[59a - 41 lines; 59b - 45 lines]

1a)[line 3]מנחת הסולתMINCHAS HA'SOLES

(a)The Torah records five types of Minchas Nedavah, voluntary flour offerings (Vayikra 2:1-13). They are: Minchas Soles, Minchas Chalos, Minchas Rekikin, Minchas Machavas and Minchas Marcheshes.

(b)All of these Menachos require one Log of olive oil and a Kometz of Levonah. The oil is used in the kneading and the baking of the flour. A Kometz (separating a handful of the Minchah in a process called Kemitzah - see Background to Menachos 2:1:I:b) of the Minchah itself is burned on the Mizbe'ach, and the Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash by male Kohanim (since they have the status of Kodshei ha'Kodashim).

(c)The Minchas Soles is the only Minchah in which the Kometz is removed before the Minchah is baked (hence the Minchah is still in the state of Soles, fine flour, from which this Minchah receives its name). The oil and flour are mixed and Levonah is placed on one side of the mixture, and then the Kohen performs HAGASHAH, KEMITZAH and HAKTARAH. In Hagashah, the owner brings the Minchah to a Kohen who touches the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach with the utensil that contains the Minchah. In Kemitzah, the Kohen removes a Kometz from the Minchah, puts it into another utensil and places the Kometz of Levonah upon it. In Haktarah, the Kohen walks up to the top of the Mizbe'ach, salts the Kometz and burns it on the bonfire. The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim before the following sunrise (Vayikra 2:1).

b)[line 4]מחבתMACHAVAS

(a)See above, entry #1a:a-b.

(b)The Minchas Machavas consists of ten Matzos baked in an oven on a pan called a Machavas, which has ten raised sections. The portions of dough lie on the elevated parts of the pan so that most of the olive oil drains off, causing the dough to bake into brittle Matzos. Levonah is added, Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see above, entry #1a:c). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:5).

c)[line 4]מרחשתMARCHESHES

(a)See above, entry #1a:a-b.

(b)The Minchas Marcheshes consists of ten Matzos baked in an oven in a pan called a Marcheshes, which has ten deep sections filled with olive oil. The portions of dough lie in the deep parts of the pan and are baked in the olive oil, causing the dough to bake into soft Matzos. Levonah is added, and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see above, entry #1a:c). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:7).

2)[line 4]החלות והרקיקיןHA'CHALOS VEHA'REKIKIN (MINCHAS MA'AFEH SANUR)

(a)See above, entry #1a:a-b.

(b)The Minchas Chalos is one type of Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur, the Menachos that are baked upon the floor of a metal oven without a pan. A dough of flour and oil is kneaded with lukewarm water (TOSFOS to Menachos 47a DH Minchas, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 12:21, CHAZON ISH Menachos 34:1). It is then divided into ten Chalos (which are not Chametz) and baked. Next, the Chalos are folded and broken into pieces (Pesisah). Levonah is added, and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see above, entry #1a:c). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:4).

(c)The Minchas Rekikin is the other type of Michas Ma'afeh Sanur. It differs from the Minchas Chalos in that the Rekikin are smeared with oil after the baking, before the Pesisah. Otherwise, its preparation is exactly like the Minchas Chalos (Vayikra 2:4).

3)[line 5]מנחת כהניםMINCHAS KOHANIM

A voluntary Korban Minchah (see above, entries #1-2) that is brought by a Kohen does not need Kemitzah (Rebbi Shimon argues - see Daf 72b). The entire Minchah is burned on the Mizbe'ach. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chol Minchas Kohen, Kalil Tiheyeh, Lo Se'achel." - "And every meal-offering of a Kohen shall be entirely offered; it shall not be eaten" (Vayikra 6:16).

4)[line 9]מנחת כהן משיחMINCHAS KOHEN MASHI'ACH

(a)The Minchas Chavitin is brought by the Kohen Gadol every day. It consists of 1/10 of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked. Next, the rolls are folded without breaking them (Pesisah). Levonah is added, and Hagashah and Haktarah are performed (see above, entry #1a:c).

