KASHERING FROM THE INSIDE
Question: Why are Klei Cheres in the Mikdash broken? We should return them to the furnace (in which they were made. They will be Husak from the inside and outside!)
Answer (R. Zeira): We do not make furnaces in Yerushalayim (due to the smoke).
Question (Abaye): Is it better to make wasteheaps (from all the broken Kelim)?
Abaye was unaware that Shemayah taught that broken Klei Cheres were miraculously swallowed up in their place.
Question: Rav Nachman taught that the oven in the Mikdash was made of metal.
(Inference: It was not made of Cheres, for Cheres cannot be Kashered.)
Since it is heated from the inside (the same place where it absorbs), it can be Kashered!
Answer: The Shtei ha'Lechem and Lechem ha'Panim were baked in the oven, therefore it was a Kli Shares; we do not make Klei Shares of Cheres;
Even R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah is lenient to allow Klei Shares only of wood, but not of Cheres.
MUST THE ENTIRE KLI BE SCOURED?
R. Yitzchak bar Yehudah used to learn from Rami bar Chama. He abandoned him, and went to learn from Rav Sheshes. One day he encountered Rami bar Chama.
Rami: Because you went to learn from Rav Sheshes, do you think that you are like Rav Sheshes?!
R. Yitzchak: No. I left you, for when I would ask you questions, you would answer from reasoning. If I find a Beraisa that says otherwise, it refutes you;
Rav Sheshes answers from Beraisos. Even if I find a Beraisa that says otherwise, it is no stronger than his Beraisa!
Rami: Ask me a question, and I will answer (from reasoning) just like a Beraisa!
Question (R. Yitzchak bar Yehudah): If Kodshim were cooked in part of a Kli, is Merikah u'Shtifah required for the part that was not over the fire?
Answer (Rami bar Chama): It is not required, like we find regarding Haza'ah. (We need not launder an entire garment if Dam Chatas splashed on part of it.)
R. Yitzchak: You did not answer me like a Beraisa!
Rami: Surely, the law of Merikah u'Shtifah parallels the law of Haza'ah!
R. Yitzchak: It is different. Blood does not spread through a garment, but cooking causes absorptions to spread through a Kli!
(Beraisa): Stringencies of Haza'ah (the need to wash Dam Chatas from a garment) over Merikah u'Shtifah are that Haza'ah applies to outer and inner Chata'os, and before Zerikah;
Stringencies of Merikah u'Shtifah over Haza'ah are that Merikah u'Shtifah apply to Kodshei Kodoshim and Kodshim Kalim, and if Kodshim were cooked in part of a Kli, the entire Kli requires Merikah u'Shtifah. This does not apply to Haza'ah.
Rami: The Beraisa refutes me.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: "V'Im bi'Chli Nechoshes Bushalah" applies even if it was cooked in part of the Kli.
WHAT REQUIRES MERIKAH U'SHTIFAH?
(Mishnah): The law (of Merikah u'Shtifah) applies to Kodshei Kodoshim (and Kodshim Kalim.)
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): "Chatas" teaches only about Chatas;
Question: What is the source to include all Kodshim?
Answer: It says "Kodesh Kodoshim Hi."
Suggestion: Perhaps even Terumah is included!
Rejection: "Osah" excludes Terumah.
R. Shimon says, Kodshei Kodoshim require Merikah u'Shtifah, but Kodshim Kalim do not;
"Kodesh Kodoshim" does not include Kodshim Kalim.
Question: What is R. Yehudah's reason?
Answer: Since "Osah" is needed to exclude Terumah, this implies that Kodshim Kalim are included.
R. Shimon uses "Osah" like above (93a, to exclude blood of a Pasul Chatas from the law of laundering.)
Question: Is it really true that Merikah u'Shtifah does not apply to Terumah?!
(Beraisa): One may not cook milk in a pot in which meat was cooked. If milk was cooked in it, if it absorbed the taste of meat, it is forbidden;
One may not cook Chulin in a pot in which Terumah was cooked. If Chulin was cooked in it, if it absorbed the taste of Terumah, only a Kohen may eat it.
Answer #1 (Abaye): If Kodshim was cooked in part of a Kli, the entire Kli requires Merikah u'Shtifah;
Regarding Terumah, only that part requires Merikah u'Shtifah.
Answer #2 (Rava): Regarding Kodshim, water must be used for Merikah u'Shtifah;
Regarding Terumah, even wine or mixed wine may be used.
Answer #3 (Rabah bar Ula): Regarding Kodshim, we require Merikah u'Shtifah in cold water in addition to Hag'alah (Kashering in boiling water);
Regarding Terumah, Hag'alah is sufficient.
Question: This is like the opinion that Merikah u'Shtifah is in cold water;
According to the opinion that Merikah is in hot water, and Shtifah is in cold water, how can we answer?
Answer: Kodshim requires an extra Shtifah.
(Mishnah - R. Tarfon): If one cooked Kodshim in a pot at the beginning of the festival, he may cook in it the entire festival (without Merikah u'Shtifah).
Chachamim say, until the (some texts - the entire) time the Kodshim are eaten (this will be explained.)
Merikah is like rinsing a cup (from the inside). Shtifah is like rinsing a cup (from the outside).
Merikah and Shtifah are in cold water. (Some texts - Merikah is in hot water, and Shtifah is in cold water.)