[14a - 44 lines; 14b - 49 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim, the Vilna Ga'on and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 14a [line 23]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #8

[2] Gemara [line 38]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #21

[3] Rashi 14a DH Bein b'Zecharim בין בזכרים:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #30

[4] Rashi 14a DH Minchasam v'Niskeihem מנחתם ונסכיהם:

The words "uv'Lo Nizdamnu Lo Ka Mairi" ובלא נזדמנו לו קא מיירי

should be "b'Lo Nizdamnu Lo Ka Maisi" בלא נזדמנו לא קא מייתי. (When Rashi mentions bringing Nesachim after ten days, he is referring to the Gemara in Menachos 44b, "v'Niskeihem mi'Kan v'Ad Asarah Yamim" ונסכיהם מכאן ועד עשרה ימים.)

[5] Gemara 14b [line 1]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #1, which is the Girsa of Rashi

[6] Gemara [line 21]:

"u'Makrivin Amar Lei Rav Yosef... Amar Rav Ada bar Ahavah v'Alos ha'Shachar Poseles" ומקריבין אמר ליה רב יוסף... אמר רב אדא בר אהבה ועלות השחר פוסלת

These words are not in the Lishna Acharina of Rashi; rather, the Girsa is "u'Makrivan, v'Alos ha'Shachar Poseles" ומקריבן, ועלות השחר פוסלת

[7] Rashi 14b DH Chadti ד"ה חדתי:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #25


1)[line 5]בין בזכרים בין בנקבותBEIN B'ZECHARIM, BEIN B'NEKEIVOS- [private Korbanos of individuals may be brought] either with male animals or with female animals; see Chart #3

2)[line 19]ואין תמות וזכרות בעופותV'EIN TAMUS V'ZACHRUS B'OFOS - bird-offerings need not be either male or unblemished (BIRD OFFERINGS: DISQUALIFICATIONS)

(a)In order for an animal to be brought as a Korban Olah, it must meet the requirements of the Torah (Vayikra 22:18-19) with regard to being unblemished (Tamus) and male (Zachrus). Similarly, a Korban Chatas must be unblemished and female.

(b)When a bird is offered for these Korbanos, though, it does not require those specifications. A bird-offering may be male or female, and it is only invalidated by a missing limb and not by a blemish. (This limitation is learned from the verse "Hakrivehu Na l'Fechasecha ha'Yirtzecha O ha'Yisa Fanecha..." - "[And if you offer a blind animal as a sacrifice, is this not evil? And if you offer a lame or a sick animal, is this not evil?] Try to offer it to your governor, will he be pleased with you, or will he find favor in you?..." (Malachi 1:8) — RASHI to Chulin 23a DH bi'Vehemah.)

3)[line 20]האיכא שעיר נשיא דמייתי זכרHA'IKA SE'IR NASI D'MAISI ZACHAR- but there is the goat-offering of a Nasi, who brings a male goat (this is an answer to the question that an individual does not bring a male for a Chatas; the answer is that a Nasi indeed brings a male as a Chatas) (CHATAS NASI)

(a) The Chatas Nasi is the male goat brought by a Jewish king as a Korban Chatas when he transgresses an Isur Kares thinking that the Torah did not prohibit such an act. (The goat is brought for the same sins that a Par He'elem Davar is brought when the people commit transgressions upon being misled by Beis Din in a Halachic matter — see Background to Horayos 2:1.)

(b) See Background to Menachos 3:7.

4)[line 23]ומאי ניהו? שלמיםU'MAI NIHU? SHELAMIM- and what are they (the Korbenos Yachid that may be brought as a male or a female)? They are the Shelamim. (In contrast, the only Korban Tzibur that is a Shemalim — the Kivsei Atzeres (see Background to Erchin 25:14) — is brought as male animals.)

5)[line 33]מתעכליןMIS'AKLIN- they are consumed

6a)[line 34]קומץKOMETZ (KEMITZAH)

(a)A Kometz is the amount that can be held by the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm. The Kohen puts his hand in the dough or baked goods and removes one handful. Using the thumb and smallest finger of the same hand, he next wipes off the dough or baked goods that stick out, until only the Kometz remains.

