Hayah Im Shamo'a Tishma") and Kelalah ("v'Hayah Im Lo Tishma") in Parshas Ki Savo in the presence of all of Yisrael - men, women, children and converts.

(e)This event also served as the initiation of the principle of Arvus, which requires that every Jew take responsible for the other's spiritual wellbeing.

83)[line 47]"AZ YIVNEH SHLOMO BAMAH LI'CHEMOSH SHIKUTZ MOAV BA'HAR ASHER AL PENEI YERUSHALAYIM, UL'MOLECH SHIKUTZ BENEI AMON" - "Then Shlomo built a Bamah to Kemosh, the god of Moav, on the mountain that faced Yerushalayim, and to Molech, the god of the sons of Amon." (Melachim I 11:7) (THE BAMOS OF SHLOMO HA'MELECH)

(a)Although Shlomo himself did not build these Bamos, the prophet ascribes them to him because he allowed his foreign wives to build them. Indeed, these were not the only Bamos to which he turned a blind eye; as the verse itself relates, he allowed all of his foreign wives to sacrifice to their gods.

(b)HaSh-m was particularly angry with Shlomo ha'Melech, because "his heart now turned away from the G-d of Yisrael" who had appeared to him on two occasions with specific instructions not to follow other gods.

(c)HaSh-m sent a prophet to inform Shlomo that as a result of his laxity, He would tear his kingdom into two parts, and give one half to his own servant (Yerav'am ben Nevat). However, in the merit of his righteous father, David ha'Melech, this punishment would not happen during his lifetime but in the days of his son, Rechav'am. Moreover, He would leave him one tribe, both for the sake of David and for the sake of Yerushalayim, which He had chosen. Since the Beis ha'Mikdash was destined to be built in the portion of his tribe, Yehudah, and partially in the portion of Binyamin, it was befitting for the two tribes to remain under the same sovereignty.

84)[line 48]מעלה עליו הכתובMA'ALEH ALAV KASUV- the Torah regards him as...

85)[line 49]היללוךHILELUCHA- they have praised You

86)[line 52]ריננוRINENU- they sang

87)[line 54]המונעHA'MONE'A- one who withholds

88)[line 56]עובריןUBARIN- fetuses

89)[line 56]מונע בר יקבוהו לאום"MONE'A BAR YIKVUHU LE'OM [U'VRACHAH L'ROSH MASHBIR]"- "He who withholds food, the nation will curse him, [and a blessing on the head of the one who provides food]." (Mishlei 11:26). As the Gemara goes on to expound, the word "Bar" ("food") in the verse is an allusion to Torah, and thus the verse refers to one who withholds Torah teachings from a student.

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