(b)Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening (Vayikra 6:13). The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not personally have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach. The amount of oil that was used for each of the Chavitin rolls was one Revi'is (approximately 75, 86.4 or 150 cc, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions).

5)[line 5]מנחת עובד כוכביםMINCHAS OVED KOCHAVIM

A voluntary Korban Minchah that is brought by a Nochri is exactly the same as a voluntary Korban Minchah of a Jew (see above, entries #1-2).

6)[line 6]מנחת נשיםMINCHAS NASHIM

A voluntary Korban Minchah that is brought by a woman is exactly the same as a voluntary Korban Minchah of a man (see above, entries #1-2).

7)[line 6]מנחת העומרMINCHAS HA'OMER

(a)There is a Mitzvah to bring the Minchas ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of fine barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is baked and offered on the 16th of Nisan. It is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim - Vayikra 2:14-16). Levonah is added, and Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60), Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see above, entry #1a:c).

(b)The Sheyarei ha'Minchah, also called the Mosar ha'Omer, are eaten by the Kohanim. In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra 23:12. The Minchas ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year (Chadash). Until it is offered, there is a prohibition to eat Chadash (Kidushin 37a, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:2), which is removed after it is offered.

8)[line 6]מנחת נסכיםMINCHAS NESACHIM

(a)The Minchas Nesachim is a Korban Minchah that is brought together with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether the Korban is offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or by an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). It is called Minchas "Nesachim" because it is normally brought along with the Nesachim (wine libations) that are offered with these Korbanos.

(b)The mixture of flour and olive oil is salted and completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).

9)[line 9]מנחת חוטאMINCHAS CHOTEI (KORBAN OLEH V'YORED B'DALEI DALUS)

(a)A person brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored to atone for sins in three specific cases: Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Shevuos 30:1), Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Shevuos 2:2) and Shevu'as Bituy (see Background to Shevuos 2:1).

(b)What constitutes a Korban Oleh v'Yored varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir). If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus). If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chotei (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus). (Vayikra 5:6-13)

(c)The Minchas Chotei is not mixed with oil, and Levonah (frankincense) is not sprinkled on top of it (Vayikra 5:11). When a non-Kohen brings a Minchas Chotei, a Kometz of the flour alone is burned on the Mizbe'ach and the Kohanim receive the Shirayim (the rest of the flour, which they must eat before the following sunrise - RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 10:7).

10)[line 9]מנחת קנאותMINCHAS KENA'OS (SOTAH)

(a)A Sotah is a woman who is suspected of committing adultery because she was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with a certain man and she violated the warning. The process of warning her in front of witnesses is called Kinuy. The witnesses who see her seclude herself with the suspected adulterer are called Eidei Stirah. The time of seclusion must be at least for the time that it takes to roast an egg and swallow it. The woman is forbidden to her husband and the alleged adulterer until she drinks Mei Sotah (see (d), below). If she committed adultery after not heeding the warning of two witnesses, she is put to death by Chenek (choking), as it states in the Torah (Devarim 22:22). One witness to adultery ("Ed Tum'ah) prevents her from drinking the Mei Sotah.

(b)After Kinuy and Stirah, the husband must bring his wife to the Beis ha'Mikdash to perform the ceremony of the Mei Sotah. On the way there, Beis Din appoints two Torah scholars to accompany them to make sure that they do not engage in marital relations, which are forbidden to them. Moreover, if the couple does have marital relations at this point, the Mei Sotah will not work, since the husband must be "Menukeh me'Avon," clear (lit. cleaned) of sin for the ceremony to work. The Gemara (Sotah 47b) explains that this means that he did not have relations with his wife from the time that she became prohibited to him, or with any other woman (ever) who was prohibited to him (RASHI to Sotah ibid.)

(c)The husband brings a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour as a Minchah offering. Oil and Levonah are not added (Bamidbar 5:15), and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (as above, entry #1a:c). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim. In the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen reads Parshas Sotah, the portion of the Torah describing the curses with which a Sotah is cursed, out loud (in any language that the Sotah understands) and makes the Sotah swear that she has been faithful to her husband.

