ZEVACHIM 31 - Dedicated by Elliot and Lori Linzer in honor of the birthday of Neti Linzer.

[31a - 41 lines; 31b - 40 lines]

1)[line 5] VA'YIKATZ K'YASHEN HA'PIGUL- the Pigul woke up like one who was sleeping. The person's first thought (to eat half of a k'Zayis of the Korban Chutz l'Zemano) did not make the Korban become Pigul, because it involved only a half of a k'Zayis. His second thought (to eat half of a k'Zayis of the Korban Chutz l'Mekomo) combined with the first thought to make the Korban become Pasul, but not Pigul. Now, when the person has a thought to eat an additional half of a k'Zayis Chutz l'Zemano, it joins the first thought and "wakes up" the "sleeping" status of Pigul. (This phrase is based on a verse, "va'Yikatz k'Yashen HaSh-m" - "HaSh-m was aroused like one who was sleeping, [like a warrior rousing himself from wine]" (Tehilim 78:65).)

2)[line 7]K'VEITZAH- an amount of a k'Veitzah [of food that is Tamei with Rishon l'Tum'ah (see next entry), which became mixed with food that is Tamei with Sheni l'Tum'ah]. The minimum amount of Tamei food required to make other food and drinks Tamei is a Beitzah (the size of a chicken egg without its shell, which is equivalent to approximately 0.05, 0.0576 or 0.1 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions).

3)[line 7] / / / OCHEL RISHON / OCHEL SHENI / AV HA'TUM'AH / VLAD HA'TUM'AH (TUM'AH: The Different Levels of Tum'ah)

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei.

(b)All sources of Tum'ah are called 'Av ha'Tum'ah' (a father of Tum'ah), except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah." All levels of Tum'ah below Av ha'Tum'ah are referred to as Vlad ha'Tum'ah (a 'child' of Tum'ah).

(c)When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah.

1.Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni.

2.Another case in which the object touched can retain the same level of Tum'ah as that which touched it is Cherev Harei Hu k'Chalal (see Insights to Pesachim 14b).

(d)A Sheni l'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. (If someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.)

(e)Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. For this reason, it is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is "Pasul" and may not be eaten.

(f)Utensils, foods, and Jewish people, can become Tamei, as follows. (Other animate or inanimate objects cannot become Tamei.)

1.Utensils made from the metals listed in the Torah (Bamidbar 31:22), or from wood, leather, fibers produced from hair or plants, bone, and earthenware (Cheres), can become Tamei. All but earthenware can be either an Av ha'Tum'ah or a Rishon l'Tum'ah; earthenware can only be a Rishon l'Tum'ah (RASHI Eruvin 104b DH Lo).

2.Foods can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or lower.

3.Jewish people can become Avos ha'Tum'ah (by touching a corpse), an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon. Chazal decreed that a person's hands can become Sheni l'Tum'ah; see Background to Gitin 15:26. Chazal also decreed that a person can become a Sheni l'Tum'ah or Shelishi l'Tum'ah by eating foods that are Tamei (see Shabbos 13b).

(g)A person or utensil that is Tamei can become Tahor again through immersion in a Mikvah and waiting until nightfall. After immersion in a Mikvah but before nightfall, the person or utensil is known as a Tevul Yom. A Tevul Yom is deemed the equivalent of a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and can make Terumah or Kodesh into a Shelishi. It is more lenient, however, than a normal Sheni l'Tum'ah and cannot make liquids into a Rishon (see above, c:1).

4)[line 8]SHE'BELALAN- that he mixed them with each other

5)[line 9]CHILKAN- he divided them

6)[line 11] KIKAR SHEL TERUMAH- a loaf of bread of Terumah

7)[line 11]PASLUHA- they make it Tamei as a Shelishi l'Tum'ah; see above, entry #3:d-e

8a)[line 14] HA'OCHEL SHE'NITMA B'AV HA'TUM'AH- food that became Tamei by [contact with] an Av ha'Tum'ah (and thus is a Rishon l'Tum'ah); see above, entry #3:b-c

b)[line 15] VESHE'NITMA BI'VLAD HA'TUM'AH- and food that became Tamei by [contact with] a Rishon l'Tum'ah (and thus is a Sheni l'Tum'ah); see above, entry #3:c

9)[line 16] L'TAMEI B'KAL SHEB'SHENEIHEM- [the food that is a Rishon l'Tum'ah and the food that is a Sheni l'Tum'ah combine, but only] to make another food Tamei with the more lenient form of Tum'ah of the two foods (that is, we treat the combination as a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and thus it makes Terumah become Pasul, and it does not make Terumah become a Sheni l'Tum'ah)

10)[line 17]" AF AL GAV D'HADAR MALYEI- even though, afterwards, he added more Rishon l'Tum'ah food to the mixture [to make the total amount of Rishon l'Tum'ah food equal to the size of a Beitzah]

11)[line 28]" ...""V'ES IZEVEL YOCHLU HA'KELAVIM..."- "And the dogs will eat Izevel..." (Melachim II 9:10) - The prophet foretells the morbid end of Achav, his wife Izevel, and his entire family. The Gemara derives from this verse that the act of eating of dogs is also considered "eating."

