Opinion #1 (R. Elazar): If one learned written Torah and Mishnah, but not the reasons and resolutions of the Mishnayos, he is an ignoramus;
Opinion #2 (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): He is a Bor (crude, empty person).
Opinion #3 (R. Yanai): He is like a Kusi (after Sancheriv exiled the 10 tribes, he settled Nochrim (called Kusim) in their place. The Kusim converted to avoid being eaten by lions, but did not accept the Oral Torah.)
Opinion #4 (R. Acha bar Yakov): He is like a witch.
Support (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): A witch says things, without knowing what they mean. This one recites teachings, without understanding them!
(Beraisa - R. Meir): An ignoramus is one who does not recite Shema Yisrael with its Berachos, morning and evening;
Chachamim say, it is one who does not don Tefilin;
Ben Azai says, it is one who does not have Tzitzis on his garment;
R. Yonasan ben Yosef says, it is one who has children and does not raise them to learn Torah;
Others say, even if he learned written Torah and Mishnah, but not the reasons and resolutions of the Mishnayos, he is an ignoramus;
If he learned written Torah but not Mishnah, he is a Bor;
"I will plant Beis Yisrael and Beis Yehudah, the seed of men and the seed of animals" refers to one who did not learn Torah or Mishnah.
(R. Yitzchak): "My son, fear Hash-m and the king; do not mingle with Shonim" - Shonim are those who recite Mishnayos.
Question: This is obvious!
Answer: One might have thought that it means those who repeat a sin.
(Rav Huna): If one sins and repeats the sin, it becomes permitted (in his eyes) to him.
(Beraisa): Those who recite teachings destroy the world.
Question: Can this really be?!
Answer (Ravina): Yes, because they rule based on the (simple reading of) Mishnayos (without truly understanding them).
Support (Beraisa - R. Yehoshua) Question: How can one say they destroy the world? They establish the world!
"Halichos (the ways) of the world are to him" (to one who learns Halachos).
Answer: They destroy the world, because they rule based on the Mishnayos.
(Mishnah): A woman who is a Perushah...
(Beraisa): The following destroy the world: a virgin who prays excessively, a widow who is frequent among her neighbors, and a youth whose months were not fulfilled.
Question: R. Yochanan said that we learned fear of sin from a (particular) virgin, and (strategies for) receiving reward from a widow.
R. Yochanan heard a virgin fall on her face and pray that men should not stumble with her and lose their world to come.
There was a widow who used to pray every day in R. Yochanan's Beis Medrash, even though there was a Beis ha'Keneses near her.
R. Yochanan: Isn't there a Beis ha'Keneses near you?
The widow: I come here to receive reward for each step!
Answer: People like Yuchni bas Rativi (a witch who made people think that her prayers saved women from difficult births) destroy the world.
Question: What is a youth whose months were not fulfilled?
Answer #1 (Chachamim of Bavel): It is a Chacham who rebels against his Rabbis.
Answer #2 (R. Aba): It is a Talmid who is not qualified to rule, and gives rulings.
(R. Avahu): "She made fall many corpses" refers to a Chacham who is not qualified to rule, and rules;
"Awesome are the amount she has killed" refers to a Chacham who is qualified to rule, and does not rule.
Question: What is the proper age to rule?
Answer: It is 40 years.
Objection: Rabah ruled younger than this!
Answer: Rabah was as great like the greatest Chacham in the city. (In such a case, even one less than 40 may rule.)
(Mishnah): Blows of Perushim...
(Beraisa): There are seven types of (improper) Perushim: Shichmi, Nakfi, Kizai, mi'Duchya, one who says 'what is my obligation? I will do it!', from love, and from fear.
Shichmi do not act for Hash-m's sake;
Nakfi shuffle their feet like humble people, and stub their toes;
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Kizai bleed from bumping into walls, like one who closes his eyes to avoid looking at women;
(Rabah bar Shilo): Mi'Duchya walk bent.
Question: It is praiseworthy to say 'what is my obligation? I will do it!'
Correction: Rather, he says 'what else is my obligation? I will do it!' (This implies that he has fulfilled his obligation.)
(Abaye and Rava): From love and fear (of reward or punishment) should not be taught (for these are praiseworthy)!
(Rav Yehudah): One should always engage in Torah and Mitzvos, even Lo Lishmah (with ulterior motives), for this will lead him to do them Lishmah (to become close to Hash-m).
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Some things are hidden from people, and others are revealed. Hash-m's great Beis Din (to which all is revealed) exacts payment from those who (deceivingly) dress like Perushim.
King Yanai (to his wife): You need not fear the true Perushim, nor those who are not Perushim;
You need fear only the colored (those who portray themselves to be Perushim);
They sin like Zimri, and anticipate reward like Pinchas.
MERIT SUSPENDS PUNISHMENT
(Mishnah - R. Shimon): Merit does not suspend death of a guilty Sotah;
If it did, women would not fear the water. Also, people would suspect innocent women who survive;
They would say that they are guilty, and merit suspended their death.
Rebbi says, merit suspends the death. She will not give birth or become healthy. Rather, she gets increasingly sick, and eventually dies like the Torah says.
If her Minchah became Tamei before Kidush in a Kli Shares, it is redeemed, like any other Minchah;
If her Minchah became Tamei after Kidush in a Kli Shares, it is burned, like any other Minchah.