[82a - 57 lines; 82b - 46 lines]
1)[line 1]אינשייה רב לגמריהINSHEYEI RAV LI'GEMAREI- Rav forgot his learning (i.e. what he had been taught by his teacher with regard to this matter - RASHI)
2)[line 2]אקריוהו לרב כהנא בחלמיהAKARYUHU L'RAV KAHANA B'CHELMEI- they read to Rav Kahana in his dream
3)[line 2]"בגדה יהודה ותועבה נעשתה בישראל ובירושלים כי חלל יהודה קדש ה' אשר אהב ובעל בת אל נכר""BAGDAH YEHUDAH V'SO'EVAH NE'ES'SAH V'YISRAEL UVI'YERUSHALYIM, KI CHILEL YEHUDAH KODESH HASH-M ASHER AHEV U'VA'AL BAS EL NECHAR."- "Yehudah rebelled, and an abomination was done in Yisrael and in Yerushalayim, because Yehudah, the holy one whom HaSh-m loved, desecrated himself by having relations with the daughter of a strange god." (Malachi 2:11, according to RASHI. See also RADAK and METZUDAS DAVID.)
4)[line 5]אדכריה רב לגמריהADKEREI RAV LI'GEMAREI- he remembered his learning (with regard to this matter)
5)[line 14]"יכרת ה' לאיש אשר יעשנה ער ועונה (מאלקי) [מאהלי] יעקב ומגיש מנחה לה' צבקות""YACHRES HASH-M LA'ISH ASHER YA'ASENAH ER V'ONAH ME'OHALEI YAKOV, U'MAGISH MINCHAH LA'SH-M TZEVAKOS."- "HaSh-m will cut off from the man who does these acts a sharp son and a wise son from the tents of Yakov, and one who offers an offering to HaSh-m Tzevakos." (Malachi 2:12)
6a)[line 16]ער בחכמיםER B'CHACHAMIM- a descendant who will pose (arouse) questions to the Sages (METZUDAS DAVID)
b)[line 16]ועונה בתלמידיםONEH B'SALMIDIM- a descendant who will answer questions of the students
7)[line 23]גלגלתוGULGALTO- his skull
8)[line 23]יהויקיםYEHOYAKIM- Yehoyakim (Elyakim) ben Yoshiyahu was king of Yehudah for eleven years. He became king in the year 3316. It was during his reign that the first Exile of Yehudah occurred, when Nevuchadnetzar took part of the vessels of the Beis ha'Mikdash and youths of the Royal Family and brought them to Bavel (3320), and then Nevuchadnetzar returned and banished Yehoyakim to Bavel (3327). Yehoyakim died during the journey. Eleven years later the first Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed.
9)[line 23]זקינו דרבי פרידאZEKEINO D'REBBI PEREIDA- the grandfather of Rebbi Pereida (i.e. Rebbi Chiya bar Avuyah)
10)[line 24]אשכח ההוא גולגלתא דהות שדיא בשערי ירושליםASHKACH HA'HU GULGALTA D'HAVAS SHADYA B'SHA'AREI YERUSHALAYIM- he found a certain skull that was thrown among the gates of Yerushalayim
11)[line 26]נבוגNAVOG- it re-emerged
12)[line 28]"קבורת חמור יקבר סחוב והשלך מהלאה לשערי ירושלים""KEVURAS CHAMOR YIKAVER, SACHOV V'HASHLECH ME'HAL'AH L'SHA'AREI YERUSHALAYIM."- "He will be buried with the burial of a donkey; he will be pulled and cast forth beyond the gates of Yerushalayim." (Yirmeyahu 22:19)
13)[line 31]כרכה בשיראיKARCHAH B'SHIRA'EI- he wrapped it in silk garments
14)[line 31]ואותביה בסיפטאOSVEI B'SIFTA- he placed it in a chest
15)[line 31]אתאי דביתהוASAI DEVIS'HU- his wife came
16)[line 32]חזיתהCHAZISAH- she saw it
17)[line 32]נפקתNAFKAS- she went out
18)[line 32]אמרה להו לשיבבתהאAMRAH LEHU L'SHIVEVASAHA- she said to them, to her neighbors
19a)[line 33]האי דאיתתא קמייתא היאHAI D'ITESA KAMAISA HI- this [skull] is that of his first wife
b)[line 33]דלא קא מנשי להD'LO KA MENASHI LAH- for he has not forgotten her
20)[line 34]שגרתא לתנורא וקלתהSHAGARTA L'SANURA V'KALSAH- she put it in the oven and burned it
21a)[line 38]נשג''אNaSHG''A- this acronym stands for Nidah, Shifchah, Goiyah, Ishus. It refers to the four prohibitions enacted by the Rabanan, according to Rav Dimi, that one transgresses when he has relations with a Nochris.
