1)SOME REWARDS OF THE GREATEST TZADIKIM

(a)(Beraisa): Hash-m gave three people a taste of the world to come: Avraham, Yitzchak and Yakov.

1.They were blessed with "ba'kol", "mi'Kol", and "Kol" respectively.

2.This also shows that these are the only three over whom the evil inclination did not rule.

(b)Some say, also David was not under its rule - "v'Libi Chalal b'Kirbi"

(c)The first Tana holds that David merely expressed his pain.

(d)(Beraisa): The angel of death did not rule over six people: Avraham, Yitzchak and Yakov (as above), and Moshe, Aharon and Miryam who died "Al Pi Hash-m".

(e)Question: It does not say "Al Pi Hash-m" regarding Miryam!

(f)Answer (R. Elazar): A Gezeirah Shavah "Sham-Sham" teaches that Miryam also died through Hash-m's kiss!

1.It is not proper for the Torah to say this explicitly, so it did not.

(g)(Beraisa): Seven people were not consumed by worms after death: Avraham, Yitzchak, Yakov, Moshe, Aharon and Miryam (as above), and Binyamin ("Yishkon la'Vetach").

(h)Some say, also David was not - "Ach Besari Yishkon la'Vetach".

1.The first Tana holds that this was a request for mercy.

(i)(Beraisa): Four people died only due to (Adam's sin through) the snake: Binyamin, Amram, Yishai, and David's son Kalev.

1.It says "Avigayil Bas Nachash", even though she was Yishai's daughter, to teach that he died only due to the snake.

2.We have a tradition about the other three.

PEREK LO YACHPOR

2)DISTANCING TO PREVENT DAMAGE

(a)(Mishnah): One may not dig a (round) pit close to his neighbor's pit, nor may he dig a long or roofed pit, or an irrigation channel, or a laundry ditch, unless he distances three Tefachim (handbreadths) from his neighbor's pit, and plasters the wall of the pit;

(b)One must distance the refuse of olives, manure, salt, lime, and rocks three Tefachim from his neighbor's wall, and/or apply plaster;

(c)One may not plant seeds, plow, or put urine within three Tefachim of his neighbor's wall;

(d)The lower stone of a millstone must be distanced three Tefachim, and the upper stone will be four Tefachim away;

(e)The bottom of an oven must be distanced three Tefachim, and the top will be four Tefachim away.

17b----------------------------------------17b

(f)(Gemara) Question: The Mishnah first says 'he must distance from a pit'; then it says 'from the wall'!

(g)Answer (Abaye): It means, from the wall of his pit.

(h)Question: Why doesn't it just say 'he distances three Tefachim from his neighbor's pit?'

(i)Answer: The Mishnah teaches that the wall of a pit should be three Tefachim. (The interior of one's pit is three Tefachim from his neighbor's wall; we assume that his neighbor's wall fills the three Tefachim he needed to distance from the border.)

1.This is relevant to commerce.

2.(Beraisa): If one sells a pit and its wall, the wall must be three Tefachim.

3)DISTANCING FROM THE BORDER

(a)(Abaye): One may dig a pit at the edge of his property if his neighbor does not have a pit nearby;

(b)(Rava): No, he must distance three Tefachim from the border.

(c)Version #1: In a type of field in which people generally dig pits, all agree that he must distance from the border;

(d)They argue when it is the type in which people generally do not dig pits.

1.Abaye allows him to dig at the edge, for in such a field, we do not expect that the neighbor will want to dig a pit (nearby);

2.Rava says that he must distance three Tefachim from the border. Just like he decided to dig a pit in such a field, perhaps his neighbor will also want to.

(e)Version #2: In a type of field in which people do not generally dig pits, all agree that he may dig up to the border;

(f)They argue when it is the type in which people generally dig pits.

1.Abaye allows him to dig at the edge.

i.Even Chachamim, who forbid planting a tree within 25 Amos of a neighbor's pit, say so only about an existing pit. Here, there is no pit when he digs;

2.Rava says that he must distance three Tefachim from the border.

i.Even R. Yosi, who says that just like Shimon may dig in is his own property, his neighbor may plant in his own property, and need not distance himself, says so only about planting, because the roots that will cause the damage are not present when he plants;

ii.Here, every shovel full of dirt excavated softens the neighboring land, so he must distance himself.

(g)(Mishnah): A man may not dig a pit near his neighbor's pit ...

1.Inference: This is only because his neighbor has a pit there. If not, he would not have to distance himself!

(h)Version #1: We understand according to Version #2. In a type of field in which people do not generally dig pits, all agree that he may dig up to the border;

1.The Mishnah discusses a field in which people generally do not dig pits.

(i)According to the first version, they argue about a field in which people generally do not dig pits.

(j)We understand according to Abaye (it is such a field).

(k)Question: The Mishnah is difficult for Rava!

(l)Answer (Rava): Abaye himself taught that the Mishnah says that Reuven must distance himself from the (potential) wall of his neighbor's pit (i.e. even if he is the first to dig).

(m)Version #2: (Abaye): The Mishnah says that Reuven must distance himself from the (potential) wall of his neighbor's pit (i.e. even if he is the first to dig).

1.We understand according to Version #1 (of the dispute between Abaye and Rava). In a type of field in which people generally dig pits, all agree that he must distance himself. The Mishnah discusses a field in which people generally dig pits.

2.According to Version #2, they argue about a field in which people generally dig pits.

3.Question: The Mishnah is like Rava (it is such a field), but it is difficult for Abaye!

4.Answer (Abaye): The Mishnah discusses when both neighbors come to dig pits at the same time (therefore, each must distance himself).

(n)Question (Beraisa): One who wants to dig a pit in land in which the dirt is brittle must distance himself three Tefachim, and plaster. (This refutes Abaye in Version #2.)

(o)Answer: This is no refutation. Brittle dirt has a different law!

1.Question: Obviously, the Beraisa chose the case for this reason. Why didn't the one who asked the question anticipate this answer?

2.Answer: He thought that the Beraisa chose the case of brittle dirt to show that even then, it suffices to distance three Tefachim.

(p)(Mishnah): One must distance manure, salt, lime, rocks and the refuse of olives three Tefachim from his neighbor's wall, and apply plaster.

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