MARCHESHES AND MACHAVAS
(Mishnah): One who says 'Alai b'Machavas (it is incumbent on me to bring a Minchah cooked) in a Machavas may not bring in a Marcheshes, and vice-versa.
Question: What is the difference between Machavas and Marcheshes?
Answer #1 (R. Yosi): A Marcheshes has a cover, a Machavas does not.
Answer #2 (R. Chanina ben Gamliel): A Marcheshes is deep. Bread cooked in it is springy (some texts - and soft). A Machavas is flat. Bread cooked on it is hard.
(Gemara) Question: What is R. Yosi's reason?
Suggestion: He learns from "Rachash Libi Davar Tov." 'Marcheshes' is brought (to atone) for 'Rechushei ha'Lev', i.e. hidden (sinful) thoughts in the heart;
'Machavas' is brought for 'Machbu'ei ha'Peh' (such as gossip, which is open), like people say 'Menave'ach Nevuchei'.
Rejection: We could learn oppositely! "Lamah Nachbeisa Livro'ach" teaches that Machavas is for Machbo'ei (hidden matters of) the heart;
Marcheshes is for Rechushei (moving, i.e. of the lips), like people say 'Merachashan Sifsosei';
Answer: He has a tradition from Sinai.
(Mishnah - R. Chanina ben Gamliel): A Marcheshes...
He learns that a Marcheshes is deep from "v'Chol Na'asah va'Marcheshes" (implying that the bread is inside);
He learns that a Machavas is flat from "v'Al Machavas." (The bread is on top, for the Kli has no interior.)
(Beraisa - Beis Shamai): One who says 'Alai Marcheshes' should not fulfill his vow until Eliyahu will come (and resolve our doubt);
We do not know if Marcheshes is the name of the pot (if so, he vowed to donate a pot to Hekdesh), or if it describes the consistency of the Minchah (and he vowed to bring a Minchah).
Beis Hillel say, it is the name of a pot;
It was like a deep pan with craters in which the dough would get cooked;
When the dough was inside, it looked like acorns.
Since it says "va'Marcheshes" and "v'Al Machavas" (the verse changes from 'in' to 'on'), this shows that these are names of Kelim.
THE MINCHAH MA'AFEH TANUR
(Mishnah): If one said 'Alai (to bring a Minchah baked) in a Tanur', he may not bring a Minchah baked in a Kupach (a small oven with room for one pot on top), on tiles or in pots of Aravim;
R. Yehudah says, he may bring a Minchah baked in a Kupach.
If one said 'Alai Minchas Ma'afeh (a Minchah baked in a Tanur)', he may not bring half Chalos and half Rekikim (rather, he must bring the whole Minchah from one of them);
R. Shimon permits this, for they are the same species of Minchah.
(Gemara - Beraisa): (One may bring) "Ma'afeh Tanur", but not something cooked in a Kupach, on tiles or in pots of Aravim;
R. Yehudah says, it says "Tanur" twice to be Machshir a Minchah baked in a Kupach;
R. Shimon says, it says "Tanur" twice. One teaches that they are baked in a Tanur. The other teaches that Hekdeshan b'Tanur. (The oven is Mekadesh them.)
Question: Does R. Shimon really hold that the Tanur is Mekadesh Menachos?! (Tosfos - there is only one Tanur in the Mikdash for all Menachos.)
(Mishnah - R. Shimon): Shtei ha'Lechem and Lechem ha'Panim may be baked in the Azarah, or in Beis Pagi (outside the Azarah. Opinions differ about how this shows that R. Shimon cannot hold that the oven is Mekadesh. Rashi - if so, the Lechem would be Nifsal due to Yotzei. Tosfos (9a) - if so, it would be a disgrace for the Lechem to be outside. Rambam (according to R. Akiva Eiger) - the Lechem would be Nifsal due to Linah (R. Shimon holds that Shtei ha'Lechem are not Docheh Yom Tov, so they must be baked before Yom Tov.) R. Gershom - Klei Shares are not Mekadesh outside, the bread would not become Kodesh.