b)[line 39]נשג''זNaSHGa''Z- this acronym stands for Nidah, Shifchah, Goiyah, Zonah. It refers to the four prohibitions enacted by the Rabanan, according to Ravin, that one transgresses when he has relations with a Nochris.
22a)[line 39]נדהNIDAH- even though a Nochris who sees a flow of blood does not have the status of a Nidah (see Background to Kidushin 80:2b), nevertheless the Rabanan decreed that having relations with her is a violation of the prohibition of Nidah due to the disgusting nature of the act and the Chilul Hash-m involved (RASHI)
b)[line 39]שפחהSHIFCHAH- the Rabanan decreed that having relations with a Nochris is a violation of the prohibition of Shifchah, because the Jewish people are called "Gevirah," or masters, and thus the Beis Din prohibited living with a Nochris with the same prohibition that forbids a Jew from living with a Shifchah Kena'anis.
c)[line 39]גויהGOIYAH- the Rabanan decreed that having relations with a Nochris is a violation of the prohibition of marrying a Goiyah, because of the Torah prohibition against marrying Nochrim ("Lo Sischaten Bam"); they extended that Torah prohibition to include having relations with a Nochris even without intention to marry her.
d)[line 39]זונהZONAH- Ravin maintains that the Rabanan decreed that having relations with a Nochris is also prohibited because of "Zonah" (lit. "prostitute"). See Insights.
23)[line 41]הבא לימלך אין מורין לוHA'BA LIMALECH, EIN MORIN LO- [when] one comes to ask for advice (a Kana'i who asks Beis Din whether he should kill the evildoer), we do not instruct him [to do so; rather, the law that a Kana'i may kill the evildoer means that he may kill the evildoer on his own accord, but not that Beis Din instructs him to do so]
24)[line 45]רודף הואRODEF HU- he (Pinchas) had the status of a "Rodef," one pursuing another person to kill him. See Insights.
25)[line 46]"ויאמר משה אל שופטי ישראל [הרגו איש אנשיו הנצמדים לבעל פעור]""VA'YOMER MOSHE EL SHOFTEI YISRAEL ['HIRGU ISH ANASHAV HA'NITZMADIM L'VA'AL PE'OR.']"- "Moshe said to the judges of Yisrael, ['Each man shall kill his constituents who have been involved with Ba'al Pe'or.']" (Bamidbar 25:5)
26)[line 48]כזביKOZBI- Kozbi was the Midyanite woman with whom Zimri, the leader of the tribe of Shimon, sinned. She was the daughter of Tzur, one of the kings of Midyan (Bamidbar 25:15, 31:8)
27)[line 51]בבלוריתהBELURISAH- her hair (the long hair grown at the back of the head)
28)[line 52]געו כולם בבכיהGA'U CHULAM BI'VECHIYAH- they all wailed in a cry
29)[line 53]ראה מעשה ונזכר הלכהRA'AH MA'ASEH V'NIZKAR HALACHAH- he saw the act and he recalled the Halachah
30)[line 55]קריינא דאיגרתא איהו ליהוי פרוונקאKARYANA D'IGARTA IHU LEHEVEI PARVANKA- lit. the one who reads the letter should be the agent to carry out its contents, meaning that Pinchas should be the one to carry out the Halachah, since he is the one who related the Halachah.
