(R. Ashi): R. Elazar and R. Yochanan are only arguing about Chilul of the actual Shemitah produce (Pri Rishon) while the Pri Sheni can surely be Mechulal by either means (purchase or Chilul).
Question: What of the multiple references to Lakach in the Beraisa?
Answer: They are only to be consistent with the Reisha (regarding Pri Rishon).
Question: But the Beraisa requires a person with Shevi'is coins (which must be Pri Sheni) to redeem them only through a purchase (but not by Chilul)!?
Answer (R. Ashi): Rather, the Machlokes is by Pri Sheni, whereas Pri Rishon must only be through purchase.
Question: What of the Beraisa which teaches that Shevi'is and Ma'aser Sheni may be Mechulal on an animal (like R. Yochanan that Shevi'is produce may be redeemed through Chilul)!?
Answer: Shevi'is means funds of Shevi'is.
If the Shevi'is were referring to actual produce, then Ma'aser Sheni would also mean actual produce, which, we know, may only be Mechulal onto coins.
MISHNAH: WHEN THE LULAV IS TAKEN
During the Z'man ha'Bayis the Lulav was taken all seven days, while outside it is taken only on the first day.
After the Churban, R. Yochanan b. Zakai instituted that it is taken all seven days Zecher l'Mikdash.
Another Zecher l'Mikdash is the prohibition of Chadash for all of the 16th of Nisan.
Question: What is the source for making a Zecher l'Mikdash?
Answer (R. Yochanan): The Navi complains that none are "Doresh" the memory of the Mikdash.
CHADASH ON THE 16TH OF NISAN
Question: Why is the 16th prohibited?
Answer: Lest an error be made when the Bais ha'Mikdash is built (if the previous year it became permitted in the morning, they might not realize that the Omer is now the Matir for Chadash, not the dawning day).
Question: Whenever the Mikdash will be built, it will not be prohibited later than midday on the 16th!?
Answer: Our concern is in the case where the Mikdash is built on the night of the 16th, resulting in a delay in the bringing of the Omer until late on the 16th.
Answer (R. Nachman b. Yitzchak): R. Yochanan b. Zakai's concern was because he anticipated the opinion of R. Yehudah who holds that mid'Oraisa Chadash is prohibited the entire 16th.
R. Yehudah learns this from the words Ad Etzem.
Ad includes the day itself.
Question: But we find that R. Yehudah states his position as juxtaposed to that of R. Yochanan, implying that he argues!?
Answer: R. Yehudah misunderstood the position of R. Yochanan b. Zakai (erroneously defining 'Hiskin' as meaning that the prohibition is d'Rabanan only).
Question: But the Mishnah does say Hiskin!?
Answer: It means that he then taught the proper interpretation of the Pasuk.
MISHNAH: LULAV ON SHABBOS
When the first Yom Tov falls on Shabbos the people must bring their Lulavim before Shabbos.
The next day each one must make sure to take his own, since the Chachamim taught that one may only be Yotzei with his own.
The rest of the week one may be Yotzei with a borrowed Lulav.
(R. Yosi): If one accidentally carried his Lulav on the first Yom Tov he is Patur from a Chatas because he was engrossed in the performance of a Mitzvah.
ONE'S OWN LULAV
Question: What is the source for this requirement?
Answer: The Rabanan interpret u'Lekachtem Lachem to exclude a borrowed or stolen Lulav.
It may be transferred as a gift.
This is seen in the incident of R. Gamliel who gave his expensive Lulav to the Chachamim who were with him on board (who then gave it back to him).
Question: Why did we need to be taught that they gave it back to R. Gamliel?
Answer: To teach that a gift given on condition of its return is a valid gift (if subsequently returned) as we see was Rava's practice.
Question: Why do we need to be taught that R. Gamliel spent 1000 Zuz on his Esrog and Lulav?
Answer: To teach us how precious the Mitzvah was in his eyes.
ACTIVITIES PERFORMED WITH LULAV IN HAND
(Mar b. Ameimar): Father would pray with his Lulav.
Question: But the Beraisa teaches that one must not hold anything of Kedushah in his hand during Tefilah (and Shmuel extends this to anything which he would be afraid to drop)!?
Answer: There is no Mitzvah to hold those items (unlike the Lulav which thus does not create a distraction).
(Beraisa-R. Elazar b. Tzadok): The custom of the people of Yerushalayim was to carry the Lulav through every task with the exception of Nesiyas Kapayim and learning Torah, due to their love of Mitzvos.