The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

[32a - 28 lines; 32b - 37 lines]

1)[line 2] DAM HA'NEFESH- the blood that spurts out upon the animal's slaughter (which is used for the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Korban)

2)[line 7]NASNO- he (the person who is ineligible to perform the Avodah) placed it (the blood)

3)[line 7] AL GABEI HA'KEVESH- on the ramp

4)[line 7] SHE'LO KENEGED HA'YESOD- [or at a place on the Mizbe'ach] which does not correspond to the Yesod (the foundation of the Mizbe'ach; the blood must be placed on the upper part of the Mizbe'ach at a point above the Yesod. There was no Yesod, however, on the south-eastern corner of the Mizbe'ach (i.e. on part of the southern side and part of the eastern side; see Zevachim 53b and the diagram in Rashi there), and thus the blood could not be placed on the Mizbe'ach there)


(a)HA'NITANIN L'MATAH refers to the sprinklings of blood that must be performed on the lower half of the Mizbe'ach. The Zerikos of the Olas Behemah and Chatas ha'Of, as well as all of the other Korbanos ha'Chitzonos, are performed on the lower half of the Mizbe'ach (below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach).

(b)HA'NITANIN L'MA'ALAH refers to the sprinklings of blood that must be performed on the upper half of the Mizbe'ach. The Zerikos of the Chatas Behemah and Olas ha'Of are performed on the upper half of the Mizbe'ach (above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach).

6)[line 10] YACHZOR HA'KASHER VI'YEKABEL- a person who is eligible to perform the Avodah should go back and receive more blood from the animal [in order to perform the Zerikas ha'Dam properly)

7)[line 12]V'SHACHAT- see below, entry #9

8)[line 16]" ...""V'ATAH U'VANECHA ITECHA TISHMERU ES KEHUNASCHEM L'CHOL DEVAR HA'MIZBE'ACH..."- "And you and your sons with you shall guard your priesthood for all matters involving the Mizbe'ach..." (Bamidbar 18:7).

9)[line 18]" '; [ ...]""V'SHACHAT ES BEN HA'BAKAR LIFNEI HASH-M, V'HIKRIVU BNEI AHARON HA'KOHANIM [ES HA'DAM...]"- "And he shall slaughter the bull before HaSh-m, and the sons of Aharon, the Kohanim, shall bring [the blood...]" (Vayikra 1:5). From this verse, we learn that a Kohen is not needed until Kabalas ha'Dam, collecting the blood of the slaughtered animal in a utensil in order to throw it on the Mizbe'ach.

10)[line 24]" [ , .] [ '...]""V'SAMACH... V'SHACHAT"- "and he shall lean [his hands] ... and he shall slaughter [the bull]" (Vayikra 1:4-5) - These two words are written near each other (in consecutive Pesukim), teaching us that the Mitzvah of Semichah (pressing one's hands with all his might on the head of his animal sacrifice before it is slaughtered) and the Mitzvah of Shechitah of a Korban are similar in some respect (as the Gemara explains).

11)[line 25] " '"DI'CHESIV "LIFNEI HASH-M"- for it is written, "before HaSh-m," with regard to the Mitzvah of Semichah. (This teaches that the Semichah must be performed inside the Azarah (which is considered "before HaSh-m"), and thus one who is Tamei cannot perform the Semichah since he is not permitted to enter the Azarah. The words "before HaSh-m" are not actually written explicitly with regard to Semichah, but rather we regard to Shechitah (Vayikra 1:5). Rashi explains that since there is a law that the Shechitah must be done immediately after the Shechitah, the Semichah must be done in the same place as the Shechitah, which is "Lifnei HaSh-m.")

12)[line 27] BI'AH B'MIKTZAS SHEMAH BI'AH- a partial entry [into the Azarah] is considered an entry [and is thus forbidden if the person is Tamei; see below, entry #18]

13)[line 27] RAV CHISDA MASNI IPCHA- Rav Chisda learns the opposite (that we learn from Shechitah that one must be Tahor in order to perform Semichah, and not vice versa)

14)[last line] MAI SHENA SHECHITAH- why is Shechitah different (such that we know that Shechitah must be done in the Azarah because the verse says "before HaSh-m," and we must learn Semichah from Shechitah? It also says "before HaSh-m" with regard to Semichah itself! See above, entry #11.)


15)[line 1] EFSHAR D'ME'AYIL YADEI V'SAMICH- it is possible for him to stretch his hands [into the Azarah while he stands outside] and perform Semichah on the animal (and, therefore, we need to compare Semichah to Shechitah in order to learn that the Semichah must be performed inside of the Azarah, and, consequently, by one who is Tahor)

16)[line 2] EFSHAR D'AVID SAKIN ARUKAH- it is possible to make a long knife (and stand outside of the Azarah and slaughter the animal that is standing inside the Azarah; consequently, there should be no requirement for the Shechitah to be peformed by one who is Tahor!)