31)[last line]"ויקם מתוך העדה ויקח רומח בידו ...""VA'YAKAM MI'TOCH HA'EDAH V'YIKACH ROMACH B'YADO"- "... and he rose up from the midst of the people and he took a spear in his hand." (Bamidbar 25:7)
32)[last line]בכלי זייןKELEI ZAYIN- weapons
33)[last line]שלףSHALAF- he removed
34)[last line]שננהSHANENAH- the sharp blade of the spear
35)[last line]והניחה באונקלוHINICHAH B'UNKELO- he placed it in his clothing
36)[last line]היה נשען והולך על מקלוHAYAH NISH'AN V'HOLECH AL MAKLO- he was leaning and walking on his staff (which was actually the handle of his spear, so that the people would not recognize that he was carrying his weapon and that he intended to kill)
37)[line 4]התירו פרושין את הדברHITIRU PERUSHIN ES HA'DAVAR!- They, those who are separated [from immoral acts], have permitted the matter!
38)[line 10]המשקוףMASHKOF- lintel
39)[line 11]וחבטןCHAVATAN- he threw them down
40)[line 14]"ויעמד פנחס ויפלל""VA'YA'AMOD PINCHAS VA'YEFALEL"- "And Pinchas stood up and he prayed." (Tehilim 106:30)
41)[line 15]שעשה פלילות עם קונוSHE'ASAH PELILOS IM KONO- he made quarrels with his Maker
42)[line 16]קנאיKANA'I- a zealous person
43)[line 16]משיב חימהMESHIV CHEMAH- one who turns away wrath
44a)[line 17]ראיתם בן פוטי זהRE'ISEM BEN PUTI ZEH- did you see this son of the "Puti" (the one who fattened)
b)[line 17]שפיטם אבי אמו עגלים לעבודת כוכביםSHE'PITEM AVI IMO AGALIM L'AVODAS KOCHAVIM- whose mother's father fattened calves for idols
45)[line 19]הקדם לו שלוםHAKDEM LO SHALOM- grant to him peace
46)[line 19]"לכן אמור הנני נותן לו את בריתי שלום""LACHEN EMOR HINENI NOSEN LO ES BERISI SHALOM."- "Therefore, tell [him] that I hereby give to him My covenant of peace." (Bamidbar 25:12)
47)[line 21]"זרזיר מתנים או תיש ומלך אלקום עמו""ZARZIR MOSNAYIM O TAYISH U'MELECH ALKUM IMO"- "The loin-girded Zarzir, or the he-goat, and the king against whom no one can rise." (Mishlei 30:31) - The "Zarzir" refers to a swift animal, such as a dog (Metzudas David), an eagle (alternate explanation in Rashi), a raven (Maharsha), cock (Feliks, p. 59), or other fast animal. The Gemara interprets this verse to be referring to Pinchas' act of avenging the honor of Hash-m by killing Zimri. Rashi explains that "the King against Whom no one can rise" refers to Hash-m, while others explain that this "king" refers to the Yetzer ha'Ra, whose temptations no one can resist (and thus Pinchas did not need to wait until Zimri was weak to attack him, since he was under the hold of the Yetzer ha'Ra and would not have been able to defend himself against Pinchas' attack).
48)[line 24]כביצה המוזרתBEITZAH HA'MUZERES- a sterile or spoiled egg
49)[line 24]כערוגהARUGAH- a vegetable patch, furrow
50)[line 25]קברKEVER- the opening of her womb
51)[line 27]כוס בי עם זהKOS BI AM ZEH!- Slaughter this nation through me (through the sins that I will cause them to do)!
52)[line 28]בין קני לאורבניBEIN KANEI L'URBENEI- between the reeds and the ravens (a secluded place)
53)[line 28]בהדי קלפי דקניBA'HADEI KALFEI D'KANEI- among the stalks of reeds
54)[line 29]גפתה לאמהGAFTAH L'IMAH- she defamed her mother
55)[line 31]שהסליאSHE'HISLI- (a) who caused others to speak about; (b) who caused others to search for and investigate (RASHI)
56)[line 45]היוצקHA'YOTZEK- one who pours [oil upon the flour of the Minchah offering]
57)[line 45]והבוללHA'BOLEL- one who mixes [the flour of the Minchah offering with oil]
58)[line 45]והפותתHA'POSES- one who breaks up the loaves of the Minchah offering into crumbs
59)[line 45]המולחHA'MOLE'ACH- one who places salt [upon the offering]
60)[line 45]המניףHA'MENIF - one who waves (TENUFAH)
Waving portions of certain Korbanos and meal-offerings is called Tenufah; the Kohen, together with the owner of the Korban (when it is not a Korban Tzibur), waves them in all four directions and up and down (RASHI to Menachos 62a DH Molich. TOSFOS to Sukah 37b DH Kedei, ponders whether all Tenufos were done in this fashion, or whether some Tenufos only required lifting and lowering).
