TEMURAH 27 (14 Av 5779) - Dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld and family in honor of the marriage of his daughter Sarah to David Tzvi Formal. May they build together a Bayis Ne'eman b'Yisrael, raising children and grandchildren to a life of Torah and Yir'as Shamayim!

[27a - 37 lines; 27b - 42 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim, the Vilna Ga'on and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 27a [line 20]:

Hagahos ha'Gra #2

The Gra speculates what the "Lishna Acharina" is, according to Rashi's partial quote. Now, however, we have the commentary of Rabeinu Gershom, in which the Lishna Acharina is quoted in its entirety. This version fits Rashi's words much more clearly. See also Chart #6 for a summary of the different Leshonos.

[2] Rashi 27a DH Yado a'Kodesh " :

The words "Idach d'Chulin"

should be "v'Idach d'Chulin"

[3] Rashi DH Gavra Lo Ischazek " :

We have mentioned above (Girsa #1) that it is very difficult to understand Rashi without seeing the full wording of the Lishna Acharina as it is quoted by Rabeinu Gershom. There are also a number of printing errors in Rashi, as follows:

1.The words "Keivan d'Ba'a l'Meimar"

should be "v'Im Timtzi Lomar Hacha Keivan d'Ba'a l'Meimar"

2.The words "Al Sheteihen Heni'ach Yado u'Sheteihen Temurah"

should be "Al Sheteihen Heni'ach Yado, Sheteihen Temurah"

3.The words "aha'Hi Ba'alas Mum"

should be "ha'Hi Ba'alas Mum"

4.The words "Al ha'Hi d'Ba'alas Mum"

should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #20

5.The words "d'Cheivan del'Achulei Hava Ba'i"

should be "v'Cheivan del'Achulei Hava Ba'i"

6.The words "Ha d'Nakat Kol ha'Hi d'Ba'alas Mum"

should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #21

7.The words "d'Af Al Gav d'Anach Yadei"

should be "Af Al Gav d'Anach Yadei"

[4] Gemara 27b [line 8]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #2; this is also the Girsa of Rashi

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1)[line 5] AMAR RAVA, AFILU B'KODSHEI MIZBE'ACH- Rava said that even with regard to Kodshei Mizbe'ach, the word "Tachas" can refer to Chilul. According to Rabeinu Gershom, Rava is arguing with Abaye's contention that "Tachas" connotes both Hatfasah and Chilul. Rava maintains that "Tachas" means only Chilul, and it can never be used to make a Temurah. Rava understands that the Mishnah is saying that "Tachas" can be used for Chilul of a Ba'al Mum (the words of the Reisha, when he says "Tachas Zu," are also referring to the Seifa, "If it was a Ba'al Mum"). Rav Ashi, whose words follow Rava's, is apparently agreeing with Abaye and disputing Rava's statement. (According to this explanation, Rava's interpretation of the Mishnah is very forced.)

(a) (According to the text of our Gemara, Rava's words are "b'Kodshei Mizbe'ach Mashkachas Lah," as opposed to Rabeinu Gershom's text, "b'Kodshei Mizbe'ach Havah." According to our text, it could be that Rava is not arguing with Abaye, but is simply making an added observation. Rav Ashi and Abaye (in his next statement in the Gemara that follows) disagree with Rava and maintain that we interpret a person's usage of the word "Tachas" based on the positioning of his hands.)

2)[line 35]A'ONA'AH / BITUL MEKACH

If a person makes a profit of one sixth of the total value on an item that he sells, without the purchaser's knowledge, the transaction is valid, but the seller must return the profit to the purchaser. If the profit is less than one sixth, nothing is returned. If the profit is more than one sixth, the sale is invalid even if the profit is returned.

27b----------------------------------------27b

3)[line 8] LEIMA BED'SHMUEL KA MIPALGI- say that they are arguing with regard to the law of Shmuel, who says that if Hekdesh of any value is redeemed onto something worth a Perutah, it takes effect. (According to Rashi's Girsa (as it appears in Hagahos ha'Gra #1 and #2), this statement applies only to Rebbi Yirmeyah's opinion. The Gemara is suggesting that according to Rebbi Yirmeyah, the argument between Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish revolves around Shmuel's law. According to Rebbi Yonah, however, Rebbi Yochanan certainly argues with Shmuel's law.) See Chart #7.

4)[line 20] SHAMUY B'TREI- it was appraised by two (that is, its value was first appraised by two experts, and, later, three or more experts appraised it to be worth more)

5)[line 24] BASAR DE'OS AZLINAN- we follow the majority opinion

6)[line 35] EIN ADAM MOTZI DEVARAV L'VATALAH

Rebbi Meir is of the opinion that a person does not utter words for no purpose. Therefore, when a person's statement seems to be nonsensical, we "read into" his words a more plausible explanation.

7)[line 38] , D'LO CHAZYAN, LO BE'AYAN MUMA- [with regard to a Tamei animal or a Ba'al Mum,] since they are not fit to be offered as Korbanos, we do not require that they have a Mum (and they may be sold immediately). In contrast, if one was Makdish a female for an Asham or Olah, it may not be sold without a Mum, since females are fit to be offered as other types of Korbanos. (The Lishna Acharina which Rashi quotes substitutes the words "Kadesh Gufa" for these words. According to both versions, the conclusion is the same. The only difference is that the version that appears in our text quotes a statement of Rebbi Shimon in which he discusses Asham, while the Lishna Acharina quotes a statement of Rebbi Shimon in which he discusses Olah.)

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