[47a - 49 lines; 47b - 52 lines]

1)[line 14]טיבותא דארץ ישראלTEIVUSA D'ERETZ YISRAEL- the bounty of Eretz Yisrael

2)[line 16]לקטLEKET

"Leket" refers to individual (one or two) stalks of grain that inadvertently slipped out of the reaper's hand while he harvested them (by cutting them underneath with a sickle) or while he uprooted them (if he is not using a sickle) (Chinuch #218; see Pe'ah 4:10 and Chidushei Anshei Shem). Such stalks may not be retrieved by the owner but must be left for the poor, as described in Vayikra (19:9-10), "v'Leket Ketzircha Lo Selaket... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - "Do not pick up the individual stalks that have fallen from the harvest... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger." If three stalks fall together, they are not considered Leket and may be retrieved by the owner.

3)[line 16]שכחהSHICHECHAH

If one or two bundles of grain were forgotten in the field when the other bundles were collected, they must be left for the poor, as described in Devarim (24:19).

4)[line 16]ופאהU'PE'AH (PE'AH)

The corner, or end, of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor, as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger." (Vayikra 19:9-10)


(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.

(b)After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi.

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

6)[line 29]יכיר יכירנו לאחריםYAKIR YAKIRENU L'ACHERIM

(a)The Bechor, or first viable male born to a father, inherits a double portion of the estate upon his father's death (Mishnah Bechoros 46a). For example, if three brothers remain alive after their father's death and one of the three is a Bechor, the estate is divided into four equal portions and the Bechor receives two of them while the others receive only one.

(b)The verse states regarding a Bechor, "Ki Es ha'Bechor... Yakir," meaning the father should "recognize" the Bechor (Devarim 21:17). From the word "Yakir" the Chachamim learn that we may rely on the word of the father (i.e., his "recognition" of the son) to determine which son is the Bechor.

(c)According to Rebbi Yehudah (in our Gemara) we also learn from this word that if the father is a Kohen, we may rely on his affirmation to determine whether or not his son was born from a divorcee or a Chalutzah, making him a Chalal (who is not valid to serve in the Beis ha'Mikdash like other Kohanim). The Chachamim argue with Rebbi Yehudah and maintain that the father may determine only which of his sons is the Bechor. He is not trusted to decide whether his son is the son of a divorcee or a Chalutzah.

7)[line 37]ואין נאמן על בנו גדולV'EIN NE'EMAN AL BENO GADOL- that is, if his son is older (and has his own children, as the Gemara is about to explain), not only is the father not trusted regarding the status of his grandchildren, he is not even trusted regarding the status of his son. (TOSFOS DH v'Ein Atah)

8)[line 41]דווייםDEVUYIM- sorrowful, broken down (under persecution)

9)[line 41]דחופיםDECHUFIM- pushed about, impelled

10)[line 41]סחופיםSECHUFIM- humbled, bent over

11)[line 42]ומטורפיןU'METURAFIN- and tossed about

12)[line 42]ואיני כדאיV'EINI CHEDAI- and I am not even worthy [to suffer along with and be a part of such a Holy Nation]


13)[line 2]ואין מדקדקין עליוV'EIN MEDAKDEKIN ALAV- and we do not inform him of all of the particular details of all of the Mitzvos

14)[line 3]ציצין המעכבין את המילהTZITZIN HA'ME'AKVIN ES HA'MILAH- small strips of skin that invalidate circumcision

15)[line 17]דאי פריש נפרושD'IY PARISH NIFROSH- that if he does not convert (lit. if he goes away), then he should go away, i.e. it does not matter that we have one less convert

16a)[line 18]כספחתK'SAPACHAS- like a mark of Tzara'as

b)[line 18]כספחתK'SAPACHAS

The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora are 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg

17)[line 19]"ונלוה הגר עליהם ונספחו על בית יעקב""V'NILVAH HA'GER ALEIHEM V'NISPECHU AL BEIS YAKOV"- "[For HaSh-m will have mercy on Yakov, and will yet choose Yisrael, and set them in their own land;] and foreigners shall be joined with them, and they shall cleave to the house of Yakov." (Yeshayah 14:1)

18)[line 22]ולא ניתן להשבוןV'LO NITAN L'HESHAVON- it cannot be returned in order to avoid the death penalty