17)[line 3] SHIMON HA'TIMNI- Shimon from Timnas/Timnah (RASHI to Beitzah 21a DH ha'Timni), identified with the village Tibnah, located on the road between Beis Shemesh and Yavneh. At the time of Bayis Sheni it was the major city of the district.

18)[line 9]"... , [ , ]""... B'CHOL KODESH LO SIGA, [V'EL HA'MIKDASH LO SAVO, AD MELOS YEMEI TAHORAH]"- "... she (a woman after childbirth) shall touch no consecrated thing, [nor come into the sanctuary, until the days of her purification are fulfilled]" (Vayikra 12:4).

19)[line 10]BI'AH (BI'AS MIKDASH)

(a)It is forbidden for a person to enter the Mikdash (see Background to Makos 12:33 for a discussion of the boundaries of the various areas in the Mikdash) if he touched an Av ha'Tumah (Bamidbar 5:2). Regarding a person who becomes Tamei the verse states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga" - "... she (a woman after childbirth) shall touch no consecrated thing" (Vayikra 12:4), from which the Gemara learns (Yevamos 75a, Makos 14b) that it is forbidden for a person who is Tamei to eat Kodshim. If a person who is Tamei eats the blood of Kodshim, he does not transgress this prohibition. (This is not to be confused with Tum'as Basar, which is also called "Tamei." Tum'as Basar means that the Kodshim, as opposed to the person eating it or offering it, became Tamei.)

(b)One who transgresses these prohibitions b'Shogeg (unintentionally) becomes obligated to bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored. If he transgresses them b'Mezid (intentionally) and witnesses saw him and he was warned (Hasra'ah) not to transgress, he is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not warned, the punishment for transgressing this Lav b'Mezid is Kares (Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #167).

(c)In order to be liable to bring a Korban, the sinner has to have known that he was Tamei before and after the transgression ("Yedi'os"), but had forgotten at the time he transgressed.

20)[line 12] METZORA SHE'CHAL SHEMINI SHELO - a case of a Metzora whose seventh day of the purification process falls on Erev Pesach (and, on that day, he became Tamei with Tum'as Keri; see below, entry #23) (KORBAN METZORA)

(a)THE PROCESS BY WHICH A METZORA BECOMES TAHOR - On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.

(b)The Metzora next shaves with a razor all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Mo'ed Katan 7b). He counts seven days ("Yemei Sefiro"), and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Sanhedrin 83:14).

(c)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring Korbanos to complete his Taharah. The animal Korbanos are two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, the other as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he could not afford to buy all these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves) as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still brought as his Asham. An ordinary Metzora or a poor Metzora brings Nesachim with all of his animal Korbanos (Menachos 91a).

(d)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham with the Log of oil resting upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of the blood is placed on the body of the Metzora: on the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, on his right thumb and on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (TY #18; the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate; see Yoma 38a). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that the Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the archway of the gate.

(e)After all of the Korbanos were offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil in his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also put on the body of the Metzora, on the places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed on the Metzora's head. The rest of the Log which was not poured into the Kohen's hand was given to the Kohanim, and must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (it is one of the Kodshei ha'Kodashim) (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah 4:2-3).

21)[line 14]KERI (TUM'AS KERI)

A man who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not enter the Machaneh Leviyah (i.e. Har ha'Bayis, the Temple Mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser, Terumah or Kodshim. After he immerses in a Mikvah during the day, he becomes Tahor and may eat Ma'aser and enter Machaneh Leviyah once again (mid'Oraisa - the Rabanan however prohibited him from entering the Ezras Nashim (TY #10) until nightfall). He remains a "Tevul Yom" until nightfall, after which he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim.

22)[line 15] TEVUL YOM

A Tevul Yom is a person who has immersed in a Mikvah to become Tahor for Chulin, but is still waiting for nightfall to be completely Tahor with regard to Terumah, Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah and if he touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he touches do not become Teme'im. If he enters the Mikdash, however, he is Chayav Kares, (see Background to Makos 8:18b). After the following nightfall, he becomes completely Tahor with regard to Terumah. If he is a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Shevuos 11:7), he must wait until he brings his sacrifices to become completely Tahor with regard to Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash.

23)[line 15] ZEH NICHNAS - this person may enter [the Azarah]. This refers to a Metzora who, on the eighth (and final) day of his purification process, became Tamei with Tum'as Keri. He is permitted to put his hands into the Azarah (see above, entry #20), even though a Ba'al Keri is normally prohibited with an Isur Kares from entering the Azarah (3 MACHANOS)

(a)There are three Machanos (designated holy areas) within the city of Yerushalayim, corresponding to their respective areas in the Midbar:

1.The entire area within the walls of Yerushalayim, excluding Har ha'Bayis, is Machaneh Yisrael. This area corresponds to the area of encampment of the twelve tribes in the Midbar. Machaneh Yisrael is off-limits to Metzora'im. Metzora'im are also forbidden to enter any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.

