SOTAH 22 (12 Sivan) - Today's Torah study has been dedicated on behalf of Chaim ben Rinah Bitton of Geneva and Melissa Leah bat Esther of Montreal on the day of their marriage, in prayer that they should merit to live a happy and successful life in Torah and Mitzvot together.

[22a - 45 lines; 22b - 34 lines]

1)[line 1]ולא שימש תלמידי חכמיםV'LO SHIMESH TALMIDEI CHACHAMIM- but did not attend upon Talmidei Chachamim as a disciple, to learn the correct interpretations of the Mishnayos based upon the methods of the Gemara

2)[line 3]עם הארץAM HA'ARETZ

(a)An Am ha'Aretz is an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance (see Berachos 47b) who usually eats food that is Tamei. Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from the produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (which is known as Demai - "Da Mai?" - "What is this?") since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. We presume that Terumah Gedolah, however, has been separated because of its stringency.

(b)The Perushim (i.e. those who usually eat their food b'Taharah) consider the clothes of an Am ha'Aretz to be Tamei Midras (see Background to Nazir 64:4b:a-b). They were concerned that the wife of the Am ha'Aretz sat upon them while she was a Nidah. We burn the Terumah that touches the clothes of an Am ha'Aretz.

3)[line 4]בורBUR- an ignoramus (who does not have proper manners)

4)[line 4]כותיKUSI

(a)The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).

(b)After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)

(c)Even though the Kusim kept many Mitzvos of the Torah down to their last detail, there were other Mitzvos that they did not keep at all. For example, the Kusim did not refrain from causing others to sin (which is prohibited by the verse, "Lifnei Iver Lo Siten Michshol" - "You shall not put a stumbling block before the blind" - Vayikra 19:14).

5)[line 5]מגושMAGOSH- a magician [who performs magic tricks by slight of hand]

6)[line 7]רטין מגושאRATIN MAGOSHA- a magician mumbles [an incantation]

7)[line 7]ולא ידע מאי אמרV'LO YADA MAI AMAR- and does not know [the meaning of] what he is saying

8)[line 8]תני תנא ולא ידע מאי אמרTANI TANA V'LO YADA MAI AMAR- [this person who learned Torah but did not attend upon Talmidei Chachamim also] learns and does not know [the meaning of] what he is saying

9)[line 17]"ירא את ה' בני ומלך ועם שונים אל תתערב""YERA ES HASH-M, BENI, VA'MELECH, IM SHONIM AL TIS'ARAV."- "My son, fear HaSh-m and the king. Do not mingle with those who are given to change." (Mishlei 24:21) - The word "Shonim" (inconsistent people) is the verb for those who study Mishnayos by repeating ("Shonim") them.

10)[line 20]שונין בחטאSHONIN B'CHET- they transgress the same sin more than once

11)[line 22]הותרה לוHUTRAH LO- that is, to him it becomes as if it is permitted (Yoma 86b)

12)[line 22]התנאים מבלי עולםHA'TANA'IM MEVALEI OLAM- those who learn Mishnayos are those who ruin the world

13)[line 26]"הליכות עולם לו""HALICHOS OLAM LO"- "His ways are as of old" (Chabakuk 3:6) - In Megilah 28b this statement ends with the words, "Al Tikri Halichos, Ela Halachos." - "Do not read Halichos (ways), but rather Halachos," i.e., those who learn and teach Halachos uphold the world and make it a better place.

14)[line 26]אלא שמורין הלכה מתוך משנתןELA SHE'MORIN HALACHAH MI'TOCH MISHNASAN- at this point the Gemara means that the Halachos that these people teach are mistaken, since they did not delve deeply into their Torah-learning. Without a teacher to teach them the correct interpretations of the Mishnayos based upon the methods of the Gemara, and to teach them whether the Halachah follows a particular Mishnah or not, these people will surely make mistakes.

15)[line 28]צלייניתTZALYANIS- who prays a lot

16)[line 28]שובביתSHOVAVIS- who is over-friendly with her neighbors

17)[line 32]דנפלה אאפהD'NAFLAH A'APAH- who fell on her face [in prayer]

18)[line 36]דהואי בי כנישתא בשיבבותהD'HAVAI BEI CHENISHTA B'SHIVEVUSAH- that there was a synagogue in her neighborhood

19)[line 41]המבעט ברבותיוHA'MEVA'ET B'RABOSAV- who rebels against his teachers

20)[line 42]שלא הגיע להוראהSHE'LO HIGI'A L'HORA'AH- who has not arrived at a level of understanding and maturity to decide Halachic questions

21)[line 43]"כי רבים חללים הפילה ועצומים כל הרוגיה""KI RABIM CHALALIM HIPILAH; VA'ATZUMIM KOL HARUGEHA."- "For she has cast down many wounded; and there is a profound number of those whom she has killed (METZUDAS DAVID)." (Mishlei 7:26) - "Hipilah" refers to the Talmid Chacham who is not fit to decide Halachic questions, since it is related to the word "Nefel" (a stillborn), and the Gemara calls this person a "Katan she'Lo Kalu Lo Chadashav." "Atzumim" refers to the Talmid Chacham who is fit to decide Halachic questions but does not, since he is "Otzem" (closes) his mouth and does not take upon himself the responsibility for which he is legitimately prepared (RASHI).