(d)An earthenware jug is then filled with half a Lug of water from the Kiyor, and dirt from the floor of the Azarah is placed on top of the water. Parshas Sotah (that contains numerous appearances of Hash-m's name) is written on parchment and then immersed in the water, which causes the ink to dissolve, erasing the Holy Names. The Sotah afterwards drinks from the water. If she was unfaithful to her husband and allowed herself to become defiled, the water would enter her body and poison her, causing her belly to swell out and her thigh to rupture. If she was faithful to her husband, she remained unharmed and would be blessed that she would become pregnant (Bamidbar 5:11-31). In times when there is no Mei Sotah such as in the present day, a Sotah must be divorced and does not receive her Kesuvah.

11)[line 10]כל היכא דתנן, עשר תנןKOL HEICHA D'TENAN, ESER TENAN- (a) in every Mishnah (specifically our Mishnah, the Mishnah on Daf 60a and the Mishnah on Daf 72b) [in which the five voluntary Menachos are] taught, it is taught [that they consist of] ten [baked Matzos] (RASHI, 1st explanation, RASHI KESAV YAD to Menachos 76a. However, it is apparent from RASHI to Menachos 74b DH Minchas Soles and RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 13:10 that the Minchas Soles is not baked into ten Matzos, but rather the remainder of the flour is given to the Kohanim to bake in any fashion); (b) in every Mishnah (specifically our Mishnah, the Mishnah on Daf 60a and the Mishnah on Daf 72b) [in which a list of Menachos are] taught, the Mishnah [first] teaches [a list of] ten [Menachos] (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

12)[line 12]מחצה חלות ומחצה רקיקין יביאMECHETZAH CHALOS U'MECHATZAH REKIKIN YAVI- (a) one may bring a Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur that consists of ten Matzos, where part of them are Chalos and part of them are Rekikin (according to the Tana Kama, one may only bring either ten Chalos or ten Rekikin) (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) [since] one may bring a Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur that consists of ten Matzos, where 1. part of them are Chalos and part of them are Rekikin [or 2. they are all Chalos or 3. they are all Rekikin, (i) there are eleven Menachos that require Shemen and Levonah (according to the Tana Kama, there are ten) (RASHI, 2nd explanation); (ii) there are nine Menachos that require Shemen and Levonah, since #'s 1, 2, and 3 are the same Minchah, called the "Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur" (according to the Tana Kama, there are ten)] (CHIDUSHIM U'BI'URIM 7:13)

13a)[line 13]"וְנָתַתָּ עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן ...""V'NASATA ALEHA SHEMEN ..."- "And you shall put on it (on the Minchas ha'Omer) [olive] oil ..." (Vayikra 2:15) - Our Gemara states that the word "Aleha" teaches us that the Lechem ha'Panim (see Background to Menachos 57:34) does not require Shemen.

b)[line 18]"... וְשַׂמְתָּ עָלֶיהָ לְבֹנָה ...""... V'SAMTA ALEHA LEVONAH ..."- and you shall place upon it (on the Minchas ha'Omer) frankincense or oliban (a gum resin from trees of present-day Arabia and India)" (Vayikra 2:15) - Our Gemara states that the word "Aleha" teaches us that the Minchas Nesachim (see above, entry #8) does not require Levonah.

c)[line 23]"... מִנְחָה הִוא.""... MINCHAH [HI.]"- "[it (the Minchas ha'Omer) is] a Minchah offering" (Vayikra 2:15) - Our Gemara states that the word "Minchah" teaches us that the Minchah of the eighth day also required Levonah, and that the word "Hi" (line 24) teaches us that the Shtei ha'Lechem (see Background to Menachos 57:33b) do not require Shemen or Levonah.

14)[line 23]מנחת שמיניMINCHAS SHEMINI (SHIV'AS YEMEI HA'MILU'IM)

(a)The first seven days of the Avodah in the Mishkan in the desert were called "Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im." The word "Milu'im" means "filling," and refers to the fact that during these days the status of the Kohanim as Divine servants was "filled," coming to its completion (RASHI to Vayikra 8:22). These seven days started on the 23rd of Adar and lasted until Rosh Chodesh Nisan, which was the eighth day.