19)[line 25]"[ותאמר רות אל תפגעי בי לעזריך לשוב מאחריך כי] אל אשר תלכי אלך ובאשר תליני אלין עמך עמי ואלקיך אלקאי. באשר תמותי אמות ושם אקבר [כה יעשה ה' לי וכה יוסיף כי המות יפריד ביני ובינך]. ותרא כי מתאמצת היא ללכת אתה ותחדל לדבר אליה.""[VA'TOMER RUS: AL TIFGE'I BI LE'AZVECH LASHUV ME'ACHARAYICH; KI] EL ASHER TELCHI ELECH... VE'ELOKAYICH ELOKAI. BA'ASHER TAMUSI AMUS, V'SHAM EKAVER. [KOH YA'ASEH ELOKIM V'CHO YOSIF, KI HA'MAVES YAFRID BEINI U'VEINECH.] VA'TEREI KI MIS'AMETZES HI LALECHES ITAH, VA'TECHDAL L'DABER ELEHAH." - "[And Ruth said to her: Don't plead with me to go away from you;] for wherever you go I will go... and your G-d is my G-d. Where you die, I shall die and there shall I be buried, [so shall G-d do and continue to do, for only death shall separate between me and you.] And she (Naomi) saw that she (Ruth) insisted on going with her, so she stopped speaking to her." (Ruth 1:16-18). (RUTH'S DECISION TO CONVERT)

(a)Following the death of Machlon and Chilyon, their mother Naomi, bereft of her husband (Elimelech, who died shortly before his sons) and children, decided to return home to Beis Lechem. She came from the Plains of Moav where she and her family had initially taken refuge to escape the famine that struck Eretz Yisrael. Ruth and Orpah, two Moabite princesses who had not converted, were married to Machlon and Chilyon. They initially accompanied Naomi as she set out on her homeward journey.

(b)Naomi pointed out to them that she had nothing to offer the two women, and strongly advised them to return to Moav where they would have no trouble in finding husbands and building new lives for themselves. Orpah soon capitulated. She kissed her mother-in-law, wept a little, turned on her heel and returned to her old lifestyle. Ruth had another agenda. She decided that she would accompany Naomi no matter what might happen, and she resisted all of Naomi's efforts to talk her into leaving and returning to her normal lifestyle. That was when Naomi, in accordance with the Halachah, stopped trying to convince her.

20)[line 27]תחום שבתTECHUM SHABBOS

(a)A person is allowed to walk only a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. This distance is called the Techum Shabbos (the Shabbos boundary). If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.

(b)This is accomplished by placing an amount of food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or place of Shevisah for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.

21)[line 29]עמך עמיAMECH AMI- the Gematriya (numerical equivalent) of the word "Amech" plus its three letters is 613 (the Chaf Sofis equals 500, as in Sukah 52b - see Background to Sukah 52:24) (SHORESH YISHAI, cited by the MAHARSHA)

22)[line 30]ארבע מיתותARBA MISOS

(a)Arba Misos Beis Din, the four death penalties administered by Beis Din, in their order of stringency are:

1.Sekilah (stoning)

2.Sereifah (burning with molten lead, which is poured down the throat)

3.Hereg (killing with a sword) (Sefer ha'Chinuch #50)

4.Chenek (strangulation) (Sefer ha'Chinuch #47)

(b)According to the Rebbi Shimon (Mishnah Sanhedrin 9:3, Gemara Sanhedrin 49b), the order of their stringency is Sefreifah, Sekilah, Chenek, and Hereg.

(c)If a person commits two capital offences, he is put to death with the more stringent of the two. If a number of people were sentenced to die through different death penalties, and it is not known which sentence was passed upon which person, Beis Din administers to all of them the least stringent of the death penalties to which they were sentenced.

(d)Chazal instituted a practice of burying people who were sentenced to capital punishment in two different cemeteries: one for those who were put to death by Sekilah and Sereifah, and one for those who were put to death by Hereg and Chenek.

23)[line 37]החופה את רוב העטרהHA'CHOFEH ES ROV HA'ATARAH- that covers most of the Atarah, (lit. the crown) the raised part of the Ever that is under the Orlah. See Insights to Shabbos 137:3.

24)[line 41]דמיא מרזו מכהD'MAYA MARZU MAKAH- (a) water causes a wound to worsen (RASHI); (b) water irritates a wound (making it more painful - RASHI 120b); (c) water clogs the mouth of a wound and does not let the medicine heal it (ARUCH)