[90a - 58 lines; 90b - 56 lines]
1)[line 1]מחלוקת בעוקר הגוף דעבודת כוכבים, וקיום מקצת וביטול מקצת דעבודת כוכביםMACHLOKES B'OKER HA'GUF DA'AVODAS KOCHAVIM V'KIYUM MIKTZAS U'VITUL MIKTZAS DA'AVODAS KOCHAVIM - Rebbi Shimon and the Chachamim argue about a false prophet who totally uproots (claims that HaSh-m permitted) idolatry, or uproots some prohibitions of idolatry and leaves others
(a)Rav Chisda holds that the verse, "And that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams, shall be put to death; because he has spoken to turn you away from HaSh-m your G-d" (Devarim 13:6), refers specifically to subversion to idolatry (and not to subversion regarding other Torah commandments).
(b)Rav Chisda infers this from the opening verses of this section, which state: "If there should arise in your midst a prophet or a dreamer of a dream... saying, 'Let us follow the gods of others that you did not know and let us worship them!'" The subject of these verses clearly is idolatry. One who prophesies abrogation of other commandments, however, is not included in the laws of the subversive prophet, and he therefore is not subject to stoning. Rather, he receives strangulation, based on the section of the Torah regarding the false prophet, Devarim 18: 20-22.
2)[line 9]היכי משכחת להHEICHI MISHKACHAS LAH- how can you find it (such a case)? This rhetorical question points to a difficulty in setting up the case that has been formulated in the Mishnah or Beraisa under discussion.
3)[line 10]תרגמה רב חסדאTARGEMA RAV CHISDA- Rav Chisda interpreted [the Beraisa] to refer to the following positive commandment
4)[line 23]המתנבא לעקור דבר מן התורה, דברי הכל בחנקHA'MISNABEI LA'AKOR DAVAR MIN HA'TORAH, DIVREI HA'KOL B'CHENEK- one who prophesies to [totally] uproot a Mitzvah from the Torah is punished with Chenek, strangulation
5)[line 18]היום עיבדוהHA'YOM IVDUHA- serve (worship) it today (the prophet tells you to violate the prohibition of idolatry today)
6)[line 19]ולמחר בטלוהUL'MACHAR BITLUHA- and tomorrow (the prophet tells you), you may nullify the idol (i.e. abandon its worship). This is an example of a partial abrogation of the prohibition of idolatry, which is punishable by stoning according to the Chachamim, and by strangulation according to Rebbi Shimon.
7)[line 31]מר כדאית ליה, ומר כדאית ליהMAR KED'IS LEI, U'MAR KED'IS LEI- [the penalty according to] this authority (the Chachamim) is in accordance with their opinion (Sekilah), and according to that authority (Rebbi Shimon) is in accordance with his opinion (Chenek)
8)[line 37]עבורAVOR- transgress
9)[line 38]מעמיד לך חמהMA'AMID LECHA CHAMA- make the sun stand still (through sorcery)
10)[line 39]באמצע הרקיעהB'EMTZA HA'RAKI'A- in the middle of the sky
11)[line 39]על תשמע לוAL TISHMA LO- do not listen and consent to him (to the false prophet) (see RAMBAM, Hilchos Yesodei ha'Torah 9:5)
12)[line 40]הגיעה תורה לסוף דעתה של עבודת כוכביםHIGI'AH TORAH L'SOF DA'ATAH SHEL AVODAS KOCHAVIM- the Torah understood well the mindset of the prophets of idolatry, and realized that they would find ways to delude people into accepting idolatry by performing "wonders" through sorcery
13)[line 40]לפיכך נתנה תורה ממשלה בהLEFIKACH NASNAH TORAH MEMSHALAH BAH- therefore, the Torah granted dominion in this. That is, the Torah spoke of the prophets of idolatry as being able to perform great wonders in support of their cause.
14)[line 42]לעוברי רצונוOVREI RETZONO- those who transgress G-d's will
15)[line 42]חנניה בן עזורCHANANYAH BEN AZUR- the Torah teaches that even if an established and true Navi, such as Chananyah ben Azur, later sins and prophesies to serve idolatry, do not listen to him (even if he previously performed great wonders)
16)[line 43]זוממי בת כהןZOMEMEI BAS KOHEN - Edim Zomemim who falsely convicted a Bas Kohen (EDIM ZOMEMIM)
(a)If two witnesses testify to a crime or an event, and a later set of witnesses contradict their testimony by saying that the crime or event did not take place exactly as the first set of witnesses testified, all of the witnesses are termed Edim Mukchashin (contradictory witnesses), and Beis Din cannot use either testimony.
