BAVA BASRA 16 (11 Shevat) - dedicated by Mordechai and Tzivia Bodner in memory of Tzivia's father, Mordechai Teitelbaum, on the day of his Yahrzeit.

[16a - 55 lines; 16b - 55 lines]

1)[line 2]" , , ; ""OD ZEH MEDABER V'ZEH BA VA'YOMAR, 'KASDIM SAMU SHELOSHAH ROSHIM VA'YIFSHETU AL HA'GEMALIM VA'YIKACHUM...'"- "While this one was speaking, another [messenger] came and said, 'The [army of the] Kasdim formed three groups and spread themselves around the camels and took them away, [and the lads they struck down with the sword; and only I escaped in order to tell you].'" (Iyov 1:17)

2)[line 7]" ..." "VA'YAKAM IYOV VA'YIKRA ES ME'ILO VA'YAGAZ ES ROSHO..."- "Iyov stood up and tore his coat, and he pulled out the hair of his head; [and he fell upon the ground and bowed [to HaSh-m].]" (Iyov 1:20)

3)[line 9]" , " "B'CHOL ZOS LO CHATA IYOV, V'LO NASAN TIFLAH L'EILOKIM"- "With all this, Iyov did not sin, and he did not ascribe wrongdoing to HaSh-m." (Iyov 1:22)

4)[line 11]" ' , ; ' , ""VA'YOMER HASH-M EL HA'SATAN, 'EI MI'ZEH TAVO?'; VA'YA'AN HA'SATAN ES HASH-M VA'YOMAR, 'MI'SHUT BA'ARETZ [UMEI'HIS'HALECH BAH']"- "HaSh-m said to the Satan, 'From where have you come?' The Satan answered HaSh-m and said, 'From traversing the land [and traveling in it']." (Iyov 2:2)

5)[line 17]" , " "... V'ODENU MACHAZIK B'SUMASO, VA'TESISEINI VO L'VAL'O CHINAM"- "... He is still holding strong to his wholesomeness, and you persuaded Me to destroy him for no reason." (Iyov 2:3)

6)[line 18], K'ADAM, SHE'MESISIN OSO V'NISAS- just like a person, whom people can persuade and he is persuaded

7a)[line 18] YORED U'MAS'EH- he goes down (to earth) to cause a person to go wayward (and to sin)

b)[line 18] V'OLEH U'MARGIZ- and he goes up [to Shamayim] and arouses His anger (against the person whom he persuaded to sin)

c)[line 18] NOTEL RESHUS V'NOTEL NESHAMAH- he receives permission (from HaSh-m) to take away the person's Neshamah (i.e. to kill him)

8)[line 19]" , " " OR B'AD OR, V'CHOL ASHER LA'ISH YITEN B'AD NAFSHO"- "[The Satan answered HaSh-m and said,] 'Skin for the sake of skin - and everything that a man has he will give for his life.'" (Iyov 2:4)

9)[line 24] ALMA B'DIDEI KAIMA- therefore, [it is evident that] it is in his hands [to kill a person]

10)[line 24]PENINAH

Peninah was one of the wives of Elkanah, the father of the prophet Shmuel. She had a number of children, whereas Elkanah's other wife, Chanah, had none. Peninah taunted Chanah, making her even more distraught, so that Chanah would pray even more fervently and merit a child. Eventually, Chanah gave birth to the prophet Shmuel and a number of other children. With each child born to Chanah, two of Peninah's children died as punishment for her taunting. (Even though her intentions were l'Shem Shamayim, for Chanah's benefit, since they nevertheless caused Chanah to suffer, Peninah was punished, as in all cases of sins Bein Adam l'Chaveiro - SICHOS MUSAR by RAV CHAYIM SHMUELEVITZ). Peninah begged Chanah to forgive her and pray for her, and the last two children of Peninah survived.

