[63a - 46 lines; 63b - 38 lines]
1)[line 1]במחבתB'MACHAVAS (MINCHAS MACHAVAS)
(a)The Torah records five types of Minchas Nedavah, voluntary flour offerings (Vayikra 2:1-13). They are: Minchas Soles, Minchas Chalos, Minchas Rekikin, Minchas Machavas and Minchas Marcheshes.
(b)All of these Menachos require one Log of olive oil and a Kometz of Levonah. The oil is used in the kneading and the baking of the flour. A Kometz (separating a handful of the Minchah in a process called Kemitzah - see Background to Menachos 2:1:I:b) of the Minchah itself is burned on the Mizbe'ach, and the Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash by male Kohanim (since they have the status of Kodshei ha'Kodashim).
(c)The Minchas Machavas consists of ten Matzos baked in an oven on a pan called a Machavas, which has a central raised section. The portions of dough lie on the elevated part of the pan so that most of the olive oil drains off, causing the dough to bake into brittle Matzos. Levonah is added, Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 59:1a:c). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:5).
2)[line 2]במרחשתB'MARCHESHES (MINCHAS MARCHESHES)
(a)See above, entry #1:a-b.
(b)The Minchas Marcheshes consists of ten Matzos baked in an oven in a pan called a Marcheshes, which has ten deep sections filled with olive oil. The portions of dough lie in the deep parts of the pan and are baked in the olive oil, causing the dough to bake into soft Matzos. Levonah is added, and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 59:1a:c). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:7).
3)[line 3]כיסויKISUY- a cover
4)[line 5]עמוקהAMUKAH- it is deep (it has a section in which the oil can remain during most of the baking)
5)[line 5]מעשיה רוחשיןMA'ASEHA ROCHASHIN- its baked goods (that are produced in a Marcheshes) move [back and forth, if one were to touch them with a finger, since they are floating in oil at the beginning of the baking process]
6)[line 6](ורכין)(V'RAKIN)- and are soft
7)[line 6]צפהTZAFAH- the part of the pan on which the baked goods lie is "floating" with respect the sides of the pan, i.e. it has a raised section on which the oil is poured and the dough is placed
8)[line 6]מעשיה קשיןMA'ASEHA KASHIN- its baked goods (that are produced in a Machavas) are hard
9)[line 8]דאתיא ארחושי הלבD'ASYA A'RECHUSHEI HA'LEV- that is brought to atone for the thoughts of the heart, for example, intentions to sin
10)[line 8]"רָחַשׁ לִבִּי דָּבָר טוֹב ...""RACHASH LIBI DAVAR TOV ..."- "My heart is stirring with a good thing ..." (Tehilim 45:2)
11)[line 9]דאתיא אמחבואי הפהD'ASYA A'MACHBU'EI HA'PEH- that is brought to atone for the words of the mouth, for example, for Rechilus, tale bearing
12)[line 10]מנבח נבוחיMENABACH NEVUCHEI- (lit. barking; a derogatory term for a person's speech)
13)[line 11]"לָמָּה נַחְבֵּאתָ לִבְרֹחַ ...?""LAMAH NACHBEISA LIVRO'ACH ...?"- "Why did you surreptitiously flee ...?" (Bereishis 31:27) - Since the heart is hidden, it is possible to suggest that a Minchas Machavas is brought to atone for the hidden intentions of the heart
14)[line 12]דאתיא אמחבואיD'ASYA A'RECHUSHEI- that is brought to atone for the [sins of] speech
15)[line 13]הוה מרחשן שיפתותיהHAVAH MERACHASHAN (SIFSUSEI) [SIFVASEI]- his lips were moving
16)[line 14]גמרא גמירי להGEMARA GEMIREI LAH- we know it from the tradition that Moshe received on Mount Sinai (Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai)
17)[line 18]יהא מונח עד שיבא אליהוYEHEI MUNACH AD SHE'YAVO ELIYAHU- it (his vow) shall lay at rest until Eliyahu ha'Navi arrives, according to the tradition, "Eliyahu ha'Navi will answer difficulties and questions"
18)[line 21]כלבוסKALAVUS- a) a C-shaped frying pan with the handle attached to the middle of the back of the curve (RASHI according to the SHITAH MEKUBETZES); b) a three-legged frying pan (GILYON)
19)[line 22]תפוחי הברתיםTAPUCHEI (HA'BERASIM) [HA'BERASIYIM]- like the apples of a certain place (according to the Girsa HA'KEREISIM - Crete, based upon the verse in Tzefanyah 2:5 — YA'AVETZ) that were mostly round, but were flat on one end (since the ten sections of the Marcheshes were rounded indents, the pieces of dough in them were round underneath and flat on top)
20)[line 23]בלוטי היווניםBALUTEI HA'YEVANIM- Greek acorns (O.F. glanz - acorns), fruit of the oak tree (O.F. chesne - oak)
21)[line 26]בתנורB'TANUR - [a Minchah that was baked] in a [dome-shaped] oven, (the opening of which is on top) (MINCHAS MA'AFEH SANUR)
(a)See above, entry #1:a-b.
