[15a - 54 lines; 15b - 55 lines]

1)[line 2] CHIZKIYAH V'SIYATO- Chizkiyah and his entourage

2)[line 3] ANSHEI KENESES HA'GEDOLAH

The Torah leaders and prophets who lived at the beginning of the period of the second Beis ha'Mikdash were called the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah (Sages of the Great Assembly). These 120 sages were responsible for setting laws and enforcing them, teaching Torah, enacting decrees to strengthen observance of the Torah and the Mitzvos, and canonizing the prayers. Shimon ha'Tzadik, who lived at the time of Alexander the Great, was "from the remnants of the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah" (Avos 1:2). The Mishnah in Avos (1:1) quotes these sages' instructions: "Be patient in judgment; raise up many students; and make a fence [as a guard] for the Torah."

3)[line 6] , V'YACHAS SHEL DIVREI HA'YAMIM, AD LO- and he (Ezra) wrote all of the lineage that is contained in Divrei Ha'Yamim, until the point that he wrote his own lineage

4)[line 8] ?U'MAN ASKEI?- and who is the one that completed the book of Divrei Ha'Yamim?

5)[line 18] MOSHE KOSEV B'DEMA- Moshe was writing these verses with tears (as these verses discuss his own death) (For an alternative explanation, see Kol Eliyahu by the Vilna Ga'on).

6)[line 19]" , ; ""VA'YOMER LAHEM BARUCH: 'MI'PIV YIKRA EILAI ES KOL HA'DEVARIM HA'EILEH, VA'ANI KOSEV AL HA'SEFER BA'DEYO'" - "And Baruch said to them: 'From his (Yirmeyahu's) mouth he read out to me all these words, and I was writing upon the scroll with ink.'" (Yirmeyahu 36:18) (THE WRITING OF MEGILAS EICHAH)

(a)In the fourth year of the reign of Yehoyakim ben Yoshiyahu (one of the most wicked kings ever to sit on the throne of Yehudah), HaSh-m commanded Yirmeyahu, who was in jail at the time, to transcribe Megilas Eichah (which He had just taught him), in the unlikely hope that if it would reach the ears of Yisrael, they would take its contents to heart and do Teshuvah.

(b)Yirmeyahu immediately called for his disciple, Baruch ben Neriyah, and dictated to him the Megilah, while the latter transcribed it. He then instructed Baruch to take the scroll to Yerushalayim and read it in front of the people of Yerushalayim and the cities of Yehudah when they would assemble there on a fast day. Many of the officers were duly moved by Megilas Eichah and asked him to read it to them again. They decided there and then to have the scroll read before the king, but first they wanted to know whether the entire contents had been dictated by Yirmeyahu, or whether only the main sections had been dictated by him and the details supplied by Baruch. The verse quoted in the Gemara is Baruch ben Neriyah's reply.

(c)After advising Baruch to arrange for Yirmeyahu and himself to hide (to escape the probable wrath of Yehoyakim upon hearing the Megilah), the officers organized for the Megilah to be taken in to the king and read before him.

(d)It was in the month of Kislev of the fifth year of Yehoyakim's reign that Megilas Eichah was brought before him, as he sat in his winter-room in front of the coal fire. (See also Background to Moed Katan 26:19.)

7)[line 23] YACHID KOREI OSAN- one individual must read them, without interruption (RASHI, RABEINU TAM; see Insights to this Daf for five other explanations)

8)[line 24] , HO'IL V'ISHTENU, ISHTENU- since they were written differently than other verses, they also have a different Halachic status

9)[line 26]"[ ,] ', [ ]""[VA'YEHI ACHAREI HA'DEVARIM HA'EILEH,] VA'YAMAS YEHOSHUA BIN NUN EVED HASH-M, [BEN ME'AH VA'ESER SHANAH]" - "[And it was after these things,] Yehoshua bin Nun the servant of HaSh-m died, [at the age of a hundred and ten]." (Yehoshua 24:29) (THE DEATH OF YEHOSHUA BIN NUN)

(a)The preceding event referred to in the verse was the setting up of a large stone as a symbol of the promise that he elicited from all the twelve tribes, whom he had gathered in Shechem, that they would serve only HaSh-m and no other gods.