(b)If, however, two witnesses testify to a crime or an event and a later set of witnesses disqualify that testimony by saying that the first set of witnesses were with them in a different place at the time that the first set of witnesses claim that the act took place, the first witnesses are termed Edim Zomimin (conspiring witnesses). The Torah commands that the second set of witnesses are believed, rather than the first. In general, Edim Zomemin are punished with the punishment they tried to cause. (Devarim 19:16-21. See Mishnah Makos 5a.)
(c)In the case of the Gemara here, a pair of witnesses appear in court and testify that a certain woman, the daughter of a Kohen, committed adultery. The woman, if convicted, would be executed with Sereifah (burning). A second set of witnesses discredits the first through Hazamah; the second witnesses state that the first witnesses could not have seen the alleged event because at the time they claim that it occurred, they were in a different place. Although the first witnesses become Edim Zomemim, the Torah teaches they are not executed with Sereifah, the punishment they tried to impose upon the woman. Rather, they are executed with Chenek (strangulation), the punishment which the woman's partner would have received.
17)[line 44]זוממיהן ובועליהןZOMEMEIHEN U'VO'ALEIHEN- in all other cases of the death penalty, Edim Zomemim, and, in cases of forbidden relations, the partner in the relations, always receive the same death penalty
18)[line 44]כיוצא בהןKA'YOTZEI BA'HEN- they are treated the same. That is, they are executed by the same method as the offender herself.
19)[line 44]בת כהן היא בשריפה ואין בועלה בשריפהBAS KOHEN HI B'SEREIFAH V'EIN BO'ALAH B'SEREIFAH (SEREIFAS BAS KOHEN)
The daughter of a Kohen who commits adultery is put to death. She does not receive the death penalty of Chenek (choking), as in other cases of adultery, but rather Sereifah (molten lead is poured in her throat), as it states in Vayikra 21:9. Her adulterer is not punished with Sereifah but with Chenek.
20)[line 45]זוממין איני יודע אם לו הוקשו אם לה הוקשוZOMEMIN EINI YODE'A IM LO HUKSHU IM LAH HUKSHU- I do not know whether Edim Zomemim are associated with him (and receive his punishment) or are associated with her (and receive her punishment).
21)[line 46]"לעשות לאחיו" לאחיו ולא לאחותו"LA'ASOS L'ACHIV," L'ACHIV V'LO L'ACHOSO- [the verse teaches that Edim Zomemim are punished with the punishment which he attempted] "to do to his brother" and not [with the punishment which he attempted to do] "to his sister." (According to RASHI, this applies only when the Edim Zomemim convicted both the man and the woman with their testimony. According to TOSFOS (51b), this applies even when the Edim Zomemim convicted only convicted the woman.)
PEREK #11 CHELEK
22)[line 49]ואפיקורוסAPIKORUS- heretic
23)[line 49]הקורא בספרים החיצוניםHA'KOREI BI'SEFARIM HA'CHITZONIM- one who reads foreign books. The Gemara will explain this further on Daf 102b.
24)[line 49]והלוחש על המכהHA'LOCHESH AL HA'MAKAH- one who whispers on his wound [to heal himself]. He whispers the verse, "Any of the diseases that I placed in Egypt, I will not bring upon you, for I am HaSh-m your healer" (Shemos 15:26; Rashi Shevuos 15b).
25)[line 51]ההוגה את השם באותיותיוHA'HOGEH ES HA'SHEM B'OSIYOSAV- one who pronounces the Name of HaSh-m the way it is written
26)[line 52]"וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֵלָיו, [וַיֵּעָתֶר לוֹ] וַיִּשְׁמַע תְּחִנָּתוֹ וַיְשִׁיבֵהוּ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם לְמַלְכוּתוֹ; [וַיֵּדַע מְנַשֶּׁה כִּי ה' הוּא הָאֱ-לֹקִים]""VA'YISPALEL ELAV, [VA'YE'ASER LO] VA'YISHMA TECHINASO, VA'YESHIVEIHU YERUSHALAYIM L'MALCHUSO; [VA'YEDA MENASHEH KI HASH-M HU HA'ELKIM]" - "And he prayed to Him and He accepted [his prayer], and He listened to his supplication, and He returned him to Yerushalayim to his kingdom; then Menasheh knew that HaSh-m is G-d" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 33:13) (THE EVIL KING, MENASHEH)
(a)Menasheh was king over Yehudah for fifty-five years, and his reign was marked by evil and terror. Menasheh is considered one of the most wicked kings who ever ruled the Jewish people, despite the fact that his father was the righteous king, Chizkiyahu ha'Melech, and his mother was the daughter of the prophet, Yeshayahu. He built altars in honor of idols and led the nation astray. Although HaSh-m sent him many prophets to warn him to repent, he paid them no heed. He dismantled the Mizbe'ach in the Beis ha'Mikdash and removed with it the Heavenly fire that had burned on it since the days of Shlomo ha'Melech. He murdered his own grandfather, Yeshayahu ha'Navi, and he placed an idolatrous image in the Beis ha'Mikdash. (His sins will be discussed later in the Perek.) This act was the one which caused HaSh-m to finalize His decision to destroy the Beis ha'Mikdash four generations later.