(b)During the Yemei ha'Milu'im, the Kohanim and all of the parts and the utensils of the Mishkan were smeared with Shemen ha'Mishchah (see Background to Shekalim 16:6). Many Korbanos, called Korbanos ha'Milu'im, were offered. Moshe Rabeinu officiated as the Kohen Gadol during these days, teaching the Avodah to Aharon and his sons. On each day, Moshe assembled and dissembled the Mishkan, until the eighth day, on which he left it standing. On that day, Aharon was officially appointed as the Kohen Gadol and the Shechinah descended to dwell permanently in the Mishkan (RASHI ibid. 9:23).

(c)On the eighth day, Aharon and his sons offered the same Korbanos as on each of the Shiv'asYemei ha'Milu'im, and the Chanukas ha'Nesi'im began. The Nesi'im (princes) of each tribe offered inauguration sacrifices for the twelve days beginning with Rosh Chodesh Nisan (Bamidbar 7:1-88). On that day, Nachshon ben Aminadav of the tribe of Yehudah contributed the voluntary sacrifices that were offered along with the Milu'im sacrifices of the Kohanim. Our Gemara states that the seemingly unnecessary word "Minchah" teaches us that the Minchah of the eighth day also required Levonah.

15a)[line 28]עשרון כלי חוץ וצורה הגשה ואישיםISARON KLI CHUTZ V'TZURAH HAGASHAH V'ISHIM - this is a mnemonic device that stands for the topics that are in common between the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kohanim, as follows:

1.Isaron refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kohanim consist of one Isaron of fine flour. Each loaf of the Lechem ha'Panim is made from two Esronim of fine flour.

2.Keli refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kohanim are kneaded in a consecrated utensil. The Lechem ha'Panim does not need a consecrated utensil, according to the opinion that the dry measures in the Mikdash were not consecrated.

3.Chutz refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kohanim are offered outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The loaves of the Lechem ha'Panim are arranged on the Golden Table inside of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

4.v'Tzurah refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kohanim are invalidated by Linah, also known as Ibur Tzurah (see Background to Menachos 46:18), if they are left over to the morning after the day that they are brought. The Lechem ha'Panim stay on the Golden Table for a week without becoming invalidated.

5.Hagashah refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kohanim require Hagashah, where the Kohen touches the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach with the utensil that contains the Minchah. The Lechem ha'Panim does not require Hagashahs.

6.v'Ishim refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kohanim have parts (or all) of them that are burned on the Mizbe'ach. The Lechem ha'Panim loaves are eaten entirely by the Kohanim.

b)[line 30]ציבורא חובה טמיא דאכיל פיגולא בשבתאTZIBURA CHOVAH TAMYA D'ACHIL PIGULA B'SHABATA - this is a mnemonic device that stands for the topics that are in common between the Minchas ha'Omer and the Lechem ha'Panim, as follows:

1.Tzibura refers to the fact that both the Minchas Ha'Omer and the Lechem ha'Panim are offerings of the community. The Minchas Kohanim is an offering of individual Kohanim.

2.Chovah refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Lechem ha'Panim are obligatory offerings. The Minchas Kohanim is voluntary.

3.Tamya refers to the fact that both the Minchas Ha'Omer and the Lechem ha'Panim are Dochah ("push aside") Tum'ah. The Minchas Kohanim is not Dochah Tum'ah.

4.d'Achil refers to the fact that both the Minchas Ha'Omer and the Lechem ha'Panim have parts of them (or all of them) that are eaten by the Kohanim. The Minchas Kohanim is not eaten.

5.Pigula refers to the fact that both the Minchas Ha'Omer and the Lechem ha'Panim are invalidated through Pigul (see Background to Menachos 54:14). The Minchas Kohanim cannot be invalidated through Pigul since it has no Matirin (a part of it that is burned on the Mizbe'ach that permits another part of it to be eaten or offered; the Minchas Kohanim is entirely burned. The Kometz of the Minchas ha'Omer and the Levonah of the Lechem ha'Panim are burned on the Mizbe'ach.)

6.b'Shabata refers to the fact that both the Minchas Ha'Omer and the Lechem ha'Panim are Dochah ("push aside") Shabbos. The Minchas Kohanim is not Dochah Shabbos.

