[50a - 55 lines; 50b - 35 lines]

1)[line 1]" [ ...]""V'HOTZI ES KOL HA'PAR [EL MI'CHUTZ LA'MACHANEH...]"- "And he shall remove the entire bull [to outside of the encampment...]" (Vayikra 4:12). This verse refers to the Par Kohen Mashi'ach (see Background to 44:12) after it has been slaughtered and its fats and certain inner organs burned upon the Mizbe'ach. It is clear that the Torah refers to it as a "Par" even though it is no longer alive.

2)[line 2] SHE'YOTZI ES KULO- [Rebbi Ami answers that the Torah means] that he should remove all [that remains from what once was a live cow]

3)[line 2]" , [ ; ]""V'EIS PAR HA'CHATAS V'EIS SE'IR HA'CHATAS..."- "And the bull that was offered as a Chatas and the male goat that was offered as a Chatas [whose blood was brought to atone in the Kodesh shall be removed to outside of the encampment; and their hides, flesh, and excrement shall be burned in fire]" (Vayikra 16:27). This verse also implies that the Par and Sa'ir are called such after their death.

4)[line 4]PERESH- excrement

5)[line 4] D'KULEI ALMA LO PELIGI- everyone agrees [that it is called a "Par" even in death]

6)[line 8] ATU B'KERANEHA ME'AYEIL LEI?- does he drag it [into the Kodesh ha'Kodashim] by its horns?

7)[line 10] B'MAH HUCHSHAR AHARON- through what is Aharon (or any other Kohen Gadol) enabled


(a)There are five categories of Korbenos Chatas which are left locked up without food or water until they expire, as per Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai. These are:

1.The offspring of a Chatas (which also has the Kedushah of a Chatas)

2.The Temurah (see Background to Pesachim 96:17) of a Chatas

3.A Chatas whose owner has passed away

4.A sheep or goat designated as a Korban Chatas which is now older than one year (and therefore invalidated as a Korban Chatas)

5.A Chatas which was lost and later found with a Mum, whose owner has in the interim offered a different Chatas to atone for his sin (Temurah 21b).

(b)Although the Par under discussion is already dead, it is clear from the above Halachah that such a Chatas is disqualified from further use. Therefore, even if the word "Par" implies even just the blood of the bull, the second Kohen Gadol should not be able to sprinkle it.

9)[line 14] CHATAS TZIBOR HI- it is a communal Chatas [since it atones for all Kohanim]


(a)The Kohen Gadol offers a daily Minchah (see Background to 24:6:b) consisting of one-tenth of an Eifah of wheat flour. The dough is formed into twelve rolls that are boiled, baked, and then fried in olive oil in a flat pan. Six of these rolls are burned on the Mizbe'ach in the morning, and the remaining half towards evening (Vayikra 6:12).


(a)If the Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) issues a ruling in error permitting a transgression that is punishable by Kares, and those in Eretz Yisrael - either the majority of Klal Yisrael or most of the Shevatim - act upon their ruling, then they must offer a Par He'elem Davar to atone for the nation. This Korban consists of twelve bulls offered as Korbenos Chatas, one on behalf of each tribe. If the sin committed was that of idolatry, then the Korban differs and is termed Se'irei Avodas Kochavim (see next entry; RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).

(b)After their slaughter, the blood of each bull is sprinkled seven times in the Heichal toward the Paroches. It is then applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (remainder of the blood) is poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach, while the Emurim (innards and certain fats) are burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

(c)The flesh and remaining parts of the bulls are burned outside of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-21, Bamidbar 15:22-26). The clothing of those who carry the carcasses out of the Azarah become Tamei. (According to Rebbi Shimon [Yoma 67b], those involved with burning the Paros are also Metamei Begadim.)


(a)If the sin transgressed by the majority of Klal Yisrael when the Sanhedrin ruled in error (see previous entry) was related that of idolatry, then Se'irei Avodas Kochavim are offered in place of a Par He'elem Davar. Twelve bulls are offered by the Sanhedrin as Korbenos Olah, along with twelve goats offered as Korbenos Chatas - one on behalf of each Shevet. The goats are treated as the bulls of a regular Par He'elem Davar are.


(a)Every adult Jewish male is obligated to come to the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash on Pesach, Shavu'os, and Sukos to offer an animal as a Korban Chagigah, as the Torah states, "Shalosh Regalim Tachog Li ba'Shanah" (Shemos 23:14).