(b)When Menasheh persistently refused to repent, HaSh-m sent the Assyrian army against him and his nation. They captured him with hunting-hooks and brought him in chains to Bavel. There, the Midrash explains, they tortured him mercilessly and placed him inside a large metal caldron perforated with holes, and they lit a fire around the caldron. Menasheh began to pray to every god that he knew, and when none of them answered him, he remembered HaSh-m. HaSh-m answered his prayers and returned him to Yerushalayim and restored his kingship to him.
(c)HaSh-m's salvation made a deep impression on Menasheh, and he sincerely repented for his former sins. He rebuilt certain sections of the outer wall of the City of David and fortified it, and he deployed defense forces in all of the cities of Yehudah. He removed all the foreign gods and the image that he had placed in the Beis ha'Mikdash. He also demolished all of the altars that he had built on Har ha'Bayis and throughout Yerushalayim. He then offered Korbanos (peace offerings and thanksgiving offerings) in the Beis ha'Mikdash, and he urged the people of Yehudah to serve HaSh-m.
(d)In spite of his Teshuvah, the Chachamim list Menasheh among the three kings who lost their portion in the World to Come. Apparently, his Teshuvah came too late to repair the harm that he had done during the first part of his reign.
27)[line 56]"וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלִישָׁע שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר ה'; [כֹּה אָמַר ה'] כָּעֵת מָחָר סְאָה סֹלֶת בְּשֶׁקֶל וְסָאתַיִם שְׂעוֹרִים בְּשֶׁקֶל בְּשַׁעַר שׁוֹמְרוֹן""VA'YOMER ELISHA, 'SHIM'U DEVAR HASH-M, [KO AMAR HASH-M:] KA'ES MACHAR SE'AH SOLES B'SHEKEL, V'SASAYIM SE'ORIM B'SHEKEL, B'SHA'AR SHOMRON'"- "And Elisha said, 'Listen to the word of HaSh-m: So said HaSh-m: At this time tomorrow a Se'ah of fine flour will cost a Shekel, and two Se'ah of barley will cost a Shekel, at the gate of Shomron'" (Melachim II 7:1).
28)[line 57]"וַיַּעַן הַשָּׁלִישׁ אֲשֶׁר [לַמֶּלֶךְ] נִשְׁעָן עַל יָדוֹ אֶת אִישׁ הָאֱלֹקִים וַיֹּאמַר, הִנֵּה ה' עֹשֶׂה אֲרוּבּוֹת בַּשָּׁמַיִם הֲיִהְיֶה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה; וַיֹּאמֶר הִנְּכָה רוֹאֶה בְּעֵינֶיךָ וּמִשָּׁם לֹא תֹאכֵל'""VA'YA'AN HA'SHALISH ASHER LA'MELECH NISH'AN AL YADO ES ISH HA'EL-KIM, VA'YOMAR, 'HINEI HASH-M OSEH ARUBOS BA'SHAMAYIM, HA'YIHYEH HA'DAVAR HA'ZEH?' VA'YOMER, 'HINECHA RO'EH B'EINECHA, U'MISHAM LO SOCHEL!'" - "And the officer on whom the king leaned answered the man of G-d and he said, 'Even if HaSh-m were to make skylights in the heavens, would such a thing happen?' To which he replied, 'Behold you will see it with your eyes, but you will not eat from it!'" (Melachim II 7:2) (THE OFFICER WHO SCOFFED)
(a)This incident took place in the time of the king Yehoram, the son of Achav. Shomron was under siege, and there was a severe food shortage. It had reached the point at which the head of a donkey sold for eighty silver pieces and a quarter Kav of pigeon dung for five. Elisha had predicted that at the same time on the morrow, there would be so much food available that one Se'ah of wheat flour and two Se'ah of barley flour would cost only one Shekel at the gate of Shomron. One of the king's officers scoffed when he heard this prediction: "Even if HaSh-m were to make skylights in the heavens, would such a thing happen?" Elisha responded that he would be punished for scoffing at the words of a prophet; he would see the prophecy take place, but he would not partake of the food.