61)[line 45]המגישHA'MAGISH - one who brings (HAGASHAH)
When a Korban Minchah (flour offering) is offered, a Kohen must take the utensil containing the Minchah and touch it to the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
62)[line 45]והמסדר את השולחןHA'MESADER ES HA'SHULCHAN - one who organizes the [Lechem ha'Panim upon the] Shulchan (LECHEM HA'PANIM)
The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol ("Aharon") and have to the other Kohanim ("l'Vanav").
63)[last line]המטיב את הנרותHA'METIV ES HA'NEROS - one who prepares the lights (HATAVAS HA'NEROS)
(a)Every evening a Kohen lights the Menorah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. This is called Hadlakas ha'Neros. Enough oil is put into the Menorah's lamps to burn until the morning.
(b)In the morning, a Kohen would clean out the burnt wicks and leftover oil that remained in the Menorah's lamps, and replaced them with fresh oil and wicks. This is what the Torah, and the Mishnah, calls Hatavas ha'Neros, or Dishun ha'Menorah. The spent wicks were placed in the same pile of ashes near the ramp of the Mizbe'ach into which the Terumas ha'Deshen was placed.
(c)The cleaning of the lamps was done in two stages. First the Kohen would clean five of the lamps of the Menorah, then he would wait while other services of the Mikdash were done, and only afterwards would he complete the job and clean out the remaining two lamps of the Menorah.
(What we have described above is based on the opinion of the majority of the Rishonim. However, others assert that some or all of the lamps of the Menorah were lit in the morning as well, or that the Menorah was cleaned in a single step according to some Tana'im. Also, the process we have described is altered slightly if some of the lamps are still burning by the morning. The Tana'im argue as to which service was done between the cleaning of the first five and the last two lamps. For more information, see Yoma 14a, Chart #2.)
64)[last line]והקומץHA'KOMETZ - he who gathers a handful (KEMITZAH)
(a)When an individual who is not a Kohen offers a Korban Minchah (flour offering), a Kohen must take off a Kometz (handful), which is burned upon the Mizbe'ach.
(b)A Kometz is the amount that can be held by the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm. The Kohen puts his hand in the dough or baked goods and removes one handful. Using the thumb and smallest finger of the same hand, he next wipes off the dough or baked goods that stick out, until only the Kometz remains.
(c)The remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim.
(d)A Minchah that is brought by the Tzibur, a Minchah offered by a Kohen, and a Minchah that is brought together with an animal Korban (the Minchas Nesachim - see Background to Sotah 15:9) are entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.
65)[last line]והמקבל דמיםHA'MEKABEL DAMIM - he who receives the blood (KABALAS HA'DAM)
(a)The offering of a Korban is comprised of four main actions. These four "Avodos" are Shechitah (slaughtering), Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting the blood of the Korban that will be cast on the Mizbe'ach), Holachah (carrying the blood towards the Mizbe'ach) and Zerikah (casting the blood on the outer
(b)In the Avodah of Kabalas ha'Dam, a Kohen catches the life-blood of the animal in a utensil, which is then brought to the top of the Mizbe'ach.
66)[last line]בחוץBA'CHUTZ - [one who does any of the abovementioned Avodos] outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash (HA'SHOCHET VEHA'MA'ALEH BA'CHUTZ)
(a)The Torah obligates a person to bring all Kodshim that are fit to be offered as sacrifices to the Beis ha'Mikdash, as it states in Vayikra 17:1-7. Besides the Mitzvas Aseh, there is a Lav prohibiting slaughtering them outside of the Azarah (Shechutei Chutz) and burning them or parts of them outside of the Azarah (Ha'ala'as Chutz). In addition, the Tana'im learn (Sanhedrin 34b) that casting the blood of a sacrifice outside of the Azarah is also prohibited. The punishment for transgressing these prohibitions is Kares (ibid. 17:9; SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #186), and the animal remains Asur b'Hana'ah (i.e. it is prohibited to derive any benefit from it).
(b)If a Kohen performs any other Avodah (such as those mentioned above in entries #56-65) with a Korban outside of the Azarah, there is no punishment of Kares.