(b)Kemitzah is only performed when a Minchah is brought by a non-Kohen. A Minchah that is brought by the Tzibur, a Minchah offered by a Kohen, and a Minchah that is brought together with an animal Korban (the Minchas Nesachim — see next entry) are entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.

b)[line 34]מנחת נסכיםMINCHAS NESACHIM

(a)The Minchas Nesachim is a Korban Minchah that is brought together with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether the Korban is offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or by an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). It is called Minchas "Nesachim" because it is normally brought along with the Nesachim (wine libations) that are offered with these Korbanos.

(b)The mixture of flour and olive oil is salted and completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).

7a)[line 38]ליקדשLIKADESH- to receive Kedushas ha'Guf by being placed in a Kli Shares

b)[line 38]ליקרבLIKAREV- to be offered on the Mizbe'ach

8)[line 42]נסכים הבאים עם הזבחNESACHIM HA'BA'IM IM HA'ZEVACH- Nesachim offered together with the Korban. This refers to Nesachim that were already designated before the Korban was slaughtered.


9)[line 35]שלמי נזירSHALMEI NAZIR

(a)If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person stipulates a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of time he stipulated. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to:

1.Cut his hair;

2.Become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or

3.Consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the Nazir liable to Malkus, as long as he was warned beforehand.

(b)When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves off his hair and burns it under the pot in which the Zero'a (right hind leg) of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18). (Sefer ha'Chinuch #377)

10)[line 35]שלמי פסחSHALMEI PESACH - the Korban Shalmei Chagigah that is brought together with the Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan (RASHI here) (CHAGIGAS ARBA'AH ASAR)

(a)The Torah requires that each Korban Pesach be eaten by a designated group of people. When many people share a Korban Pesach such that there is not enough meat to provide a full meal for each of them, a Korban Chagigah is brought along with it. The members of the group eat the Korban Chagigah before the Korban Pesach to ensure that they eat the Korban Pesach Al ha'Sova (when they are satiated) (see Insights to Pesachim 70:1).

(b)This Korban Chagigah is not to be confused with the Korban Chagigah that a person must bring during all festivals. Every Jewish male is obligated to come to the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash on Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos, and bring an animal as a Korban Chagigah, as the Torah states, "Shalosh Regalim Tachog Li ba'Shanah" (Shemos 23:14).

11)[line 37]במת יחידBAMAS YACHID (BAMAH)

(a)BAMAH - A Bamah is a raised area used for sacrifices. Before the Beis ha'Mikdash was built, there were times when it was permitted to offer sacrifices on public altars (Bamas Tzibur or Bamah Gedolah) and private altars (Bamas Yachid or Bamah Ketanah (see Insights to Pesachim 91:2)).

(b)BAMAH GEDOLAH - Only one public altar was in use at any particular time. At various times in our history, the Bamah Gedolah was in Gilgal (where the Mishkan stood before the land was completely conquered, until it was moved to Shiloh), Nov and Giv'on (after the Mishkan in Shiloh was destroyed, see Zevachim 112b). An individual could offer only voluntary sacrifices on a Bamah Gedolah. There is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to whether all communal sacrifices could be offered on a Bamah Gedolah or only the communal sacrifices that have a fixed time (Zevachim 117a).

(c)BAMAH KETANAH - Any person, even if he was not a Kohen, could build a Bamah Ketanah anywhere in Eretz Yisrael and offer upon it his personal sacrifices. Only voluntary sacrifices could be offered on a Bamah Ketanah.

(d)MIZBE'ACH - The Mishkan was built in Shiloh, a city in the portion of Efrayim, after the 14 years of conquest and apportionment of Eretz Yisrael. A Mizbe'ach (altar) was built to replace the Bamos, and as long as the Mishkan stood in Shiloh, sacrificing on the Bamos was prohibited. The Tana'im argue as to whether this Mizbe'ach was a stone structure or whether it was the hollow wooden Mizbe'ach overlaid with copper that was constructed for the Mishkan in the desert, filled with stones (Zevachim 61b). The Mishkan stood in Shiloh for 369 years (Seder Olam Raba 11).

