1)THE AFFLICTIONS OF IYOV
(a)Messengers cam in succession telling Iyov about the loss of his property and children. Iyov accepted it and blessed Hash-m. The Satan still praised Avraham, and Hash-m praised Iyov.
(b)(R. Yochanan): "Va'Tesiseni" - if the verse did not say that Hash-m was enticed, it would be forbidden to say this.
1.(Beraisa): The Satan descends, causes people to sin, ascends, prosecutes, and receives permission to kill.
2.The Satan thought that if Iyov himself was stricken, he would blaspheme. Hash-m authorized the Satan to do as he wanted to him, on condition that he keep Iyov alive.
3.(R. Yitzchak): The Satan was in more pain than Iyov. i/t was very hard to ravage his body and preserve his life.
(c)(Reish Lakish): The Satan, evil inclination, and the angel of death these are all one.
1.A Gezerah Shavah teaches that the Satan is the evil inclination;
2.Since Hash-m told him to guard Iyov's life, we learn that he can take lives, i.e. he is the angel of death.
(d)(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): The Satan and Peninah both intended for the sake of Heaven.
1.The Satan was concerned that Hash-m's love of Iyov might detract from his love for Avraham.
2.Peninah pained Chanah (about being barren) "Ba'avor Hare'imah", in order that Chanah would pray to Hash-m. (Ben Yehoyada - surely, she was punished so severely because she intended to pain her. Rather, Elkanah did not rebuke her because she said that she intends l'Shem Shamayim.)
3.Rav Acha bar Yakov expounded like this, and the Satan kissed his knees.
(a)(Rava): "Lo Chata Iyov bi'Sfasav (he did not sin with his lips, i.e. speech)", but he sinned in his heart.
(b)Question: What does it mean "Eretz Nitenah b'Yad Rasha"?
(c)Answer #1 (Rava): Iyov blasphemed (he said this about Hash-m).
(d)Answer #2 (Abaye): Iyov said this about the Satan.
1.Tana'im argued about this. R. Eliezer said like Rava, and R. Yehoshua said like Abaye.
(e)(Rava): "Al Datecha Lo Ersha v'Ein mi'Yadcha Matzil" - Iyov sought to exempt the whole world from judgment, by saying that there is no free choice;
1.Just like Hash-m created Tahor animals and Tamei animals, He created Tzadikim and Resha'im, one cannot change the way he was created!
(f)Question: How did his friends respond?
(g)Answer: Indeed Hash-m created the evil inclination, but He also created the Torah to enable people to overcome it.
(h)(Rava): "Birkas Oved Alai Tavo" - Iyov would steal orphans' fields, improve them and return them;
1."V'Lev Almanah Arnin" - if a widow was unable to remarry, Iyov would speak on her behalf or say she was his relative to help her remarry.
(i)(Rav): Iyov's mouth should be filled with dirt for the following things he said:
1."Lu Shakol Yishakel (if only we would see who is justified)" - one speaks to a person thisly, but not to Hash-m!
2."Lo Yesh Beineinu Mochi'ach" - a slave does not rebuke his master!
(j)(Rava): His mouth should be filled with dirt also for "Bris Korati l'Einai u'Mah Esbonen Al Besulah." He credits himself for not looking at other women;
1.Avraham did not even look at his own wife - "Hinei Na Yadati Ki Ishah Yefas Mar'eh At";
2.Inference: Until now, he did not know!
(k)(Rava): "Yored She'ol Lo Ya'aleh" - Iyov denied revival of the dead.
(l)(Rava): "Bi'Sarah Yeshufeni" - he blasphemed by speaking of Se'arah (a stormy wind), and Hash-m answered by speaking of Sa'ar (hair);
1.Iyov suggested that a stormy wind caused a confusion, and the punishment intended for Oyev (the enemy) was meted to Iyov;
2."Va'Ya'an Hash-m... Min ha'Se'arah..." - I created so many hairs on a person's head, each is fed from its own follicle;
i.If two hairs would come from the same follicle, the person would be blinded;
3.I did not confuse two hairs. Will you say that I confused Oyev and Iyov?!
4."Mi Filag la'Shetef Te'alah" - I created clouds, with so many drops of water; each has its own cavity;
i.If two drops would come from the same cavity, they would make the ground muddy and unable to bear fruit.
5.I did not confuse two drops. Will you say that I confused Oyev and Iyov?!
i.Question: What is the source that "Te'alah" means 'cavity'?
ii.Answer (Rabah bar Shila): "Va'Ya'as Te'alah" (Eliyahu dug a trench around his Altar).
6."V'Derech la'Chaziz Kolos" - I created many sounds (thunder) in the clouds, each has its own channel;
i.If two sounds would come from the same channel, they would destroy the world.
7.I did not confuse two sounds. Will you say that I confused Oyev and Iyov?!
8."Ha'Yadata Es Ledes Ya'alei Sala" - a wild goat is cruel to its young, it ascends a mountain in order that the baby will fall to its death when it is born;
9.I prepare a Nesher (eagle or vulture) to catch the baby on its wings, and return it to the mother.
i.If the Nesher would come a moment earlier or later, the baby would die.