(b)The Minchas Chalos is one type of Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur, the Menachos that are baked upon the floor of a metal oven without a pan. A dough of flour and oil is kneaded with lukewarm water (TOSFOS to Menachos 47a DH Minchas, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 12:21, CHAZON ISH Menachos 34:1). It is then divided into ten Chalos (which are not Chametz) and baked. Next, the Chalos are folded and broken into pieces (Pesisah). Levonah is added, and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 59:1a:c). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:4).
(c)The Minchas Rekikin is the other type of Michas Ma'afeh Sanur. It differs from the Minchas Chalos in that the Rekikin are smeared with oil after the baking, before the Pesisah. Otherwise, its preparation is exactly like the Minchas Chalos (Vayikra 2:4).
22a)[line 26]מאפה כופחMA'AFEH KUPACH- the baked goods prepared in a Kupach, which is a one-burner stove. After it is heated, the coals are removed and the dough is inserted to bake (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos)
b)[line 27]מאפה רעפיםMA'AFEH RE'AFIM- the baked goods prepared on hot ceramic tiles (O.F. tiules) or stones. After they are heated, the dough is placed on them and one covers the dough to bake (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos)
c)[line 27]מאפה יורותMA'AFEH YOROS HA'ARAVIYIM- the baked goods prepared in the Arabian cauldrons, which are depressions dug into the ground that are plastered with mortar. When the fire inside becomes hot enough, the dough is placed on the plastered sides above the fire to bake (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos)
23)[line 29]מנחת מאפהMINCHAS MA'AFEH (MINCHAS MA'AFEH SANUR)
See above, entry #21.
24)[line 29]מחצה חלות ומחצה רקיקיןMECHETZAH CHALOS U'MECHETZAH REKIKIN- part of them (the ten Matzos of a Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur) are Chalos and part of them are Rekikin
25)[line 33]"תנור" "תנור" שני פעמים"TANUR" "TANUR" SHNEI PE'AMIM- the word "Tanur" appears two times in the verses, once in Vayikra (2:4) and once in Tzav (7:9) (as such, Rebbi Yehudah learns "Ein Mi'ut Achar Mi'ut Ela l'Rabos" (see Yoma 43a and Background to Shevuos 7:8), according to the Girsa of the BACH #4 in RASHI)
26)[line 36]שיהא הקדישן בתנורSHE'YEHEI HEKDESHAN BA'TANUR- that their consecration should be in the oven (when they are baked)
27)[line 38]לעולם הוי רגיל לומרL'OLAM HEVEI RAGIL LOMAR- "Always be accustomed to saying..." (the Gemara (Daf 96a) shows that this phrase indicates that this Halachah was a direct teaching of Rebbi Shimon's teacher (that the Shtei ha'Lechem and the Lechem ha'Panim (and the Menachos — see TOSFOS DH u'Kesheiros) need not be consecrated when they are baked; they may be baked in an oven that is not a Keli Shares)
28)[line 40]בית פאגיBEIS PAGI- (a) the name of an area located at the city limits of Yerushalayim (the word "Pagi" has the connotation of a belt (O.F. cengle), in the sense of a wall that surrounds the city — RASHI to Sotah 45a and to Bava Metzia 90a); (b) under the protrusions of the outer wall of the city of Yerushalayim (the word is related to "Pagei Te'einah," undeveloped figs — SHITAH MEKUBETZES #26, 1st explanation); (c) the name of a certain tower that protruded from the outer wall of Yerushalayim (SHITAH MEKUBETZES #26, 2nd explanation)
29)[line 40]שיהא הקדישן לשום תנורSHE'YEHEI HEKDESHAN L'SHUM TANUR- that the flour should be separated for the sake of baking it in an oven (but it only becomes sanctified much later, well after it is baked, when it is placed in a Keli Shares)
30)[line 42]"וְכִי תַקְרִב ...""V'CHI SAKRIV ..."- "and when you should happen to offer" (Vayikra 2:4) - These words indicate that the verse refers to a voluntary Korban Minchah.