11)[line 25] D'NATYEI DA'ATEI BASAR IYOV- that His (HaSh-m's) favor was being inclined toward Iyov

12)[line 25] () MINSHI LEI L'RACHMENUSEI D'AVRAHAM- He is forgetting His love for Avraham

13)[line 26]" , ; [ ' ]""V'CHI'ASATAH TZARASAH GAM KA'AS, BA'AVUR HARE'IMAH, [KI SAGAR HASH-M B'AD RACHMAH]" - " And her rival would provoke her time and time again, in order to irritate her [to induce her to pray]; for HaSh-m had shut her womb" (Shmuel I 1:6) (CHANAH AND PENINAH)

(a)The Midrash, based on the verse (Shmuel I 2:5), "... until the barren one bore seven and the one with many children mourned," explains that Chanah actually gave birth to another six children (four in reality, as we will now explain), besides Shmuel. She gave birth to another two boys and two girls, and each time she bore a child, two of Peninah's children died. When she bore her fifth child, Peninah fell at her feet and pleaded with her to have mercy on her. Her remaining two children lived, but they were considered Chanah's, hence the six children.

(b)The above is the opinion of Rebbi Nechemyah. According to Rebbi Yehudah, Shmuel remained Chanah's only child, and "seven" refers to her grandchildren. "Others" (Rebbi Nasan) points out that "Shivah" refers to Shmuel, whose numerical value it shares.

14)[line 26] PAPONYA- the name of a city (presumably Epiphania, a city on the Euphrates River)

15)[line 27] NASHKEI L'CHAR'EI- he kissed his feet (the Satan kissed the feet of Rav Acha bar Yakov for judging him favorably)

16)[line 27] ?MAI KA'AMAR?- what was it that Iyov said (that could be considered a sin)?

17)[line 28]" , ; [], ""ERETZ NITENAH V'YAD RASHA, PENEI SHOFTEHAH YECHASEH; IM LO EFO, MI HU?"- "The earth is given over into the hands of the wicked, who covers the faces of the judges; for if not [he], then who [does this]?" (Iyov 9:24)

18)[line 28] LAHAFOCH KE'ARAH AL PIHA- to overturn the platter onto its face (that is, he attempted to discredit the authority of HaSh-m, Chas v'Shalom, by inferring that the wicked run the world at their whim while HaSh-m stands idly by)

19)[line 29] LO DIBER IYOV ELA KENEGED HA'SATAN- Iyov was only speaking against the Satan (he was not inferring that the honor of HaSh-m is not present in the world, but rather he was just saying that the Satan makes it appear that way)

20)[line 30]" , " "AL DA'TECHA KI LO ERSHA, V'EIN MI'YADCHA MATZIL"- "You know that I will not become wicked, and no one can be saved from your hand." (Iyov 10:7)

21a)[line 32] PARSOSAV SEDUKOS- its hooves are split

b)[line 32] PARSOSAV KELUTOS- its hooves are closed

22)[line 33] MI ME'AKEV AL YADCHA- who is holding You back (from turning the wicked into righteous people)

23)[line 33]" ; ""AF ATAH TAFER YIR'AH, V'SIGRA SICHAH LIFNEI KEL"- "You even abolish fear [of HaSh-m], and you belittle prayer before HaSh-m." (Iyov 15:4)

24)[line 34] TAVLIN- spices/herbs (just like herbs are used as remedies against illness, the Torah is the remedy against the Yetzer ha'Ra; alternatively, just like spices are used to give taste to a food, the Torah guides a person and enables him to direct his Yetzer ha'Ra towards productive ends)

25)[line 35]" " "BIRKAS OVED ALAI TAVO, V'LEV ALMANAH ARNIN"- "The blessing of the one who was lost would come upon me, and I would cause the heart of the widow to sing joyously." (Iyov 29:13)

26)[line 36] SHADI SHEMEI ILAVAH- he would place his name upon her (meaning that he would claim her as a relative, or he would recommend that others marry her)

27)[line 37] HAVU ASU NASVEI LAH- people would come to marry her (after hearing that she was related to Iyov)

28)[line 37]" , ""LU SHAKOL YISHAKEL KA'SI, V'HAVASI B'MOZNAYIM YIS'U YACHAD"- "If only my anger was would be weighed, and my suffering carried together with it on a scale." (Iyov 6:2)

29)[line 37] !AFRA L'FUMEI D'IYOV!- dirt in the mouth of Iyov!

30)[line 38] ?!CHAVRUSA KELAPEI SHEMAYA?!- Does he think he is a peer of Heaven?!