(b)Chazal explain that, in reality, Yehoshua was destined to live until the age of a hundred and twenty (like his Rebbi, Moshe). However, he lost ten years of his life because - thinking that he would live until the conclusion of the conquest of Kena'an - he procrastinated over the war with the Kena'anim in a subconscious attempt at prolonging the conquest, thereby prolonging his own life. He did not take his cue from his Rebbi in this matter, who had immediately sent troops to fight with Midyan even though he knew that he was destined to die after the battle.

10)[line 26] D'ASKEI ELAZAR- that Elazar (the son of Aharon ha'Kohen) completed it (the Book of Yehoshua).

11)[line 39]" ; [ ]""MI YITEN EFO V'YIKASVUN MILAI; [MI YITEN BA'SEFER V'YUCHAKU]"- "If only my words would be written; [if only they would be engraved in a book]." (Iyov 19:23)

12)[line 40]" ""U'VAMEH YIVADA EFO"- "How, then, will it be known..." (Shemos 33:16)

13)[line 42]" , ""IM KEN EFO, ZOS ASU"- "If it must be so, then do this..." (Bereishis 43:11)

14)[line 45]" , ""VA'YAR REISHIS LO, KI SHAM CHELKAS MECHOKEK SAFUN"- "He (Gad) chose the first portion for himself, for that is where the share (burial place) of the lawgiver is hidden." (Devarim 33:21) - The "lawgiver," or "Mechokek," refers to Moshe Rabeinu.

15)[line 46]" , ...""ISH HAYAH B'ERETZ UTZ, IYOV SHEMO; [V'HAYAH HA'ISH HA'HU TAM VE'YASHAR VI'YEREI ELOKIM VE'SAR ME'RA]" - "There was a man in the land of Utz, Iyov was his name; [and that man was of good character, a man of integrity, one who feared G-d and kept away from sin]" (Iyov 1:1) (IYOV)

(a)Although the Gemara presents various explanations as to who Iyov was and when he lived, the commentaries agree that the place "Utz" was located in Aram Naharayim. (Utz was the first-born of Nachor, Avraham Avinu's brother, as the Torah records in Bereishis 22:21.) Iyov had seven sons and three daughters, and owned vast flocks of animals. He was in fact the wealthiest man in the eastern lands (Iyov 1:2-3).

(b)His sons would take turns organizing a daily feast; each one would invite all of his siblings. After each cycle, Iyov would invite his children to his house, where he would teach them ethics and bring burnt-offerings on their behalf (ibid. 4-5).

(c) One Rosh Hashanah, the defending angels, together with the Satan, arrived at the Heavenly court to stand before HaSh-m as He judged the world. HaSh-m asked the Satan (one is not permitted to speak before one's superior until addressed by him) whether, during his travels, he had taken note of "His servant Iyov, who had no equal among his peers in matters of character and integrity, a man who fears HaSh-m and turns away from evil." The Satan replied that it was not surprising that Iyov behaved in this way, seeing as HaSh-m blessed him with such vast wealth and he lacked nothing.

(d)HaSh-m granted the Satan permission to do whatever he wished with everything that Iyov owned. (The Gemara will expound from the Book of Iyov in the coming two Daf.)

16)[line 48] SHE'SHENOSAV ARUCHOS K'ETZ- that his years are as lengthy as [the years of] a tree

17)[line 51]" , , ; , ""VELA'RASH EIN KOL, KI IM KIVSAH ACHAS KETANAH ASHER KANAH, VA'YECHAYEHAH, VA'TIGDAL IMO V'IM BANAV YACHDAV; MI'PITO SOCHAL UMI'KOSO TISHTEH, UV'CHEIKO TISHKAV, VA'TEHI LO K'VAS" - "[And HaSh-m sent Nasan to David, and he came and said to him: 'Two neighbors lived in the same town, one rich and one poor. The rich man owned an abundance of sheep and cattle,] whereas the poor man owned nothing, but for the one little lamb that he had purchased, he sustained it and it grew up together with him and with his children; it ate from his bread, drank from his cup, and slept in his bosom, it was like a daughter to him." (Shmuel II 12:1-3) (THE RICH MAN AND HIS NEIGHBOR'S SHEEP)

(a)This is the parable that Nasan ha'Navi told David following his "sin" in sending Uriyah ha'Chiti to his death and taking Bas Sheva. (The meaning of the parable is that Uriyah had only one wife who was dear to him, whereas David already had many.)

(b)The story continues: The rich man received a guest, and deciding that it would be a pity to waste his own flock on his guest, so he took his neighbor's only lamb and slaughtered it.