16)[line 31]מסתברא "נפש"MISTABRA "NEFESH"- it is more reasonable [that the Minchas Kohanim requires Shemen (like the Minchas ha'Omer, as opposed to the Lechem ha'Panim which does not) since the word] "Nefesh" - "a soul" (Vayikra 2:1) [is written with regard to the voluntary Menachos, which require Shemen, and the Minchas Kohanim is a voluntary Minchah]

17)[line 35]עשרון בלול בלוג מוגש בגלל עצםISARON BALUL B'LOG MUGASH BIGLAL ETZEM - this is a mnemonic device that stands for the topics that are in common between the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kohanim, as follows:

1.Isaron refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kohanim consist only of one Isaron of fine flour. The Minchas Nesachim depends upon the animal Koban along with which it is brought. If a bull is offered, it requires three Esronim. If a ram is offered, it requires two Esronim. Only with a sheep does the Minchas Nesachim require one Isaron.

2.Balul b'Log refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kohanim are mixed with one Log of oil. The Minchas Nesachim depends upon the animal Koban along with which it is brought. If a bull is offered, it requires six Lugin. If a ram is offered, it requires four Lugin. Even if a sheep is offered, the Minchas Nesachim requires three Lugin of oil.

3.Mugash refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kohanim require Hagashah. The Minchas Nesachim does not require Hagashah.

4.Biglal Etzem refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kohanim are Ba'in bi'Glal Atzman - they are offered by themselves, as opposed to the Minchas Nesachim, which is offered along with (and because of) a Korban.

18)[last line]מצהMATZAH- the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kohanim are Matzah (they may not be leavened), while the Shtei ha'Lechem is Chametz, leavened (and as such, it is reasonable that the Minchas Kohanim should require Shemen and Levonah while the Shtei ha'Lechem does not require them)

59b----------------------------------------59b

19)[line 2]מתיר תנופה בארץ בזמן חדשMATIR TENUFAH BA'ARETZ BI'ZMAN CHADASH - this is a mnemonic device that stands for the last five topics that are in common between the Minchas ha'Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem (the first six are identical to entry #15b, above), as follows:

7.Matir refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem permit the use of the new grain of the year (Chadash). Until the Minchas ha'Omer is offered, there is a prohibition to eat Chadash (Kidushin 37a, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:2), which is removed after it is offered. Until the Shtei ha'Lechem are offered, there is a prohibition to offer Menachos of Chadash in the Beis ha'Mikdash, which is removed after they are offered.

8.Tenufah refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem require Tenufah (see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60), while the Minchas Kohanim does not.

9.ba'Aretz refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem are brought from grain that is grown in the Land of Yisrael, while the Minchas Kohanim may be brought from grain that was grown in Chutz la'Aretz.

10.bi'Zeman refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem have a set time when they are offered. The Minchas ha'Omer is offered on Pesach and the Shtei ha'Lechem is offered on Shavu'os. The Minchas Kohanim may be brought throughout the year.

11.Chadash refers to the fact that both the Minchas ha'Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem are brought from the new grain of the year (Chadash). The Minchas Kohanim has no such stipulation.

20)[line 3]הני נפישןHANEI NEFISHAN- those (the similarities between the Minchas ha'Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem) are greater in number

21)[line 6]פסלהPESALAH- he invalidated it (the Minchas Chotei)

22)[line 6]ילקטנהYILKATENAH- he must pick off [the pieces of Levonah]

23)[line 8]"... לֹא יָשִׂים עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא יִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ לְבֹנָה [כִּי חַטָּאת הִיא.]""... LO YASIM ALEHA SHEMEN V'LO YITEN ALEHA LEVONAH [KI CHATAS HI.]"- "... he shall not put oil on it and he shall not put Levonah on it [for it is a sin-offering.]" (Vayikra 5:11)

24)[line 15]לבונה שחוקהLEVONAH SHECHUKAH- ground Levonah (that gets mingled into the flour)