(b)If this Korban was not offered on the first day of the festival, it may be offered on any of the subsequent days (where applicable; see Insights to Chagigah 9:1). The Gemara (Chagigah 7a) records an argument with regard to whether one is required (or even permitted) to bring more than one Korban Chagigah if he comes to the Azarah on more than one day of a festival.

(c)The Gemara (51a) explains why the Rebbi Yaakov refers to the Korban Chagigah as a Korban Tzibor.

14)[line 22] ?!MI'CHLAL D'IKA L'MAN D'AMAR D'YACHID?!- [can it be that] this implies that there is an opinion which maintains that [these Korbanos are] private [Korbanos]?!

15)[line 34] NEKOT HAI KELALA B'YADACH- grab this rule in your hand; the proper classification is as follows


(a)On Yom ha'Kipurim, two goats identical in every way are led in front of the Kohen Gadol. As part of the service of the day, he casts a Goral (lot) to determine which of the goats will be the Sa'ir la'Shem, and which the Sa'ir la'Azazel. The first is offered as a Korban, while the other is dispatched (Mishtale'ach) to Azazel (a rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death.

(b)The blood of the Sa'ir la'Shem is sprinkled seven times inside the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, as well as in the Heichal toward the Paroches. It is also applied to the corners of the Mizbach ha'Ketores (Vayikra 16:16, 18-19). The carcass of the goat is then burned in its entirety, along with its excrement, outside Yerushalayim in the same place that the ashes emptied from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (Vayikra 16:27).

(c)The Mishnah (Shevu'os 2a) states that the Sa'ir la'Shem provides atonement in conjunction with the day of Yom ha'Kipurim for one who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to 18:19). This atonement is provided for one who was initially aware of the Tum'ah and subsequently forgot, as well as for one who committed this sin intentionally (Shevu'os 2b).

17)[line 43] YIR'U AD SHE'YISTA'AVU- they should be left to graze until they develop a Mum (a blemish that disqualifies them from being offered on the Mizbe'ach)


(a)There were six Shofaros (coffers; see Background to 5:14) kept in the Mikdash, the contents of which are used to purchase Korbanos for "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach". Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach consists of Korbanos Olah that are offered upon the Mizbe'ach when it is not otherwise in use. These Korbanos are Korbenos Tzibor (communal offerings).

(b)Rashi to Sukah 56a DH Kayitz explains that these offerings are called Kayitz since they are a "dessert" for the Mizbe'ach. Kayitz refers to cut figs, a common dessert food. Another explanation is that these offerings are offered upon the Mizbe'ach during the long days of the summer (Kayitz) months.

19)[line 53] CHATAS HA'SHUTFIN- a Korban Chatas owned jointly be partners (namely, all Kohanim)

20)[line 54] ?U'MAI NAFKA MINAH?- and what difference does it make [to Rava whether it is classified as a "public Korban" or a "Korban owned by partners"? Either way the answer of Rav Amram - that since it is not a private Chatas, it is not disqualified - stands!]

21)[line 54] D'LO MAISU KOHANIM PAR B'HORA'AH- in order that Kohanim should not bring a Par He'elem Davar (see above, entry #11) when only their Shevet sinned. A Par He'elem Davar is offered on behalf of only one Shevet if most of that Shevet sinned based upon an erroneous ruling of the Sanhedrin, since even a single Shevet is termed a "Kahal" (Vayikra 4:13). The Shevet of Levi, however, is not termed a "Kahal," since they have no portion in Eretz Yisrael.


22)[line 2]TEMURAH

(a)The Torah states, "Do not transfer or exchange [an animal that has been designated as a Korban for another animal], neither a good animal for a bad one, nor a bad one for a good one. If you do exchange [an animal of Kodesh for one that is not], both the original animal as well as the one attempted as an exchange will be Kodesh" (Vayikra 27:10-11).

(b)The Temurah of a Korban, as a general rule, has the identical status of its "parent" Korban, and is offered upon the Mizbe'ach in the same manner as long as it has no Mum (blemish). This is not the case the original Korban was a Chatas or an Asham.

(c)One receives Malkus (lashes) for making a Temurah, even if he did so unintentionally. Some explain that this is only true when he intended to create one type of Temurah and accidentally created a Temurah of a different designation (e.g. a Temuras Shelamim instead of a Temuras Olah). Others maintain that even if he was under the impression that it is permitted to make a Temurah, he receives Malkus nevertheless (see Chart to Temurah 17a).