12)[line 31]"[ ,] ; [ ]""[KOL CHOSHECH TAMUN LI'TZFUNAV,] TE'ACHLEHU ESH LO NUPACH; [YERA SARID BE'AHOLO]"- "[Utter darkness is prepared for his treasures,] a fire not blown shall consume him; [it shall go ill for him that is left in his tent]" (Iyov 20:26).

31b----------------------------------------31b

13)[line 3] B'YESER MI'CHDEI ACHILAS PERAS - [a person had a thought to eat a k'Zayis of the meat of a Korban, Chutz l'Zemano,] in more time than "Kedei Achilas Peras" (K'ZAYIS BI'CHDEI ACHILAS PERAS)

(a)The Torah specifies that a k'Zayis is the amount of food that constitutes a "Ma'aseh Achilah," the minimum Halachically-binding act of eating and digesting. A person who eats a k'Zayis of a food in order to fulfill a Mitzvah (such as Matzah) has fulfilled his requirement. Similarly, someone who eats a k'Zayis of a prohibited food (such as blood or Chelev), is punished for his act.

(b)The Torah also specifies (as a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai) the amount of time in which a k'Zayis must be eaten in order for the act to be considered a Ma'aseh Achilah. This amount of time, called a "Kedei Achilas Peras," is defined as the amount of time that it takes to eat three (according to Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah) or four (according to Rebbi Shimon Eruvin 82b) Beitzim of bread with relish, while reclining. A person who eats a k'Zayis of Matzah in more than this amount of time has not fulfilled the Mitzvah, and a person who eats a k'Zayis of Isur in more than this amount of time is exempt from punishment.

(c)In our Gemara, Rava asks whether or not a Korban becomes Pigul when one has a wrongful thought of eating a k'Zayis of the meat of a Korban, Chutz l'Zemano, in more time than Kedei Achilas Peras.

14)[line 10] B'HESEK GADOL- in a large fire [upon the Mizbe'ach, which burns a k'Zayis of the Korban in less than the time of "Kedei Achilas Peras" (see previous entry)

PEREK #3 KOL HA'PESULIN

15)[line 36]HA'PESULIN- those who are ineligible to perform the Avodos of a Korban

16)[line 38]AVADIM - slaves [owned by a Kohen] (EVED KENA'ANI)

(a)A Jew may acquire a Nochri slave or maidservant (Eved Kena'ani or Shifchah Kena'anis) by purchasing the slave from a Jewish or Nochri master and making a Kinyan on the slave with either Kesef (paying money), Shtar (receiving a contract), Chazakah (having the slave work for him) or Chalipin the same Kinyanim that are used in the purchase of real-estate (see Background to Bava Basra 52:25). In addition, an Eved Kena'ani can be acquired through Kinyan Meshichah, like moveable objects (see Background to Avodah Zarah 71:9). A Nochri can also be acquired as a slave by being captured (Gitin 38a). These Halachos, and the Halachos mentioned below, apply whether the slave is from the Kena'ani nation or from another nation. Nevertheless, the generic term used by the Mishnah and Gemara to refer to Nochri slaves is Eved "Kena'ani," since the Torah openly describes Kena'an as a slave (Bereishis 9:27; see Rashi to Kidushin 22b DH Sadeh).

(b)A Nochri slave must undergo a process of involuntary conversion, in which he is circumcised (in the case of a male slave) and immersed in a Mikvah, after which he becomes obligated in Mitzvos. Regardless of gender, a Nochri slave is obligated to keep only those Mitzvos that a Jewish woman is obligated to keep. The slave is not permitted to marry an ordinary Jew. When the slave is freed, he automatically becomes a full-fledged Jew and is obligated to keep all of the Mitzvos, like a normal convert. However, before he is freed, his exemption from certain Mitzvos, as well as his prohibition to marry a Jewish woman, are direct consequences of the slavery. The Rishonim refer to this as a "Kinyan Isur," a "prohibitive" Kinyan (see Rishonim to Gitin 38a, Kidushin 16a).

(c)The slave of a Kohen is permitted to eat Terumah.

(d)For a discussion of additional Halachos of an Eved Kena'ani, see Background to Sanhedrin 58:14.

17)[line 38]TEME'IM- Kohanim who are Tamei (and are thus disqualified from performing the Avodah. Rashi explains that this refers to Kohanim who are Tamei with Tum'as Sheretz, a form of Tum'ah which is not transferred to the knife with which they slaughter the Korban, and thus they are permitted to perform the Shechitah. Alternatively, it refers to Kohanim who are Tamei with Tum'as Mes, but who use a knife made of wood which cannot become Tamei.)

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