(b)Meanwhile, Gechazi and his three sons were in a dilemma. They were lepers and were forbidden to enter the city. If they would remain outside of the city, they would die of starvation. If they would surrender to the Assyrians who were surrounding the city, they would probably be killed outright. They decided on the latter option, which at least gave them a slight chance of survival. When they arrived at the Assyrian encampment, they were surprised to find it completely devoid of soldiers. They entered the first tent they came to, and they ate and drank, and then they took silver, gold, and clothes and hid them.
(c)Realizing that it was wrong to keep the good news to themselves, they went immediately (even though it was the middle of the night) and announced their discovery to the gatekeeper, who passed the message to the king.
(d)At first, Yehoram suspected a trap. The Assyrians must be hiding in the fields, he reasoned, waiting for the starving Jews to leave Shomron to help themselves to the food in the deserted camp. When the Jews would come to get the food, the Assyrians would attack and massacre them. However, one of the king's servants convinced him that they had nothing to lose by sending a small detachment of men (who were destined to die anyway). The men set out on five of the few surviving horses.
(e)HaSh-m had caused the Assyrians to hear the tumultuous sound of an approaching army. Thinking that the Jews had hired mercenaries from the Chitim and the Egyptians, they fled via the Jordan River, leaving their entire camp intact. The small group sent by Yehoram discovered a long line of clothes and vessels that the fleeing Assyrian soldiers had discarded, which led all the way to the Jordan.
(f)Exactly as Elisha had predicted the day before, one Se'ah of wheat flour and two Se'ah of barley flour were sold for merely a Shekel at the gate of Shomron. The officer who scoffed indeed saw the food but did not partake of it; he was trampled underfoot, as the prophet had fortold.
29)[line 1]וירמסוVA'YIRMESU- and they trampled
30)[line 1]"וַיְהִי לוֹ כֵּן; וַיִּרְמְסוּ אוֹתוֹ הָעָם בַּשַּׁעַר וַיָּמוֹת""VA'YEHI LO KEN; VA'YIRMESU OSO HA'AM BA'SHA'AR VA'YAMOS"- "And that is what happened to him; the people trampled him to death at the gate" (Melachim II 7:20). See above, entry #28.
31)[line 5]על עשקי שערAL ISKEI SHA'AR- (a) because of the matters pertaining to the gate [as the people emerged to take food]; (b) because of matters pertaining to the price [that the Navi had predicted, and he had scoffed (MAHARSHA)]
32)[line 12]דבי רבי ישמעאל תנאD'VEI REBBI YISHMAEL TANA- the academy of Rebbi Yishmael taught
33)[line 12]לאהרן כאהרןL'AHARON K'AHARON- by stating that the Terumah is to be given to Aharon, the Torah indicates that Terumah is to be given specifically to a Kohen like Aharon
34)[line 13]חברCHAVER - a Talmid Chacham who is meticulous in his observance of Halachah (CHAVER)
A person is called a Chaver if he accepts upon himself four things: 1. never to give Terumah and Ma'asros to an Am ha'Aretz; 2. never to prepare Taharos in the vicinity of an Am ha'Aretz; 3. to always eat Chulin b'Taharah; 4. to take Ma'aser from all produce that one eats, sells, and buys (Tosefta Demai 2:2-3). The Gemara in Bechoros 30b explains exactly how one goes about accepting this distinguished status.
35)[line 15]עם הארץAM HA'ARETZ- ignoramus
36)[line 16]"וַיֹּאמֶר לָעָם לְיוֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם לָתֵת מְנָת [הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם], לְמַעַן יֶחֶזְקוּ בְּתוֹרַת ה'""VA'YOMER LA'AM L'YOSHVEI YERUSHALAYIM LA'SES MENAS HA'KOHANIM VEHA'LEVIYIM, LEMA'AN YECHEZKU B'SORAS HASH-M" - "And he said to the people, to the inhabitants of Yerushalayim, to give the portion of the Kohanim and the Leviyim, that they might give themselves firmly to the Torah of HaSh-m" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 31:4) (CHIZKIYAHU'S CAMPAIGN OF REPENTANCE)
(a)Following the reign of his wicked father Achaz, Chizkiyahu revived Torah study and Torah life in Yehudah. He organized a magnificent communal Korban Pesach, the likes of which had not been seen since the days of Shlomo ha'Melech. This caused great enthusiasm among the people, who then destroyed all the Matzeivos (altars of one stone), the Bamos, the Asheros (trees worshipped as idols), and the altars from the land of Yehudah, Binyamin, Efrayim, and Menasheh.