31)[line 38]"() [] , " "(LU) [LO] YESH BEINEINU MOCHI'ACH, YASHES YADO AL SHENEINU"- "There is no judge between us who could place his hand on both of us." (Iyov 9:33)

32)[line 39]" , " "BRIS KARATI L'EINAI, U'MAH ESBONEN AL BESULAH?"- "I made a covenant with my eyes, [saying to myself,] 'For what should I gaze at a virgin?'" (Iyov 31:1)

33)[line 40] IHU B'ACHARANISA- he at another woman (other than his wife)

34)[line 41]" , " "KALAH ANAN VA'YELACH, KEN YORED SHE'OL LO YA'ALEH"- "Just as a cloud dissipates and goes, so one who descends to the grave will not rise up." (Iyov 7:9)

35)[line 42]" , " "ASHER BI'SE'ARAH YESHUFENI V'HIRBAH FETZA'AI CHINAM"- "For in the storm wind it crushes me, and He increases my wounds for no reason." (Iyov 9:17)

36)[line 42] BI'SE'ARAH CHEREF- he blasphemed using the word "storm"

37)[line 45]" , " "EZAR NA CH'GEVER CHALATZECHA, V'ESH'ALCHA V'HODI'ENI"- "Gird, now, your loins like a strong man, and I will ask you and you will tell Me." (Iyov 38:3)

38)[line 45] NIMA- hair

39)[line 46] GUMA- hair follicle, the hole from which each hair grows

40)[line 47] MACHSHICHOS ME'OR EINAV SHEL ADAM- they would darken the light of the eyes (i.e. eyesight) of a person

41)[line 48]" ..." "MI FILAG LA'SHETEF TE'ALAH..."- "Who digs out for the rain a channel..." (Iyov 38:25)

42)[line 49] DEFUS- a form

43)[line 50] METASHTESHOS ES HA'ARETZ- it would make the earth muddy

44)[line 52]"[ ',] [ ]""[VA'YIVNEH ES HA'AVANIM MIZBE'ACH B'SHEM HASH-M,] VA'YA'AS TE'ALAH K'VEIS SASAYIM ZERA [SAVIV LA'MIZBE'ACH]" - "[And he built the stones into a Mizbe'ach in the Name of HaSh-m,] and he dug a ditch measuring approximately two Se'ah [around the Mizbe'ach. He then arranged the wood, cut the bull into pieces, and placed them on the wood]" (Melachim I 18:32) (ELIYAHU AND THE PROPHETS OF BA'AL)

(a)When the wicked King Ach'av referred to Eliyahu ha'Navi as "Ocher Yisrael" (one who destroys Israel) for having decreed a famine in the land, the latter arranged a confrontation with the 850 prophets of the idols Ba'al and Asheirah on Mount Carmel. All of Yisrael was invited to witness the event, at which Eliyahu intended to demonstrate to Yisrael that HaSh-m is the true G-d.

(b)Eliyahu addressed Yisrael and challenged them to make up their minds, whether to worship HaSh-m or Ba'al. He brought out two bulls, one of which the prophets of Ba'al would choose, leaving him with the other. Both parties would then prepare an altar and firewood, on which they would place their cut-up bull as a sacrifice. Each party would then beseech his god to send fire from Heaven and consume their animal. The G-d Who would respond would prove Himself to be the true G-d.

(c)The entire morning, up until close to Minchah time, accompanied by the taunts of Eliyahu, the prophets of Ba'al ranted and raved, pranced on their altar, and, in their frenzy, even cut themselves in an attempt to arouse their god, but to no avail. Eliyahu then called upon Yisrael to watch carefully. He began by rebuilding a Mizbe'ach that King Shaul had once built (and the idolaters had demolished), and by digging a ditch around it. Then, after cutting up the bull and placing it on the wood which he had arranged on the altar, he ordered four large jugs of water to be poured over the animal and the wood. The people did so, and the water flowed into the ditch and filled it.

(d)It was at Minchah time that he finished his preparations and prayed to HaSh-m to answer his prayers and show the people that He is G-d. As he finished his prayer, a fire descended from Heaven and burned the bull, together with the wood and the stones of the altar, and it even licked the water in the ditch and dried it up. The people understood the message and announced unanimously, "HaSh-m is G-d!"

