DIVREI TORAH SAID IN A CHACHAM'S NAME
Question: Why was R. Yochanan so upset?
Answer: This is like Rav Yehudah taught:
Question: "I will dwell in your tent Olamim (plural)" - can a person dwell in two worlds?!
Answer: David requested of Hash-m that people should say teachings in his name in this world;
(R. Yochanan): When people in this world recite teachings of a dead Chacham, his lips move in the grave.
(R. Yitzchak ben Ze'iri): He learns from "v'Chichech k'Yayin ha'Tov Nesech Holech l'Dodi l'Meisharim Dovev Sifsei Yesheinim" - like this Komer of grapes (a Kli in which they are placed until they get warm) - once one puts his finger on it, it moves. Likewise, when people say teachings of Chachamim in their names in this world, their lips move in the grave.
THE AGE OF ADULTHOOD
(Mishnah): A nine-year old is like (a 20-year old who did not bring hairs).
Contradiction (Mishnah): If a 20-year old man did not bring two hairs, they bring a proof that he is 20 and he is a Seris. He does not do Chalitzah or Yibum;
If a 20-year old woman did not bring two hairs, they bring a proof that she is 20 and she is an Ailonis. She does not do Chalitzah or Yibum.
Answer: Rav said that the Mishnah discusses when he brought Simanim of a Seris.
Support (Rava): The Mishnah says '...v'Hu (and that) he is a Seris'.
Question: If he does not have Simanei Seris, when does he become an adult?
(Tana d'Vei R. Chiya): He is an adult after (35,) the majority of his (expected) years.
When one who had not brought hairs would come before Rava, if he was weak, he would tell them to make him healthy. If he was well fed, he would tell them to thin him out.
Sometimes pubic hairs fall off due of weakness, and sometimes due to obesity.
ONLY KIDUSHIN FORBIDS RELATIVES
(Mishnah): One may marry the relatives (mother, grandmother, daughter, granddaughter and sister) of a woman he raped or enticed. One who rapes or entices the relative of his wife is Chayav (Kares);
A man may marry a woman raped or enticed by his father or son;
R. Yehudah forbids a woman raped or enticed by his father.
(Gemara): Our Mishnah teaches like the following Beraisa:
(Beraisa): If a man raped a woman, he may marry her daughter. If he married a woman, he may not marry her daughter.
Contradiction (Beraisa): One who is suspected of Bi'ah with a woman is forbidden to her mother, daughter and sister.
Answer #1: It is forbidden only mid'Rabanan.
Objection: If it is forbidden mid'Rabanan, would the Tana say 'one may marry (l'Chatchilah)'?!
Answer #2: Our Mishnah discusses after the woman he was suspected of died. Then it is permitted even mid'Rabanan.
Question: What is the source that a man may marry the relatives of a woman he raped or enticed?
Answer #1 (Beraisa): Regarding all other Arayos it says 'Shechivah (lying)'. Regarding the forbidden relatives of one's wife, it says 'Kichah', to teach that the Isur applies only through marriage.
Question (Rav Papa): Regarding one's sister, it says "Who will take his sister...". Is the Isur only through marriage, but Bi'ah without Kidushin is permitted?!
Answer (Abaye): The Torah says 'Kichah' without specifying. When it can apply to Kidushin, it does. When it can apply (only) to Bi'ah, it means Bi'ah.
Answer #2 (to Question (i) - Rava) Question: "Do not reveal the Ervah of the daughter of your son or daughter" implies that granddaughters (that are not yours) from her (the mother of your children) are permitted;
Contradiction: It also says "do not reveal the Ervah of a woman and her daughter; do not take the daughter of her son or daughter"!
Resolution (Rava): The first verse refers to children through rape. The second verse applies to children through marriage.
Suggestion: Perhaps it is the opposite!
Rejection: Regarding Arayos it says "She'er (kin)". This is through marriage, but not through rape.
(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): One is forbidden to a woman whom his father raped.
(Rav Gidal): R. Yehudah learns from "A man...will not reveal the Kenaf of his father" - one may not have Bi'ah with a woman who had Bi'ah with his father.
Question: How do we know that this refers to a woman whom the father raped?
Answer: We learn from the previous passage, "The man that lied with (raped) her ..."
Chachamim: If this were immediately before it, we would agree. Since they are not adjacent, we expound the verse like Rav Anan:
(Rav Anan): The verse refers to the Shomeres Yavam of his father. "Kenaf Aviv" is someone fit for his father (to do Yibum with).
Question: She is already forbidden to the son. It is his uncle's wife!
Answer: The verse adds a second Lav for Bi'ah with her.
Question: She is already forbidden twice, for she is a Shomeres Yavam!
Answer #1: The verse adds a third Lav.