10.I did not miscalculate by a moment. Will you say that I confused Oyev and Iyov?!
11."Cholel Ayalos Tishmor" - the womb of a hart (wild goat) is narrow. When it is ready to give birth, I send a snake to bite it, causing the womb to open more;
i.If the snake would come a moment earlier or later, it would die.
12.I did not miscalculate by a moment. Will you say that I confused Oyev and Iyov?!
(m)(Rava): "Iyov Lo b'Da'as Yedaber" teaches that one is not liable for what he says when in pain.
(n)Question: "Iyov's three friends heard of his afflictions... va'Yiva'adu Yachdav." What does this mean?
(o)Answer (Rav Yehudah): They all arrived at the same moment.
1.(Beraisa): Each was 300 Parsa'os (a Parsah is about four kilometers) from each other.
(p)Question: How did they know of his afflictions?
(q)Answer: Each had a crown (another version - tree) with images of the faces of his three friends;
1.If a face withered, this showed that he was suffering afflictions.
2.(Rava): If one does not have friends like Iyov's, it is better to die.
(a)(R. Yochanan): "Hechel ha'Adam Larov... u'Vanos Yuldu Lahem" - when a girl is born, Rivya (reproduction) comes to the world.
(b)(Reish Lakish): Merivah (quarrels) comes to the world.
(c)Question (Reish Lakish against R. Yochanan): According to you, why didn't Hash-m give Iyov twice as many daughters as he originally had (just like he doubled everything else)?
(d)Answer (R. Yochanan): They were not doubled in number, but they were doubled in beauty (we learn from their names);
1..Yamimah was as clear as the Yom (the daytime sun);
2..Ketzi'ah smelled like Ketziah (cassia, an ingredient of the incense);
3.(D'Vei R. Shila): Keren ha'Puch was (black) like the horn of a Keresh (giraffe).
4.Rejection (Rabanan in Eretz Yisrael): This is not beautiful!
5.(Rav Chisda): Rather, she was like garden saffron.
(e)A daughter was born to R. Shimon, the son of Rebbi. He felt bad.
1.Rebbi: Rivya came to the world!
2.Bar Kapara: Rebbi gave empty consolation.
i.(Beraisa): The world needs males and females, but happy is one who has sons, and woe to the one who has daughters;
ii.The world needs perfumers and tanners. Happy is a perfumer, and woe to the tanner (he absorbs the odor of excrement, which is used in tanning).
(f)Tana'im argue whether having daughters is good.
1.(Beraisa - R. Meir): "Va'shem Berach Es Avraham ba'Kol" - he did not have a daughter;
2.R. Yehudah says, this teaches that he had a daughter;
3.Others say, 'he had a daughter named 'Bakol'.
4.R. Eliezer ha'Moda'i says, he knew how to read the stars. All the kings of the east and west constantly came to him for advice.
5.R. Shimon says, he hung a special stone around his neck. Any sick person who looked at it was be cured immediately;
i.When Avraham died, Hash-m hung the stone on the sun;
ii.(Abaye): That is why people say 'a sickness lightens when day comes.
6.Also, he was blessed 'ba'Kol', that he died before Esav rebelled, and Yishmael repented in Avraham's lifetime.
4)YISHMAEL REPENTED, BUT ESAV DID NOT
(a)Question: What is the source that that Avraham died before Esav rebelled?
(b)Answer: The day that Esav sold his birthright, Yakov was cooking lentils to console Yitzchak, for Avraham died that day.
(c)Question: Why are lentils fitting for a mourner?
(d)Answer #1 (Rabah bar Mari): Just like lentils have no mouth (opening), also a mourner (talks little).
(e)Answer #2: Just like lentils are round, also mourning is a cycle, everyone will eventually be mourned over by others.
(f)Question: What is the difference between these answers?
(g)Answer: They argue about consoling with eggs (they have no mouth, but they are not round like a circle).
(h)(R. Yochanan): Esav committed five transgressions that day. He had Bi'ah with a Na'arah Me'orasah, he murdered, he denied Hash-m, he denied revival of the dead, and he cast off the privilege of the firstborn (i.e. to do the Avodah).
(i)Question: What is the source that Yishmael repented in Avraham's lifetime?
(j)Answer: We learn from the following.
1.Question (Ravina): Does 'Geviyah' always refer to a Tzadik's death?
2.Answer (Rav Chama bar Buzi): Yes.
3.Question (Ravina): It says this regarding the generation of the flood!
4.Answer (Rav Chama): I meant that 'Geviyah' and 'Asifah' together always refer to a Tzadik's death
5.Question: It says 'Geviyah' and 'Asifah' by Yishmael!
6.Answer (Rava): R. Yochanan taught that Yishmael repented in Avraham's lifetime.
i.It says "va'Yikberu Oso Yitzchak v'Yishmael" (Yitzchak was first).
7.Question: Perhaps the verse lists them in order of their Chachmah!
8.Rejection "Va'Yikberu Oso Esav v'Yakov"!
i.Rather, we must say that Yitzchak is listed first because Yishmael deferred to him, i.e. he repented.