(b)Chizkiyahu had just reinstated the twenty-four groups of Kohanim and Leviyim, who served in weekly rotation in the Beis ha'Mikdash. He donated a large stock of burnt-offerings for the Korban Tamid, as well as for the Korban Musaf for Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh, and festivals. He then urged the people to give the Kohanim and the Leviyim the tithes that they were entitled to receive, so that these servants of HaSh-m be free to devote themselves entirely to their holy tasks. As the verse teaches, his efforts bore fruit and the people gave willingly. They even gave Terumos and Ma'aseros from all fruits and vegetables, something which the Torah did not command. (See Background to Makos 23:17.)
37)[line 17]מנתMENAS- portion
38)[line 25]גורם לו מיתהGOREM LO MISAH- [by giving Terumah to a Kohen Am ha'Aretz, one even] causes death to that Kohen
39)[line 27]מַשִּׂיאוֹ עון אשמהMASI'O AVON ASHAMAH- by giving Terumah to a Kohen Am ha'Aretz, one burdens that Kohen with sin and guilt (see RASHI)
40)[line 36]"וְחִכֵּךְ כְּיֵין הַטּוֹב, הוֹלֵךְ לְדוֹדִי לְמֵישָׁרִים; דּוֹבֵב שִׂפְתֵי יְשֵׁנִים""V'CHIKECH K'YEIN HA'TOV, HOLECH L'DODI L'MEISHARIM; DOVEV SIFSEI YESHENIM"- "And your palate [words] should be like the choicest wine, that causes a sleeper's lips to murmur; I am true to my beloved!" (Shir ha'Shirim 7:10). According to our Gemara, this refers to the stirring of the lips of those who sleep in the grave.
41)[line 36]רחושי מרחשן שפוותיהRICHUSHEI MERACHASHAN SEFAVOSEI- his lips quiver [in the grave] (but this does not prove that the person returns to life)
42)[line 39]מיכןMI'KAN- from this case or verse it may be derived
43)[line 42]תרווייהוTARVAIHU- the two of them; both of them
44)[line 43]נקוטו מיהא פלגא בידייכו, דיודע מה שעתיד להיותNEKOTU MIHA PALGA B'YADAICHU, D'YODE'A MAH SHE'ASID LIHEYOS- take [at least] half [of the proof] in your hands, that HaSh-m knows what will be in the future (because even you concede that the second part of the verse indicates HaSh-m's knowledge of the future) (see RASHI, MAHARSHA)
45)[line 46]זייפתי ספרי מיניםZIYAFTI SIFREI MINIM- I proved that the books (and views) of the heretics are false
46)[line 48]"[כִּי דְבַר ה' בָּזָה וְאֶת מִצְוָתוֹ הֵפַר;] הִכָּרֵת תִּכָּרֵת הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִיא, עֲוֹנָה בָהּ""... HIKARES TIKARES HA'NEFESH HA'HI, AVONAH VAH"- "[Because he has despised the word of HaSh-m, and has broken His commandment;] that soul shall utterly be cut off; his iniquity shall be upon him" (Bamidbar 15:31). See Background to Sanhedrin 83:6.
47)[line 49]ולימא להוLEIMA LEHU- let us say to them
48)[line 49]דברה תורה כלשון בני אדםDIBRAH TORAH K'LASHON BNEI ADAM - the Torah [in this instance] speaks in the manner of man
Every word in the Torah is holy and contains worlds of insights and nuances. However, certain sages of the Mishnah felt that there were some phrases recorded in the Torah that paralleled people's speech, and should not be used for homiletics or insights.
49)[line 54]ידענה דחיי שכביYADANA D'CHAYEI SHICHVEI- I know that the dead will come to life
50)[line 55]לבושיןLEVUSHIN- garments
51)[last line]קיסרKEISAR- the Roman Caesar. (The Roman emperors became known by the term "Keisar" after the almost absolute reign of Gaius Julius Caesar.)
52)[last line]עפראAFRA- dust