22)[line 1]והא רבה אורי?V'HA RABA ORI!?- but Rabah [bar Nachmani] decided Halachic questions [well before he reached the age of forty] (this is evident since he only lived until the age of forty - Rosh Hashanah 18a)

23)[line 2]בשויןB'SHAVIN- (a) [when the Talmid Chacham who is less than forty years of age is] on the same level [of learning, understanding, and maturity as the greatest sage of the city, which was the case regarding Rabah bar Nachmani, he may decide Halachic matters] (RASHI, RI, RABEINU CHANANEL); (b) [when the Talmid Chacham who is less than forty years of age is] on the same level [of learning, understanding, and maturity as the greatest sage of the city, he may not decide Halachic matters, but only when he is greater than the greatest sage of the city, which was the case regarding Rabah bar Nachmani.] (TOSFOS)

24)[line 3]פרוש שיכמיPARUSH SHICHMI- (a) a person (lit. an ascetic, as in all of the following) who performs Mitzvos like the people of Shechem, who performed Bris Milah for ulterior motives and not l'Shem Shamayim (for the sake of Heaven) (RASHI); (b) a person who "carries the Mitzvos on his shoulder (Shechem)," i.e. who displays them for all to take note of his righteousness (TOSFOS, according to the explanation of Rav Yitzchak Isaac Chaver)

25)[line 3]פרוש נקפיPARUSH NIKFI- (a) a person who shuffles along, striking (Nokef) his feet against the rocks (RASHI); (b) a person who states, "Lend (Akif) me money and I will perform Mitzvos" (TOSFOS, according to the explanation of Rav Yitzchak Isaac Chaver)

26)[line 3]פרוש קיזאיPARUSH KIZA'I- (a) a person who walks with closed eyes, pretending not to look at things at which he is prohibited to look, and strikes his head against walls until he lets blood (Makiz) on the walls (RASHI); (b) a person who performs a Mitzvah after he transgresses an Aveirah, claiming that one balances out (Mekiz) the other (TOSFOS, according to the explanation of Rav Yitzchak Isaac Chaver)

27)[line 4]פרוש מדוכיאPARUSH MEDUCHYA- (a) a person who walks stooped like a certain type of curved pestle (Meduchyah) (RASHI); (b) according to the Girsa, PARUSH MIN HA'NECHAYAH - a person who states, "From the little money that I have I will subtract (Menakeh) in order to do Mitzvos (TOSFOS, according to the explanation of the Penei Moshe); (c) a person who states, "I will do the Mitzvos as long as I (or my descendents) do not lower myself beneath a certain level of status, wealth, etc. I will only take off (Menakeh) what I have above this level (TOSFOS, according to the explanation of Melo ha'Ro'im)

28)[line 8]המקיז דם לכתליםHA'MAKIZ DAM LA'KOSALIM- lets blood on the walls

29)[line 9]דמשפע כי מדוכיאD'MESHAPE'A KI MEDUCHYA- see above, entry #27

30)[line 11]מה חובתי תו ואעשנהMA CHOVASI SU, VE'ESA'ENA- (a) What further obligation is there for me to do, that I should do it? (RASHI); (b) Tell me what have I done wrong, so that I shall do Teshuvah (TOSFOS, according to the explanation of Melo ha'Ro'im)

31)[line 17]דמטמרא מטמראD'METAMRA METAMRA- acts that are committed in hiding are concealed

32)[line 17]ודמגליא מגליאUD'MEGLYA MEGALYA- and acts that are committed publicly are revealed

33)[line 17]בי דינא רבה ליתפרעBEI DINA RABA LISPARA- the Great Beis Din [in Heaven] should exact payment

34)[line 18]מהני דחפו גונדיMEHANEI D'CHAFU GUNDEI- from those people that cloak themselves with black garments (as if they are saintly when they are really not)

35)[line 20]הצבועיןHA'TZEVU'IN- the hypocrites

36)[line 24]מדהה אתהMADHEH ATAH- you weaken [the effect of]

37)[line 30]מתנוונה והולכתMISNAVNAH V'HOLECHES- she withers away over a long period of time, as opposed to suddenly