PETURIM FROM MITZVOS
First Beraisa: Wedding participants.
(Tana Kama): A groom and all of the wedding participants are Peturim from Tefilah, Tefilin but are obligated in Shema.
(R. Shila): The groom is even Patur from Shema.
Second Beraisa: Dealers in Tashmishei Kedushah.
(R. Chananya b. Akavya): Scribes, wholesalers and retailers of STa"M, and similar others involved in divine service are Peturim from all Mitzvos
This was as taught by R. Yosi ha'Gelili (Osek B'Mitzvah).
Third Beraisa: Travelers.
Travelers are Peturim from Sukah when they travel and are obligated when they are not traveling.
Those travelling for Mitzvos are exempt day and night regardless of the time they travel.
In the reported incident R. Chisda and Rabah bar R. Huna saw themselves as exempt when they went to the home of the Resh Gelusa in Sura.
Fourth Beraisa: Watchmen.
Watchmen are Peturim from Sukah when they watch and are obligated when they are not watching.
The same holds for watchmen who remain in one place (at their posts).
Question: Let them make a Sukah there!?
Answer (Abaye): One does not live that way during the year, and the Sukah must recall one's normal residence (Teshvu k'Ein Taduru).
Answer (Rava): Seeing the watchman with his Sukah would invite thieves to the other direction.
Question: When will these answers show a difference?
Answer: When watching a mound of fruit (it can be watched from one spot, but it does not recall normal residence).
A SICK PERSON IS EXEMPT FROM SUKAH
(Tana Kama): Even one who is moderately sick (enough that residing in the Sukah would be hard for him) is exempt from Sukah.
(R. Shimon b. Gamliel): R. Yosi exempted me due to my eye discomfort.
Rav permitted R. Acha to sleep under a Kilah because of insects (mosquitoes-Ran).
Rava exempted R. Acha b. Ada due to the foul smell he experienced (from the floor) in the Sukah.
Rava is consistent with his assertion that one who is distressed by the Sukah is exempt from it.
Question: But the Mishnah only exempt the ill!?
Answer: It exempts even the attendants of the ill, while the distressed are personally exempt, but not their attendants.
EATING ARAI (A CASUAL MEAL/SNACK) OUTSIDE OF THE SUKAH
Question: What quantity of food is considered Arai?
Answer (R. Yosef): Two or three (Beitzim).
Question: But that amount could suffice for some as a full meal (Keva)!?
Answer (Abaye): Rather, Arai is the mouthful that a student takes on his way to the Academy (one Beitzah).
EATING ARAI VERSUS SLEEPING ARAI OUTSIDE OF THE SUKAH
(Beraisa): One is permitted to eat Arai outside of the Sukah, but not sleep Arai (nap) outside of the Sukah.
Question: Why may he not nap?
Answer (R. Ashi): We are concerned lest he fall into a deep sleep.
Question (Abaye): Then why is it permitted to sleep Arai with Tefilin, given the concern lest he fall asleep.
Answer (R. Yosef b'Rebbi Ilai): He instructs another to wake him.
Question (R. Mesharshia): The guarantor (the waker) needs a guarantor!!
Answer (Rabah bar bar Chanah citing R. Yochanan): Rather, the Beraisa regarding Tefilin speaks where he put his head down between his knees (where we are not concerned lest he fall deeply asleep in that position).
Answer (Rava): Because there is no amount of sleep which can universally be called sufficient (a nap might suffice for some, constituting their full sleep).
THREE BERAISOS ON TEFILIN AND SLEEP
First: A person with Tefilin may sleep Arai but not Keva (when wearing them).
Second: A person may sleep Arai or Keva (when the Tefilin are covered and lying near his head).
Third: A person may not sleep Arai or Keva (when holding the Tefilin in his hand, lest they fall).
Question: How much time constitutes Arai?
Answer (Rami b. Yechezkel): The time to walk 100 Amos.
This is supported in the Beraisa which instructs one who sees Keri when napping regarding the procedure for removing his Tefilin.
He may handle the straps but not the Batim.
The Chachamim, who permit Arai (only during the day - Tosfos), state that Arai is the time to walk 100 Amos.
(Rav): It is not permitted to sleep, during the day, more than a horse (60 breaths).
(Abaye): Rabah b. Nachmani napped as long as Rav, who napped like Rebbi, who napped like Dovid ha'Melech, who napped like a horse, 60 breaths.
Abaye napped for longer (time to walk six Parsah from Pumbedisa to Bei Kuvi).
R. Yosef cited a Pasuk indicating that this was excessive for Abaye.
(R. Nasan): One who naps during the day may either remove or remain wearing his Tefilin, but at night he must remove them.
(R. Yosi): Young men must always remove their Tefilin, because they are accustomed to Tum'ah.
Question: Is this to imply that R. Yosi forbids a Ba'al Keri from wearing Tefilin!?
Answer (Abaye): No, he is speaking of young men who are with their wives, and they must remove their Tefilin before sleeping.
One who cohabits with his wife and forgets that he is wearing Tefilin must wash his hands before touching any part of the Tefilin.
MISHNAH: INCIDENTS REGARDING SMALL AMOUNTS OF FOOD
R. Yochanan b. Zakai insisted on bringing small amounts of food into the Sukah.
R. Tzadok ate less than a KeBEtzah outside of the Sukah without Netilas Yadayim or Bircas ha'Mazon.
BEING MACHMIR ON ONESELF
Question: The incident of R. Yochanan b. Zakai contradicts the principle set forth (that Arai is permitted outside of the Sukah) for which it is serving as an example!?
Answer: By emending the Mishnah we learn that one is permitted to be stringent and bring even small amounts into the Sukah without fear of conceit, which the incident supports.
Question: The incident of R. Tzadok (in which he ate less than a KeBEtzah outside of the Sukah) should disprove those (R. Yosef and Abaye) who speaks of larger measures as being permitted!?
Answer: The incident may be reporting the amount for Netilas Yadayim and Bircas ha'Mazon (a KeBEtzah), not the measure for bringing food into the Sukah.