31)[line 5]בוללןBOLELAN- after the Chalos are baked, they are broken into small pieces and mixed with oil before the Kohen performs Kemitzah (see Gemara Daf 75a)
32)[line 5]קומץ משניהםKOMETZ MI'SHENEIHEM- the Kohen performs Kemitzah with both of them (Chalos and Rekikin)
33)[line 9]"וְכָל מִנְחָה אֲשֶׁר תֵּאָפֶה בַּתַּנּוּר, וְכָל נַעֲשָׂה בַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת וְעַל מַחֲבַת, לַכֹּהֵן הַמַּקְרִיב אֹתָהּ לוֹ תִהְיֶה. וְכָל מִנְחָה בְלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן וַחֲרֵבָה, לְכָל בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן תִּהְיֶה [אִישׁ כְּאָחִיו.]""V'CHOL MINCHAH ASHER TE'AFEH BA'TANUR, V'CHOL NA'ASAH VA'MARCHESHES V'AL MACHAVAS, LA'KOHEN HA'MAKRIV OSAH LO SIHEYEH. V'CHOL MINCHAH VELULAH VA'SHEMEN VA'CHAREVAH, L'CHOL BNEI AHARON TIHEYEH [ISH K'ACHIV.]"- "Any flour offering that is baked in an oven, and all that is prepared in the deep frying pan, and in the shallow frying pan, shall be for the Kohen who offers it. And any flour offering, mixed with oil, and dry, shall be for all the sons of Aharon, [for one as much as for the other.]" (Vayikra 7:9-10) - These verses compare the Minchas Ma'aseh Sanur to two separate Menachos, one mixed with oil and one dry.
34)[line 15]בשמן בשמןBA'SHEMEN BA'SHEMEN- since the verse (Vayikra 2:4) repeats the word "Shemen," "oil," it is as if it states the word "Korban" twice, i.e. that the Chalos and the Rekikin are two separate Korbanos.
PEREK #6 REBBI YISHMAEL
35)[line 23]עומרOMER (MINCHAS HA'OMER)
(a)There is a Mitzvah to bring the Minchas ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of fine barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is baked and offered on the 16th of Nisan. It is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim — Vayikra 2:14-16). Levonah is added, and Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60), Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 59:1a:c).
(b)The Sheyarei ha'Minchah, also called the Mosar ha'Omer, are eaten by the Kohanim. In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra 23:12. The Minchas ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year (Chadash). Until it is offered, there is a prohibition to eat Chadash (Kidushin 37a, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:2), which is removed after it is offered.
36)[line 23]משלש סאיןMI'SHALOSH SE'IN- from three Se'in (one Eifah), approximately equal to 21.6, 24.88 or 43.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions
37)[line 25]ביחידB'YACHID- by one individual
38)[line 25]מגלMAGAL- a scythe or a sickle
39)[line 25]קופהKUPAH- a basket
40)[line 26]בשלשהBI'SHELOSHAH- by three individuals
41)[line 27]עשרון מובחרISARON MUVCHAR- a choice Isaron, approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions
42)[line 32]הרקדהHARKADAH- sifting (the ninth of the thirty-nine Melachos of Shabbos - see Background to Shabbos 73:6)
43)[line 32]ואל ירבה במלאכות הרבהV'AL YARBEH BI'MELACHOS HARBEH- rather than performing more categories of Melachos (creative acts that are prohibited on Shabbos — see Background ibid.) that reaping more grain would entail, such as reaping, winnowing, separating, grinding and sifting (RASHI)
44)[line 34]מפשיט את הפסח עד החזהMAFSHIT ES HA'PESACH AD HE'CHAZEH- the Pesach sacrifice (see Background to Menachos 59:33) that was slaughtered on Shabbos was only skinned until the chest (while hanging upside-down), at which point it was possible to remove the Eimurim, which were permitted to be burned on the Mizbe'ach on Shabbos. The skinning of the rest of the animal, however, was not considered "Tzorech Gavo'ah," "a necessity for the sacrifices," but rather "Tzorech Hedyot," "a necessity only for the commoner," which is not Docheh Shabbos.