2.The area between the Azarah and the wall encompassing Har ha'Bayis, including the Ezras Nashim, is Machaneh Leviyah. This corresponds to the area around the Mishkan, where the Leviyim encamped. This area is prohibited not only to Metzora'im, but also for Zavin, Zavos, Nidos and Yoldos.

3.The entire area within the Azarah (i.e. the Ezras Yisrael and the Ezras Kohanim that contained the Beis ha'Mikdash, the Mizbe'ach, and various Lishkos or chambers - not the Ezras Nashim) is Machaneh Shechinah (excluding the area under the gate to the Azarah known as Sha'ar Nikanor). This corresponds to the area of the Mishkan [within the Kela'im/curtains]. This area is even prohibited to a person who is Tamei Mes.

24a)[line 15] ASEI SHE'YESH BO KARES- a positive commandment (Mitzvas Asei) that bears the punishment of Kares for failure to fulfill it (such as the Mitzvah to offer the Korban Pesach)

b)[line 16] ASEI SHE'EIN BO KARES- a positive commandment (Mitzvas Asei) that does not bear the punishment of Kares for failure to fulfill it (such as the Mitzvah for one who is Tamei to stay outside of Har ha'Bayis)

25)[line 18]" ', ""VA'YA'AMOD YEHOSHAFAT BI'KEHAL YEHUDAH V'YERUSHALAYIM B'VEIS HASH-M, LIFNEI HE'CHATZER HA'CHADASHAH"- "And Yehoshafat stood in the congregation of Yehudah and Yerushalayim, in the house of HaSh-m before the new courtyard" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 20:5) - Har ha'Bayis, which is classified as Machaneh Leviyah, was called "the new courtyard" since Yehoshafat and his court issued a new decree that a Tevul Yom was not permitted to enter Har ha'Bayis (RASHI) or Ezras Nashim (TOSFOS).

26)[line 21] AL YIKANES L'MACHANEH LEVIYAH- he shall not enter the area of the Leviyim (referring to Har ha'Bayis (RASHI) or Ezras Nashim (TOSFOS)

27)[line 24]MI'TUNACH- (a) (lit. from your own load [I shall burden you]) I shall use your own source that you brought as proof for your argument, in order to prove that I am correct (RASHI to Rosh Hashanah 4a, TOSFOS here); (b) alt. MATUNACH - I have reached you, overcome your arguments (RASHI to Chulin 132a)

28)[line 24] HO'IL V'HUTAR L'TZARA'ATO- that is, it is permitted for the Metzora to place his thumbs into the Azarah (in order for the Kohen to sprinkle the blood of his Asham on them), even though he is Tamei, and entering the Azarah would normally be prohibited b'Isur Kares. Since the Torah permits the Metzora to do this, even if the Metzora is also a Tevul Yom, and should be prohibited from putting his thumbs in the Azarah for a second reason, nevertheless all of the Isurim are removed (Metzora and Tevul Yom in the Azarah), and the Metzora is permitted to place his thumbs in the Azarah. (Although the Torah permits a Tevul Yom on Har ha'Bayis, a Tevul Yom is not permitted into the Azarah.)

29)[line 26] HO'IL V'HUTRU L'TUM'ASAN HUTRU L'ZIVASAN- since [all of the people of the nation] are permitted [to offer the Korban Pesach] in a state of a Tum'ah (Tum'as Mes), they are also permitted [to offer the Korban Pesach] in a [subsequently acquired] state of Tum'as Zav (a state in which bringing a Korban is not normally permitted, even for the Tzibur)

30)[line 33] TUM'AH DECHUYAH HI - [the prohibition of offering a Korban while in a state of] Tum'ah is suspended (TUM'AH HUTRAH B'TZIBUR / TUM'AH DECHUYAH B'TZIBUR)

The Tana'im argue whether Tum'ah is Hutrah b'Tzibur or Dechuyah b'Tzibur (Pesachim 77a, Yoma 7b). One opinion holds that the Torah entirely cancelled the prohibitions against Tum'ah with regard to Korbenos Tzibur ("Hutrah"); there is no Isur whatsoever. Others rule that only with reluctance did the Torah permit offering Korbenos Tzibur b'Tum'ah ("Dechuyah"); the Isur exists, but was merely suspended, and the prohibitions of Tum'ah are pushed aside only in the event of great necessity. The Gemara here, in its question, is siding with the latter opinion. (There are various other practical differences between these two opinions; see Background to Pesachim 79:8.)