45)[line 53] SHEVIL BIFNEI ATZMO- a path all for itself

46)[last line]" ; " HA'YADATA ES LEDES YA'ALEI SALA; CHOLEL AYALOS TISHMOR?"- "Do you know the time when the mountain goats give birth; can you anticipate the labor pains of the hinds?" (Iyov 39:1)

47)[last line] SHE'KORA'AS LALEDES- that it bends down to give birth


48)[line 1] SHE'YIPOL MIMENAH- so that it (the baby) will fall from it (the mountain) [and die]

49)[line 6] RACHMAH TZAR- its womb is narrow

50)[line 7] DERAKON- a serpent

51)[line 8] SHE'MAKISHAH- that it bites her

52)[line 8] U'MISRAPAH MI'MOLDAH- and it expands it (the womb) to allow it to give birth

53)[line 12]"[ ' ; ' , ,] ""[VA'YEHI ACHAR DIBER HASH-M ES HA'DEVARIM HA'EILEH EL IYOV; VA'YOMER HASH-M EL ELIFAZ HA'TEIMANI, 'CHARAH API VECHA UVI'SHNEI RE'ECHA,] KI LO DIBARTEM EILAI NECHONAH KE'AVDI IYOV'" - "[And it was after HaSh-m spoke these words to Iyov, that HaSh-m said to Elifaz ha'Teimani, 'I am angry with you and with your two friends,] for you did not speak to me correctly like My servant Iyov did.'" (Iyov 42:7) (IYOV'S FRIENDS ARE FOUND GUILTY)

(a)HaSh-m takes Elifaz and his two friends (Bildad ha'Shuchi and Tzofar ha'Na'amasi) to task for attributing Iyov's suffering to his sins, when in fact it was merely a test at the hands of the Satan. Iyov, on the other hand, may have claimed that "HaSh-m destroys the righteous together with the wicked." This, in turn, Iyov ascribed to the theory that HaSh-m had left the running of the world to the "Ma'areches ha'Shamayim" (the Mazalos), thereby bringing suffering upon Iyov. While in obvious pain, Iyov declared that a person cannot be taken to task for what he says in his suffering. This also explains why, in spite of his blasphemous words, HaSh-m nevertheless referred to him as "My servant."

(b)In any event, Iyov's three friends were finally proven wrong in their assessment of Iyov. Consequently, their accusations served only to add to his suffering instead of consoling him in his bitter suffering like Elihu did.

(c)HaSh-m ordered them to take seven bulls and seven rams and to go with them to Iyov. They were to bring them as sacrifices to atone for their sin. HaSh-m assured them that He would accept their Korban, provided that Iyov would pray on their behalf. They followed HaSh-m's instructions, and HaSh-m accepted Iyov's prayer on their behalf and forgave them.

54)[line 18]" " "... VA'YIVA'ADU YACHDAV LA'VO LA'NUD LO UL'NACHAMO"- "[Iyov's three friends heard about all this evil that had befallen him, and they came, each man from his place...] and they joined together to come to comfort him and to console him." (Iyov 2:11)

55)[line 21] SHELOSH ME'OS PARSEI- three hundred Parso'as (each Parsah is four Mil, and one Mil is 2000 Amos)

56)[line 22]( ) [ ] KELILEI HAVU LEHU- they each had crowns

57)[line 22] [] ILANEI HAVU LEHU- they each had trees

58)[line 23] KAMSHEI- it withered

59)[line 25] REVIYAH BA'AH LA'OLAM- reproduction comes to the world (see Insights here)

60)[line 26] MERIVAH BA'AH LA'OLAM- argument comes to the world (if the husband does not have merit, his wife argues with him)

61)[line 28]" . , , ""VA'YEHI LO SHIV'ANAH VANIM V'SHALOSH BANOS. VA'YIKRA SHEM HA'ACHAS 'YEMIMAH', V'SHEM HA'SHENIS 'KETZI'AH', V'SHEM HA'SHELISHIS 'KEREN HA'PUCH'" - "And he had fourteen sons and three daughters. One daughter he called 'Yemimah,' the second he called 'Ketzi'ah,' and the third 'Keren ha'Puch' (the shine of a Puch, a precious stone)." (Iyov 42:13-14) (IYOV IS COMPENSATED FOR HIS SUFFERING)

(a)In the preceding verses, Iyov was blessed with double of what he had previously. The sole exception was daughters, where the additional blessing manifested itself in their beauty, rather than in their numbers. In fact, their names reflected their beauty: The first was pure and white like the day, the second was as fragrant as the Ketzi'ah spice, and the third shone like a "Puch."