25)[line 17]דלא מיבלעאD'LO MIVLE'A- it is not absorbed into the flour

26)[line 18]חדא ועוד קאמרCHADA V'OD KA'AMAR- [but perhaps] it (the Mishnah) states [with regard to Levonah that there is] one [main, unwritten reason to rule that the Minchas Chotei is valid, i.e. that it is not absorbed into the flour,] and another [secondary reason that is stated explicitly, that the Levonah may be picked off. As such, even though, he cannot pick off the pieces of Levonah Shechukah, the Minchah is not invalidated.] (RASHI)

27a)[line 25]בין חוץ לזמנו בין חוץ למקומו פסול ואין בו כרתBEIN CHUTZ LI'ZEMANO BEIN CHUTZ LI'MEKOMO PASUL V'EIN BO KARES- whether the Kohen invalidated the Minchah with intentions of offering it (i.e. doing one of its essential Avodos) or eating it after its allotted time ("Pigul" - see entry #27c), or he invalidated it with intentions of offering it or eating it outside of the boundaries in which it must remain ("Chutz li'Mekomo" - see next entry, #27b), the Minchah is invalidated, however one who eats from its Sheyarim is not liable to the Kares punishment

b)[line 27]חוץ למקומו פסול ואין בו כרתCHUTZ LI'MEKOMO PASUL V'EIN BO KARES (CHUTZ LI'MEKOMO)

(a)A Korban that was slaughtered with the intention of eating it or offering it outside of the area designated for it becomes disqualified, and may not be eaten or offered on the Mizbe'ach. This is learned from the verse that repeats the prohibition of Chutz li'Zemano, slaughtering a Korban with the intention of eating or offering it after its allotted time (Vayikra 19:7).

(b)If a person intentionally eats from a Korban that was offered with the intention of Chutz li'Mekomo, he receives Malkus (lashes). If he eats from it unintentionally, he does not bring a Korban Chatas.

c)[line 27]חוץ לזמנו פיגול וחייבין עליו כרתCHUTZ LI'ZEMANO PIGUL V'CHAYAVIN ALAV AKRES (PIGUL)

(a)A sacrifice that was slaughtered (or any of the other three main actions involved in offering a sacrifice: Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachas ha'Dam, Zerikas ha'Dam - see Background to Menachos 2:18) with the intention of eating it or offering it Chutz li'Zemano (after its allotted time) becomes disqualified. Similarly, a Minchah that was offered with intentions of offering it (i.e. doing one of its essential Avodos) or eating it after its allotted time becomes disqualified.

(b)It is forbidden to eat such a Korban, as the verse states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi, Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh." - "If [the person offering the sacrifice plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid, rejected) and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).

(c)If a person eats a k'Zayis of Pigul b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Pigul is learned from the verse of the Milu'im (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #144.)

28)[line 28]ותיהוי פךV'TEHEVEI PACH- (a) and it should be considered as if a jug of oil fell on it (RASHI); (b) according to TOSFOS DH v'Sehevei, the Girsa should be "V'SEHEVEI (PACH V'AMAI PASLAH BI'MACHSHAVAH?) DACHUY (HU)" - it should be considered Dachuy (see next entry) and never become validated again

29)[line 29]ואמאי פסלה במחשבה? דחוי הוא!V'AMAI PASLAH B'MACHSHAVAH? DACHUY HU! - but how is the Kohen able to disqualify the Minchah with his thoughts [of Pigul]? The Minchah is Nidcheh to the point where it cannot ever become valid again (DICHUY)

(a)The concept of "Dichuy" (irrevocable disqualification) applies to Halachos in the Torah where a particular object is required for a Korban or Mitzvah. Some examples are limbs and blood of the Korbanos which were prepared to be offered on the altar, blood of Kosher birds and wild animals that must be covered with dirt, live animals that were designated for Korbanos, and objects used to perform Mitzvos.

(b)The question of Dichuy with regard to objects used to perform Mitzvos applies in two instances: 1. the object was only fit for use after the time that the Mitzvah first applied ("Dichuy me'Ikara"); and 2. the object was fit for use at the time that the Mitzvah first applied, later became unfit, and afterwards became fit again ("Nir'eh v'Nidcheh"). In the latter case the Dichuy is stronger.