(d)The Chinuch explains that this prohibition teaches us the high degree of respect with which we must treat objects of Kedushah (SEFER HA'CHINUCH 351,352).

23)[line 7] IY BASAR MAKDISH AZLINAN IY BASAR MISCHAPER AZLINAN- [if his question is] whether we look to he who designated the animal as Kadosh or whether we look to the subject of its atonement [when determining whether it is a Korban Yachid or a Korban Tzibor]

24a)[line 9]HA'MAKDISH- one who designates an animal as Kodesh [on behalf of another]

b)[line 9] MOSIF CHOMESH - he adds a fifth (PIDYON HEKDESH)

(a)When a person consecrates (is "Makdish") an object for use in the Beis ha'Mikdash and that object cannot be used in the Mikdash "as is," then it acquires the status of Kedushas Damim. Such an object is sold by the trustees of Hekdesh (Gizbarim). The price of the item is determined through the estimation of a group of experts. Once the object is sold, it loses its Kedushah and the money paid for it becomes Kodesh in its stead. This is called "Pidyon Hekdesh" - redemption of Hekdesh.

(b)If the object consecrated to Hekdesh can itself be used in the Mikdash, such as a utensils used in the Avodah or a live animal that is fit to be offered as a Korban, then it acquires the status of Kedushas ha'Guf (see Background to Shevuos 22:5:c-e). An animal with Kedushas ha'Guf cannot be redeemed unless it develops a Mum (blemish).

(c)If a person dedicates an item to Hekdesh and then wishes to redeem it himself, he must an additional fifth of the ensuing total - equal to a quarter of the original value - onto the value of the item. For example, if the object is worth twenty Sela'im, he may redeem it for twenty-five Sela'im. If it is another - even the one on whose behalf the Korban was consecrated - who wishes to redeem the item from Hekdesh, then he need not add a Chomesh.

25)[line 9]HA'MISKAPER- the one on whose behalf the Korban was consecrated


(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify an amount that must be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop. Until Terumah and Ma'asros have been properly separated, the produce is termed "Tevel" and may not be eaten.

(b)Rebbi Yochanan is discussing one who removes Terumah from his own produce (from which Terumah has not yet been removed) with the intention to permit the produce of another.

27)[line 11] TOVAS HANA'AH- the right to decide which Kohen will receive the Terumah

28a)[line 13] BI'KEVI'USA MISKAPREI- do they achieve atonement in a fixed manner?; i.e., do they and the Kohen Gadol achieve atonement equally through the Par [in which case it is a Par ha'Shutfin and it cannot make a Temurah]?

b)[line 14] B'KUFYA MISKAPREI- do they achieve atonement in a "floating" manner?; i.e., does the Par atone primarily for the Kohen Gadol, and they achieve atonement along with him [in which case it is a Par d'Yachid and it can make a Temurah] (see Insights)

29)[line 14]ZEVACH- [the original consecration of] a Korban

30)[line 19] BA'AL MUM KAVU'A- an animal with a permanent blemish (see Background to 49:3)

31)[line 20] LIGAZEZ V'LEI'AVED

(a)Animals designated as Korbanos that develop a Mum (blemish) may be redeemed. However, even after being redeemed, they do not completely return to their previous status. One may not shear sheep, work with beasts of burden, or milk animals that were once Kodshim (Bechoros 15a).

(b)If an animal had a Mum at the time that it was consecrated, it does not receive Kedushas ha'Guf (intrinsic Kedushah), but rather Kedushas Damim (extrinsic Kedushah). Therefore, when it is redeemed, it returns fully to the status of an animal of Chulin.

(c)Since a Temurah receives Kedushas ha'Guf even when it has a Mum, it can never return to the status of Chulin after being redeemed.

32)[line 25] EILO SHEL AHARON- the ram purchased by the Kohen Gadol with his personal funds offered as an Olah on Yom ha'Kipurim

33)[line 29] TEMURAS CHATAS L'MISAH AZLA- see above, entry #8

34)[line 31] SHEM TEMURAH- animals that have the status of Temurah, generally speaking

35)[line 32] ZEVACH NAMI SHEM ZEVACH!- [let us understand] "Zevach" [to be referring to] the consecration of Korbanos in general as well [in which case no specific Korban is being discussed]!