(b)The Sefer ends by telling us that Iyov, who was seventy at the time that he was stricken, lived for another 140 years. He lived to see four generations of offspring, and he died an old, satiated man.

62)[line 29] REICHAH NODEF KI'KETZI'AH- her scent emanates like Ketzi'ah (cassia, an organic bark)

63)[line 30] KARNA D'KERESH- the horn of the Keresh (a Keresh is a wild animal with black horns, possibly an antelope)

64)[line 30] MECHAICHU ALAH B'MA'ARAVA- they laughed at this interpretation in Eretz Yisrael

65)[line 30] LEKUSA HI- it is a blemish

66)[line 30] KURKEMA D'RISHKA B'MINEI- the finest Kurkema d'Rishka (O.F. crog orientel, garden safflower or saffron) of its type

67)[line 31]" []" "KI SIK'RE'I VA'PUCH [EINAYICH]"- "If you paint [your eyes] with mascara" (Yirmeyahu 4:30)

68)[line 31] HAVAH KA CHALASH DA'ATEI- he was feeling upset, dejected

69)[line 32] TANCHUMIN SHEL HEVEL NICHAMACH AVUCH- with empty words of comfort has your father comforted you

70a)[line 34] BASAM- a spice and perfume merchant

b)[line 34] BURSI- a tanner, who uses animal excrement to tan hides

71)[line 36] ACHERIM OMRIM- others say. (Although "Acherim" normally refers to Rebbi Meir, as the Gemara says in Horayos (13b), here it cannot refer to Rebbi Meir because he clearly argues with this opinion. TOSFOS (to Berachos 9b, Sotah 12a, and Avodah Zarah 64b) points out that "Acherim" indeed does not necessary always refer to Rebbi Meir.)

72)[line 36] ITZTAGNINUS HAYESAH B'LIBO- he had the wisdom of astrology in his heart

73)[line 39] B'GALGAL CHAMAH- with the sphere of the sun

74a)[line 39] IDLI YOMA- when the day (i.e. sun) goes up

b)[line 39] IDLI KETZIRA- the illness is lifted

75a)[line 43] MAH ADASHAH ZO EIN LAH PEH- just like a lentil has no mouth (no opening)

b)[line 43] AVEL EIN LO PEH- a mourner has no mouth (for he sits silently)

76)[line 43] MEGULGELES- it rolls

77)[line 44] MACHZERES AL BA'EI HA'OLAM- it comes around to everyone in the world

78)[line 44] L'NACHUMEI B'VEI'EI- to comfort mourners with eggs (an egg does not roll, since it is an oval shape and not a circle, but it does not have an opening)

79)[line 45] KAFAR BA'IKAR- he denied the Source (the presence of HaSh-m in the world)

80)[line 45] SHAT ES HA'BECHORAH- he disgraced the right of the firstborn (referring to the privilege of performing the Divine Avodah)

81)[line 47]" " "OY NA LI, KI AYFAH NAFSHI L'HORGIM"- "Woe now unto me, for my soul has become weary because of the killers." (Yirmeyahu 4:31)

82)[line 50] V'KA MENAMNEM- and he was dozing

83)[line 50] VADAI D'AMRISU- certainly you have said

84)[line 51] KOL MISAH SHE'YESH BAH GEVI'AH- every time the Torah refers to someone's death as "Gevi'ah"

85)[line 52], AD'HACHI, IS'AR BEHU RAVA- in the meantime, Rava woke up

86)[line 52]! DARDEKEI!- You fools! (lit. young students, who have not reached a level where they can make analytical deductions)

87)[line 54] MID'AKDEMEI- from the fact that he let him lead (Yishmael let Yitzchak go in front of him)

88)[last line] ADBUREI ADBEREI- [he treated him with respect and] led him [to go first]


Background to the Daf - BAVA BASRA 16 6