Answer #2: After all the Yevamim die there is no Isur of a Shomeres Yavam, so this verse adds a second Isur.
Riddle #1: 'He is a paternal, but not a maternal, brother, and he is my mother's husband, and I am the daughter of his wife.' (How can this arise?)
Answer (Rami bar Chama): This is unlike R. Yehudah (who forbids a man to marry a woman his father raped. The girl speaking was born out of wedlock; her paternal brother married her mother).
Riddle #2: 'He is my brother, and my son; I am the sister of the one I carry on my shoulder'.
Answer: The case is, a Nochri had Bi'ah with his daughter. (We prefer not to say that a Yisrael did so.)
Riddle #3: 'Shalom to you, my son; I am the daughter of your sister'.
Answer: The case is, a Nochri had Bi'ah with his daughter's daughter.
Riddle #4 (asked to water carriers): 'The one I carry is my son, and I am the daughter of his brother.'
The case is, a Nochri had Bi'ah with his son's daughter.
Riddle #5: 'Alas, my brother is my father and my husband and the son of my husband and the husband of my mother. I am the daughter of his wife. He does not give bread to his brethren, the orphaned children of his daughter.
The case is, a Nochri Ploni fathered a girl Plonis through his mother, and lived with Plonis, and Ploni's father Almoni fathered children through Plonis. (Ploni married Plonis, who is his daughter and sister. Almoni died, and Ploni refused to feed Almoni's children through Plonis, who are Ploni's grandchildren and also his brothers.)
Riddle #6: 'I am your brother; I am your father's sibling; I am your mother's sibling.
Answer: The case is, a Nochri fathered two girls from his mother, and then fathered a son from one of his daughters. The son's mother's sister says the above to him.
Riddle #7: 'I and you are the children of siblings. I and your father are the children of siblings. I and your mother are the children of siblings.'
Answer: This can arise in a permitted way! Reuven, Shimon and Levi are brothers. Reuven has two daughters; Shimon married one of them and Levi's son married the other. Shimon's son says thusly to the son of Levi's son.
ARE CONVERTED RELATIVES PERMITTED TO EACH OTHER?
(Mishnah): If a woman's sons converted with her, the sons do not do Yibum or Chalitzah to each other's wives. This is even if the first son was conceived before conversion and born after conversion, and the second was conceived and born after conversion;
The same applies to a slave whose sons were freed with her.
(Gemara): The children of the slave Yudan were freed. Rav Acha bar Yakov permitted them to marry each other's wives.
Objection (Rava): Rav Sheshes forbade this!
Rav Acha bar Yakov: He forbade, and I permit!
Version #1: If they are paternal but not maternal brothers, all agree that they are permitted;
If they are maternal but not paternal brothers, all agree that they are forbidden;
They argue about brothers from the mother and father.
Rav Acha bar Yakov permits, since people view them as paternal brothers. They call them the sons of Ploni;
Rav Sheshes forbids, for people also call them the sons of Plonis (their mother).
Version #2: Rav Acha bar Yakov permits in all cases, even when they are only maternal brothers.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: A convert is like a newborn baby.
Question (Mishnah): A woman whose sons converted with her do not do Yibum or Chalitzah to each other's wives.
Suggestion: They do not do Yibum because it is forbidden!
Answer: No, it is because Chalitzah and Yibum do not apply. Their widows are free to marry strangers, or the brothers.
Objection (Mishnah): Even if the first son was conceived before conversion...
Version #1: We understand if each man is forbidden to his brother's wife. The Mishnah teaches that even if the first was conceived before conversion and born after conversion, and the second was conceived after conversion', and it is as if they have different mothers, still they are forbidden;
However, if each man is permitted to his brother's wife, why does it say even'?
Answer: Even though both were born after conversion, and people might confuse them with Yisraelim, we permit them [to marry l'Shuk without Chalitzah or Yibum ].
Version #2: We understand if each man is permitted to his brother's wife. The Mishnah teaches that even though both were born after conversion, and people might confuse them with Yisraelim, still we permit them [to marry l'Shuk];
However, if each man is forbidden to his brother's wife [and the Mishnah teaches Heter l'Shuk], why does it say 'even'?
Answer: Even though the first son was conceived before conversion and born after conversion, and the second was conceived after conversion, and it is as if they have different mothers, still they are forbidden [to each other's wife].
Question (Beraisa): If two twins converted or were freed, they do not do Chalitzah or Yibum to each other's wives, and they are not liable for marrying each other's wife;
If they were conceived before conversion and born after conversion, they do not do Chalitzah or Yibum, but they are liable for marrying each other's wife;
If they were conceived and born after conversion, they are like Yisraelim in all respects.
Suggestion: The Reisha teaches that they are not liable for marrying each other's wives. This implies that they are not liable, but it is forbidden!