Answer (Rava): 'Hekdeshan b'Tanur' means that one must be Mekadesh the flour with intent to bake it in a Tanur.
(Mishnah): If one said 'Alai Minchas Ma'afe', he may not bring half...
(Beraisa): "V'Chi Sakriv" connotes when you want to offer. (Ma'afeh Tanur is optional);
Question (R. Yehudah): What is the source that if one said 'Alai Minchas Ma'afe', he may not bring half Chalos and half Rekikim?
Answer #1 (R. Yehudah): "Korban Minchah" - it must be one Korban, and not two or three.
R. Shimon: If it said "Korban" regarding each of them twice, we would expound that way. However, it says "Korban" only once, and it says Chalos and Rekikim
This teaches that one may bring (only) Chalos, (only) Rekikim; or, half (really, some) of the 10 loaves Chalos, and the rest Rekikim;
When bringing some of each, they are crumbled up and kneaded together with oil. A Kometz is taken from the mixture, if the entire Kometz was from one of them it is valid.
Answer #2 (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah): "V'Chol Minchah Asher Te'afeh ba'Tanur v'Chol Na'asah va'Marcheshes v'Al Machavas...;V'Chol Minchah Velulah va'Shemen va'Charevah" - just like Marcheshes and Machavas (also Belulah and Charevah) are two distinct types of Menachos that may not be offered together, also what is mentioned beforehand (Ma'afeh Tanur, i.e. Chalos and Rekikim.)
Question: R. Shimon's objection is strong! (How does R. Yehudah answer it?)
Answer: R. Yehudah holds that since it says "Shemen" with each of them, it is as if it says Korban with each of them.
R. Shimon argues. Had it said Shemen only once, one might have thought that Ma'afeh Tanur must be brought half Chalos and half Rekikim.
Rather, it repeats "Shemen" (to interrupt, and thereby) teach that (alternatively,) either of them may be brought by itself.
Question: What do R. Yehudah and R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah argue about?
Answer: They argue about b'Di'eved. (R. Yehudah is Machshir if both were brought together, and R. Yosi is Posel.)
PEREK R. YISHMAEL
REAPING THE OMER
(Mishnah - R. Yishmael): If the day of the Omer (Nisan 16) is Shabbos, the Isaron is sifted from three Sa'im (of barley). On a weekday, it is sifted from five Sa'im.
Chachamim say, whether or not it is Shabbos, it is sifted from three Sa'im.
(The barley is reaped the previous night.) R. Chanina Segan ha'Kohanim says, on Shabbos one person reaps it using one sickle and one box. On a weekday three people reap it. Each uses his own sickle and his own box;
Chachamim say, whether or not it is Shabbos, three people reap it, each with his own sickle and box.
(Gemara) Question: Granted, Chachamim hold that a choice Isaron is sifted from three Sa'im, whether or not it is Shabbos;
What is R. Yishmael's opinion?
If he holds that a choice Isaron comes from five Sa'im, this should be done even on Shabbos. If it comes from three Sa'im, this should be done even on a weekday!
Answer (Rava): He holds that a choice Isaron is easily sifted from five Sa'im, but one must sift many times to get a choice Isaron from three Sa'im;
On a weekday, it is better to sift it from five. (Rashi - the entire Isaron will be very fine flour; Rashash - Hekdesh should not resemble a poor person who sifts many times to get as much as possible from a small amount);
On Shabbos (it is sifted from three, for) it is better to do more than is needed of one Melachah, (sifting) than to do more than is needed of many Melachos (to reap, winnow, select, grind and sift an extra two Sa'im).
(Rabah): R. Yishmael and R. Yishmael the son of R. Yochanan ben Brokah agree with each other:
(Beraisa - R. Yishmael, son of R. Yochanan ben Brokah): If Erev Pesach is on Shabbos, the Korban Pesach is flayed until the chest (on Shabbos). The rest is flayed at night;
Chachamim say, it is flayed entirely on Shabbos.
For the sake of the Omer, R. Yishmael allows a minimal exertion on Shabbos. Likewise, he would minimize exertion on Shabbos to flay Korban Pesach.