30)[line 31]דלית ליה דחוייןD'LEIS LEI DICHUYIN- who is of the opinion that there is no Pesul of Dichuy

31)[line 32]אפילו דם בכוס מביא חבירו שלא בהגרלה ומזווג לוAFILU DAM BA'KOS MEVI CHAVEIRO SHE'LO B'HAGRALAH U'MEZAVEG LO - even if the blood is in the bowl (after Shechitah and Kabalas ha'Dam), he may bring another goat without performing a new lottery and pair it up with this one (since Chanan ha'Mitzri rules that there is no concept of Dichuy) (SA'IR HA'MISHTALE'ACH - lit. the goat that is sent away)

(a)On Yom ha'Kipurim, a Goral (lottery) is performed by the Kohen Gadol to choose between two identical goats (Vayikra 16:7-10). One (the Sa'ir la'Sh-m) is offered as a Korban Chatas ha'Nisraf and its blood is sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:15); the other (the Sa'ir la'Azazel) is dispatched ("Mishtale'ach") to Azazel (a hard rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death (Vayikra 16:21-22).

(b)A strip of crimson wool was tied between the horns of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach before it was led to Azazel. The person who takes the goat to Azazel becomes Tamei and is required to immerse his body and clothes in a Mikvah (Vayikra 16:26).

(c)The remains of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach are Asur b'Hana'ah.

32)[line 37]נשפך הדם ימות המשתלח; מת המשתלח ישפך הדםNISHPACH HA'DAM YAMUS HA'MISHTALE'ACH; MES HA'MISHTALE'ACH YISHAFECH HA'DAM- if the blood of the Se'ir Penimi spills from its neck to the ground, the Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach must be put to death; if the Se'ir Penimi dies, the blood of the Se'ir Penimi must be spilled out [into the Amah that runs through the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash]

33)[line 39]היה ממלא מדם התערובות וזרקו זריקה אחת כנגד היסודKOS HAYAH MEMALEI MI'DAM HA'TA'AROVOS V'ZARKO ZERIKAH ACHAS KENEGED HA'YESOD - he would fill a bowl of the mixed blood and cast one casting of blood onto the Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach (KORBAN PESACH)

(a)It is a Mitzvah for all Jews to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as it states in the Torah, "and the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening." (Shemos 12:6). The Pesach is an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year that is roasted in its entirety. It is eaten with Matzah (unleavened bread) and Maror (bitter herbs), as the verse states, "And they shall eat the meat in that night, roast with fire, and Matzos; and with Merorim they shall eat it." (ibid. 12:8).

(b)An adult (who was Tahor and was not far from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the fourteenth of Nisan) who willfully did not offer the Korban Pesach is liable to the Kares punishment.

(c)In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, a person must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered. This appointment is called "Minuy." Each Pesach must have appointed to it people who are able to eat at least a k'Zayis of the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan. The Korban is sacrificed in the name of all the people who were appointed for that specific Pesach animal. The people appointed to the Pesach then eat at least a k'Zayis of the Pesach together in a "Chaburah." (Some Tana'im maintain that a single Pesach may be split into many Chaburos eating in different places - Pesachim 86a.) No bones of the Pesach are allowed to be broken (Shemos 12:46).

(d)The verses limit the people who are permitted to eat the Korban Pesach. Nochrim, people who are Tamei and men who are uncircumcised are prohibited from eating the Korban Pesach (Shemos 12:43-44).

(e)When the Pesach sacrifice is slaughtered, the Kohanim must perform Zerikas ha'Dam, casting a bowl of its blood onto the Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. Rebbi Yehudah rules that after the entire community offers their Pesachim, the Kohanim would collect one bowl of blood from the spilled blood on the floor of the Azarah and cast it on the Yesod as an attempt to ensure that some of the blood of each and every sacrifice received a proper Zerikas ha'Dam (see Zevachim 34b).

34)[line 43]שימה כל דהוSIMAH KOL DEHU- [the word "Yasim" connotes] "placement" of the most minute amount

35)[last line]עד דאיכא נתינה עליהAD D'IKA NESINAH ALEHA- until there is a significant "placement" (a k'Zayis) of Levonah on it (on the Minchah)

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