(c)When David heard the story, he became incensed and - not realizing who the players were - pronounced a death sentence upon the callous wealthy man, as well as obligating him to repay the poor man fourfold for the lamb that he stole. At that point, the Navi pointed a finger at David and declared, "You are the man!"

(d)It was for this sin, coupled with that of causing Uriyah ha'Chiti to be killed (by sending him to the front line during a battle against the Pelishtim, and then having Yo'av withdraw the rest of the army leaving Uriyah alone in the line of fire), that the Navi informed David of the terrible troubles that he was now destined to suffer. He prophesied that "the sword would not depart from his house for the rest of his life," and that "his friend, a member of his own household" (i.e., his own son, Avshalom) would defile his wives before his very eyes. He added that although David sinned in secret, HaSh-m would punish him in public.

(e)When David reacted to the Navi's words by confessing his sin, the Navi replied that HaSh-m removed his sin and that he would not die (which he evidently would have had he not done so), but that because he had angered HaSh-m with the episode of Bas Sheva, the baby that she was expecting would die.

18)[line 53] ME'OLEI GOLAH HAYAH- he was one of those who came up to Eretz Yisrael from [the Babylonian] exile

15b----------------------------------------15b

19)[line 7]" ""MI'MISHPACHAS RAM"- "[The anger raged of Elihu, the son of Baracheil, descended from Buz] from the family of Ram...." (Iyov 32:2) - The fact that the verse describes his lineage indicates that he was a Jew. Alternatively, "Ram" refers to Avraham Avinu (RASHI).

20)[line 7] INVUY INVI- he directed his prophecy

21)[line 14] MECHAREF U'MEGADEF- to insult and curse

22)[line 16] L'TORDO MIN HA'OLAM- to push him out of the world (i.e. Olam ha'Ba, the World to Come)

23)[line 18]" , ""HEN ATEM KULCHEM CHAZISEM, V'LAMAH ZEH HEVEL TEHBALU"- "Behold, you have all seen [the way the Rasha is punished], so why do you speak foolish words?" (Iyov 27:12)

24)[line 25]" , [ ]""VA'YEVAKSHU NA'ARAH YAFAH B'CHOL GEVUL YISRAEL, [VA'YIMTZE'U ES AVISHAG HA'SHUNAMIS]..." - "[And his servants said to him: 'Let them search for my master, the king, a girl who is a virgin; let her stand before the king, and let her serve as a heater'... And they sought a beautiful girl in the entire borders of Israel, and they found Avishag ha'Shunamis." (Melachim I 1:2-3) (AVISHAG HA'SHUNAMIS)

(a)Chazal explain that, at the end of David ha'Melech's life (he was almost seventy at the time), clothes no longer warmed him. They attribute this to the episode where he cut off the corner of Shaul's coat in the cave. Someone who abuses clothes, they say, will eventually be unable to derive benefit from them. On the other hand, the verse's wording implies that it was a natural phenomenon of old age.

(b)Rashi, citing a Midrash, adds that David's blood had frozen out of fear when he saw the angel standing in Yerushalayim, sword in hand, as he was about to bring on the plague of pestilence (as recorded in the last chapter of Shmuel II). The first reason states the cause of David's punishment, and the second states the effect (HaSh-m strikes when the opportunity presents itself; see Sukah 53b).

(c)The reason why they looked for a virgin (implying a girl under the age of twelve) was that her body heat exceeds that of a Na'arah (who is over twelve), and that is one of the reasons why David Hamelech was not intimate with her (a sign of his great self-control). The other reason was that she was forbidden to him; since he already had eighteen wives, to marry her would have transgressed the prohibition of " " "v'Lo Yarbeh lo Nashim."

(d)Avishag ha'Shunamis was the sister of the Shunamis woman who would later host Eliyahu ha'Navi.

25a)[line 26] BI'YEMEI MALCHUS SHEVA- during the times of the Kingdom of Sheva (or the Queen of Sheba, who ruled at the time of Shlomo ha'Melech)

b)[line 27] BI'YEMEI KASDIM- during the times of the Empire of the Kasdim (the Bavlim, i.e. at the time of Nebuchadnezzar)

26)[line 32] MI SHARYA SHECHINAH- does the presence of the Shechinah rest itself [upon idolaters]

27)[line 33]" ""V'NIFLINU ANI V'AMCHA"- "I and Your people shall be made distinct" (Shemos 33:16).

