TENUFAH OF SHELAMIM
(Continuation of Beraisa): Question: How is Tenufah (of Shelamim) done?
Answer: The Eimurim (Chelev, Yoseres ha'Kaved and kidneys) are put on the hand. The chest and foreleg are put on top of them;
The bread is always on top.
Question: (We do not bring bread with a regular Shelamim.) What does this refer to?
Answer (Rav Papa): It refers to the Milu'im. (Shitah Mekubetzes - he did not say Eil Nazir or Todah, even though those apply for all generations, for we learn those from the Milu'im.)
Question: Why are the chest and foreleg on top of the Eimurim?
Answer: We learn from "Shok ha'Terumah va'Chaze ha'Tenufah Al Ishei ha'Chalavim Yavi'u Lehanif Tenufah."
Question: It also says "Es ha'Chelev Asher Al he'Chazeh Yevi'enu"! (The Chelev is on top.)
Answer (Abaye): The latter verse discusses when the Kohen brings them from the place of Shechitah, and flips them over (into the hands of another Kohen).
Question: It also says "va'Yasimu Es ha'Chalavim Al he'Chazos"!
Answer: The second Kohen flips them over into the hands of a third Kohen, who is Maktir them. (Griz asks that only the Chelev is Huktar!)
The verses teach that three Kohanim are used. The Avodah is more honorable this way - "b'Rav Am Hadras Melech."
TENUFAH OF SHTEI HA'LECHEM
(Mishnah): Shtei ha'Lechem and the two Kivsei Atzeres...
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps "v'Henif ha'Kohen Osam Al Lechem ha'Bikurim" teaches that the lambs are on top of the loaves!
Rejection: It says "Al Shnei Kevasim."
Suggestion: Perhaps this teaches that the loaves are on top of the lambs!
Contradiction: "Al Lechem ha'Bikurim." The verse contradicts itself. We do not know which must be on top!
Answer #1: We do as is done elsewhere. The bread is on top.
Question: Where do we find that the bread is on top?
Answer (Rav Papa): In the Milu'im it was on top.
Answer #2 (Continuation of Beraisa - R. Yosi ben ha'Meshulam): No, the lambs are on top.
Question: How do we fulfill "Al Shnei Kevasim"?
Answer: This (does not teach which is on top. It) merely excludes the seven Olos lambs brought with Shtei ha'Lechem (they are not waved).
Answer #3 (R. Chanina ben Chakinai): The loaves are placed between the thighs (one thigh is above them, and the other below) during Tenufah, to fulfil both verses.
Objection (Rebbi): One would not do this to bread to be served to a mortal king, and all the more so in Avodas Hash-m!
Answer #4 (Rebbi): Rather, the bread and lambs are waved side by side.
Question: This does not fulfill "Al" (in either part of the verse)!
Answer (Rav Chisda or Rav Hamnuna): This is like Rebbi taught elsewhere, that "Al" means 'near':
(Beraisa - Rebbi): "V'Nasata Al ha'Ma'areches (of Lechem ha'Panim) Levonah Zakah" - it is nearby.
Suggestion: Perhaps it literally means 'on'!
Rejection: "V'Sakosa Al ha'Aron Es ha'Paroches" (we know that the Paroches was not over the Aron! Surely) this means 'near'.
(Mishnah): He waves them outward and back to himself, and up and down...
(R. Chiya bar Aba): He waves them outward and back (Rashi - in all four directions; Ran - in two directions), to Hash-m, the Owner of the four directions. He waves them up and down, to the Owner of Heaven and earth;
(Rav Chama bar Ukva): He waves them outward and back, (to ask Hash-m) to withhold bad winds. He waves them up and down, to withhold bad dew.
(R. Yosi bar Rav Avin): This teaches that even a Mitzvah that is not Me'akev withholds punishments;
Tenufah is not Me'akev, yet it withholds bad winds and bad dew.
(Rabah): Also Lulav is shaken (with the other three species) in this way.
Rav Acha bar Yakov shook it this way and said 'Satan, this is an arrow in your eye!'
This was wrong. One should not taunt the Satan, lest this this incite the Satan against him.
TENUFAH OF SHALMEI TZIBUR
(Beraisa - Rebbi): Shalmei Tzibur have Tenufah (mi'Chayim, like the Torah explicitly says, and) after Shechitah. They are waved whole;
Chachamim say, (after Shechitah) only the chest and foreleg are waved.
Question: What do they argue about?
Answer #1 (Rav Chisda or Rav Hamnuna): Chachamim hold Dun Minah u'Minah (when a matter is learned from another matter, we learn everything from the source). Rebbi holds Dun Minah v'Uki b'Asra. (We learn from the source only what we must. Other laws are like the law of the matter being learned);
Chachamim learn from (regular) Shelamim that Tenufah is done after Shechitah. They also learn from there that only chest and foreleg are waved;
Also Rebbi learns Tenufah after Shechitah from Shelamim. However, he learns what is waved from Shalmei Tzibur themselves. (While alive, obviously the entire animal is waved.)
Answer #2 (Rav Papa): Also Rebbi holds Dun Minah u'Minah;
He learns from Shelamim that we wave the portion given to the Kohen. (There, only the chest and foreleg are given, but Kohanim eat all of Shalmei Tzibur.)
Answer #3 (Ravina): Even Chachamim hold Dun Minah v'Uki b'Asra;
"Shalmeihem" is an inclusion (there is another Shelamim, i.e. Shalmei Tzibur, in which only Chazah v'Shok are waved.)
(Mishnah - R. Shimon): There are three Korbanos and three Mitzvos. Exactly two Mitzvos apply to each of the Korbanos:
A regular Shelamim has Semichah mi'Chayim and Tenufah after Shechitah, but not Tenufah mi'Chayim;
Shalmei Tzibur have Tenufah mi'Chayim and after Shechitah, but not Semichah;
Asham Metzora has Semichah and Tenufah mi'Chayim, but not after Shechitah.
Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that (regular) Shelamim requires Tenufah mi'Chayim!
Shalmei Tzibur do not require Semichah, yet they require Tenufah mi'Chayim. Shelamim requires Semichah, all the more so it should require Tenufah mi'Chayim!
Rejection: Regarding Shalmei Tzibur it says "Osam." They require Tenufah mi'Chayim, but regular Shelamim do not.
Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that Shalmei Tzibur require Semichah (which is always) mi'Chayim!
Shelamim does not require Tenufah mi'Chayim, yet it requires Semichah. Shalmei Tzibur require Tenufah mi'Chayim, all the more so they should require Semichah!
Rejection (Ravina): A tradition from Sinai teaches that only two Korbanos Tzibur require Semichah (Par He'elam Davar and Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach).
Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that Asham Metzora requires Tenufah after Shechitah!
Shelamim do not require Tenufah mi'Chayim, yet they require Tenufah after Shechitah. Asham Metzora requires Tenufah mi'Chayim, all the more so it should require Tenufah after Shechitah!
Rejection: Regarding Shelamim it says "Oso". It requires Tenufah after Shechitah, but Asham Metzora does not.
(Beraisa): If five people brought one Korban, one of them does Tenufah on behalf of all of them;
The Kohen does Tenufah on behalf of a woman or one who sent his Korban with a Shali'ach from overseas.