(e)BEIS HA'MIKDASH - The Beis ha'Mikdash is known as the "Beis Olamim," the "Eternal Dwelling," because once it was chosen, it became the permanent dwelling place of the Shechinah. Once again the Bamos were prohibited, but this time permanently. The Mizbach ha'Chitzon (Outer Mizbe'ach), also known as the Mizbach ha'Olah (Mizbe'ach of the Korban Olah) of the Beis ha'Mikdash consisted of three concrete and stone platforms poured one on top of the other. (For a description of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, see Background to Sukah 45:15.)

12)[line 38]סמי מכאן נזירותSAMI MI'KAN NEZIRUS- remove from here the word "Nezirus." That is, remove this word from the Mishnah in Zevachim that was just quoted.


(a)If someone says, "I am a Nazir forever," or "I am a Nazir all the days of my life," he becomes a Nezir Olam and is a Nazir until the end of his life. Like a normal Nazir, he is not allowed to cut his hair, to become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse, or to consume any products of the grapevine.

(b)A Nezir Olam differs from a normal Nazir in that he may cut off his hair at the end of every 12 months (or 30 days or 7 days, according to some Tana'im, Nazir 4b) when his hair becomes heavy. (According to TOSFOS (ibid.) he does not shave off his hair completely at this time.) On the day that he cuts his hair, he brings the three Korbanos that a normal Nazir brings at the completion of the Nezirus period: a Chatas, an Olah and a Shelamim (see above, entry #9). If he becomes Tamei, he brings a Korban Tum'ah, shaves his hair and starts his Nezirus anew (just like any Nazir who becomes Tamei).

(c)The Gemara (Nazir 4b) tells us that Avshalom was a Nazir Olam, and thus such a Nazir is also referred to as a "Nazir Avshalom."

14)[line 39]"ויהי מקץ ארבעים שנה ויאמר אבשלום אל המלך אלכה נא ואשלם את נדרי אשר נדרתי לה' בחברון""VA'YEHI MIKETZ ARBA'IM SHANAH VA'YOMER AVSHALOM EL HA'MELECH, 'ELCHAH NA VA'ASHALEM ES NIDRI ASHER NADARTI LA'HASH-M B'CHEVRON'" - "And it was at the end of forty years that Avshalom said to the king: Let me go and fulfill the vow that I made to HaSh-m in Chevron" (Shmuel II 15:7) (AVSHALOM'S REBELLION)

(a)Only forty years had passed since Yisrael demanded a king, but already Shmuel's prediction — that David's kingdom would come under attack and many lives would be lost — was about to materialize.

(b)Avshalom chose to go to Chevron to fulfill his Neder since that was where the finest sheep were located.

(c)The verse also records how he had 200 men accompanying him in total innocence (having no idea of the plot that was about to unfold). These he obtained through trickery, by means of a signed note from his father, permitting any two men to accompany him to Chevron. Taking full advantage of that note, he asked two men at a time (without them knowing that he had already asked two men before them) until he had amassed a group of 200 men.

15)[line 42]לא הלך אבשלום אלא להביא כבשים מחברוןLO HALACH AVSHALOM ELA L'HAVI KEVASIM ME'CHEVRON- Avshalom went only to bring lambs from Chevron. That is, the Neder that Avshalom referred to was his Nezirus, which included periodic shavings after bringing Korbanos. The Neder was not the Korbanos themselves. (SHITAH MEKUBETZES #18; see also RASHI.)

16)[line 45]אלא לעולם לאקרוביELA L'OLAM L'AKRUVEI- rather, he certainly went to offer Korbanos. That is, Korbenos Nazir are a Neder, and the text of the Mishnah in Zevachim need not be emended. When the Beraisa quoted earlier says "Shalmeichem," it means Shalmei Pesach (see TOSFOS DH u'Tenan).