28)[line 34] SHATUF B'ZIMAH- steeped in immorality

29)[line 35]" , ""SHUVI SHUVI HA'SHULAMIS, SHUVI SHUVI V'NECHEZEH BACH"- "Turn away, turn away, O perfect one, turn away, turn away and we shall glance at you." (Shir ha'Shirim 7:1)

30)[line 38] DOR SHE'SHOFET ES SHOFTAV- a generation that brings its judges to trial

31a)[line 38] , " () []"OMER LO, "TOL KISAM MI'BEIN (EINECHA) [SHINECHA]"- if the judge would say to a person, "Take the splinter from between your (eyes) [teeth]," that is, repent from the small sin that you committed

b)[line 39]" !""TOL KORAH MI'BEIN EINECHA!"- [then the litigant would respond to the judge,] "Take the beam from between your eyes!" That is, the judge committed much greater sins for which he must repent

32)[line 36]" , [ ; ]""CHAZON YESHAYAHU BEN AMOTZ, [ASHER CHAZAH AL YEHUDAH VI'YERUSHALAYIM; BI'YEMEI UZIYAHU, YOSAM, ACHAZ, YECHIZKIYAHU, MALCHEI YEHUDAH]" - "The vision of Yeshayahu ben Amotz (King Amatzyah's brother) [who prophesied on Yehudah and Yerushalayim; in the days of Uziyahu, Yosam, Achaz, and Chizkiyahu, kings of Yehudah]." (Yeshayah 1:1) (YESHAYAH HA'NAVI)

(a)Yeshayah began to prophesy on the day that Uziyahu ha'Melech was stricken with Tzara'as (the day of the earthquake, as recorded at the beginning of chapter 6), whereas this prophecy (Yeshayahu 1:1) was said much later.

(b)Yeshayah's prophesies were in no way restricted to Yehudah and Yerushalayim; in fact, he prophesied regarding other nations too, such as Bavel and Mo'av. This is why Chazal say that this prophecy was not his first but was actually said towards the end of his life, in the days of Chizkiyahu ha'Melech, after the Ten Tribes had already gone into Galus. (The Navi records that it was said with regard to Yehudah and Yerushalayim, implying that it was no longer directed to the Ten Tribes.)

(c)According to Chazal, the reason the Navi uses the term "Chazon" is because that is the harshest of the ten expressions of prophecy. This prophecy is indeed exceptionally harsh, referring to the terrible sins which the Jews were guilty of in the years leading up to the Galus, with a stress on the sins Bein Adam la'Chaveiro, between man and his fellow.

(d)Yeshayah lived a long time, and it was common for the prophets to outlive many kings. The reason for this is that "sovereignty kills its incumbents." Yeshayah outlived these four kings, until he was murdered by the evil Menasheh, the son of Chizkiyahu.

33)[line 43]SHATETI- I have traversed [the world]

34)[line 45] LO HIRHER ACHAR MIDOSECHA- he did not have any improper thoughts about your fairness

35)[line 45]" ...""HA'SAMTA LIBCHA"- "Have you placed your attention [upon My servant Iyov...]?" (Iyov 1:8)

36)[line 48] V'VATRAN B'MAMONO HAYAH- he was generous with his wealth

37)[line 49] IYOV VITRAH MI'SHELO- Iyov would cede the portion that was his

38)[line 49]" ... , ""HALO ATAH SACHTA VA'ADO UV'AD BEISO... MA'ASEH YADAV BERACHTA, U'MIKNEIHU PARATZ BA'ARETZ"- "Have You not been protective of him, his house, and all that belongs to him? You have blessed the work of his hands, and his flock has broken forth in the land." (Iyov 1:10)

39)[line 51] PARTZU GIDRO SHEL OLAM- they broke the manner of the world (that is, his livestock acted in an unusual manner)

40)[line 52]" , ; ""V'ULAM SHELACH NA YADCHA, V'GA B'CHOL ASHER LO; IM LO AL PANECHA YEVARCHEKA"- "However, stretch out Your hand and touch everything that is his; [and see] if he will not bless (euphemism for "curse") You in Your face." (Iyov 1:11)

41)[last line]... HIT'IMO... ME'EIN OLAM HA'BA- HaSh-m gave Iyov a taste of what Olam ha'Ba will be like

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