The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

[49a - 61 lines; 49b - 57 lines]

1)[line 1]שמבזבזין דין אביהםSHE'MEVAZBEZIN DIN AVIHEM- that they cause the judgment of their fathers (in the World to Come) to be torn up

2)[line 3]מאחר שאתה עתיד ליפרע מהןME'ACHAR SHA'ATAH ASID LIPARA MEHEM- If in the future (in the World to Come) You intend to exact payment from (to punish) them for their sins...

3)[line 3]למה הקהיתה שיניהם בם?LAMAH HIKHEISAH SHINEIHEM BAM?- (lit. Why did You set their teeth on edge with them?) Why did You exact payment for their wickedness in this world by killing us, where the death of young children atones for a great deal? (See Koheles Rabah 4:1 where the claim of these children, along with an added appeal taught to them by Eliyahu ha'Navi, cause the fathers of these children to merit the World to Come.)

4)[line 5]רבבREVAV- a substance that is thick, viscous, and loathsome, e.g. fat or oil (and only the poor deal in it)

5)[line 6]"שיתה ה' מורה להם [ידעו גוים אנוש המה סלה]""SHISAH HASH-M MORAH LAHEM; [YED'U GOYIM ENOSH HEMAH SELAH]"- "HaSh-m! Give them (those poor people) mastery; [let the nations know that they are only men (frail creatures), Selah]" (Tehilim 9:21).

6)[line 9]"ה' שמעתי שמעך יראתי, ה' פעלך בקרב שנים חיינו בקרב שנים תודיע; [ברגז רחם תזכור]""HASH-M! SHAMATI SHIM'ACHA, YAREISI, HASH-M PA'ALCHA B'KEREV SHANIM CHAYEIHU, B'KEREV SHANIM TODI'A; [B'ROGEZ RACHEM TIZKOR]"- "HaSh-m, I have heard Your report, and I was afraid, O HaSh-m, revive Your work in the midst of the years, in the midst of the years make known; [in wrath, remember mercy]" (Chabakuk 3:2) - "Pa'alcha" ("Your work") refers to the Torah. The words "b'Kerev Shanim" ("in the midst of the years") is read by the Gemara as "b'Kiruv Shenayim" ("when two huddle together"). It is about this situation that Chabakuk prays, "Chayeihu!" ("Let him (them) live [in expanse, fulfilling all of his (their) needs]!").

7)[line 14]"ויהי המה הולכים הלוך ודבר והנה רכב אש וסוסי אש ויפרדו בין שניהם ויעל אליהו בסערה השמים""VA'YEHI HEMAH HOLCHIM, HALOCH V'DABER, V'HINEH RECHEV ESH V'SUSEI ESH, VA'YAFRIDU BEIN SHENEIHEM; VA'YA'AL ELIYAHU BA'SE'ARAH HA'SHAMAYIM"- "And it came to pass, as they were walking along and talking, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and it parted them from one another; and Eliyahu went up in a storm of wind into Heaven" (Melachim II 2:11).

8)[line 18]ואין נוחין זה לזה בהלכהV'EIN NOCHIN ZEH LA'ZAH B'HALACHAH- (a) who do not learn the Halachah with each other in a pleasant manner; (b) who do not lead each other while learning together to understand the Halachah correctly

9)[line 18]גולהGOLEH - shall go to exile (AREI MIKLAT)

(a)A person who murders intentionally after having been previously warned is liable to the death penalty. A person who murders unintentionally is exempt from the death penalty, but is punished with Galus (banishment).

(b)When it is proven that a person killed unintentionally, he is banished to one of the six Arei Miklat (Cities of Refuge) or one of the forty-two cities of the Leviyim. He must stay there and not leave the city or its Techum for any reason whatsoever until the death of the Kohen Gadol who served at the time that he was sentenced to banishment.

(c)If the unintentional murderer leaves his City of Refuge, the Go'el ha'Dam (the closest relative of the murdered person) is permitted to avenge the death of his relative and kill the murderer.

10)[line 21]"נדמו עמי מבלי הדעת; [כי אתה הדעת מאסת ואמאסך מכהן לי, ותשכח תורת א-לקיך אשכח בניך גם אני]""NIDMU AMI MI'BLI HA'DA'AS; [KI ATAH HA'DA'AS MA'ASTA V'EM'ASECHA MI'KAHEN LI, VA'TISHKACH TORAS E-LOKECHA, ESHKACH BANECHA GAM ANI]"- "My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge; [for you have spurned knowledge, and I will spurn you from serving Me; seeing that you have forgotten the Torah of your E-lokim, I will also forget your children]" (Hoshea 4:6).

11)[line 23]מתוך הדחקMI'TOCH HA'DECHAK- despite abject poverty

12)[line 24]"כי עם בציון ישב בירושלים; בכה לא תבכה חנון יחנך לקול זעקך, כשמעתו ענך""KI AM B'TZIYON YESHEV, B'YERUSHALAYIM; BACHO LO SIVKEH, CHANON YOCHNECHA L'KOL ZA'AKECHA, K'SHOM'ASO ANACH"- "For the people shall dwell in Tziyon, in Yerushalayim; you shall weep no more; He will be very gracious to you at the voice of your cry; when He shall hear it, He will answer you" (Yeshayah 30:19).

13)[line 26]"ונתן לכם ה' לחם צר ומים לחץ; ולא יכנף עוד מוריך והיו עיניך רואות את מוריך""V'NASAN LACHEM... LECHEM TZAR U'MAYIM LACHATZ; V'LO YIKANEF OD MORECHA, V'HAYU EINECHA RO'OS ES MORECHA"- "And though HaSh-m gives you the bread of adversity, and the water of affliction, yet Your Teacher shall not withdraw Himself any more, but your eyes shall see Your Teacher" (Yeshayah 30:20) - The greatest blessing is when a person is satisfied with his lot, as the Mishnah states, "Eizehu Ashir? Ha'Same'ach b'Chelko" - "Who is rich? He who is satisfied with his lot" (Avos 4:1). Therefore, Lechem Tzar and Mayim Lachatz do show that HaSh-m is being gracious with the person who learns the Torah despite abject poverty.

14)[line 27]משביעין אותו מזיו שכינהMASBI'IN OSO MI'ZIV HA'SHECHINAH- he is satiated by the splendor of the Divine Presence

15)[line 29]הפרגודHA'PARGOD- the Heavenly curtain (that is before HaSh-m's presence)

16)[line 36]דחליףD'CHALIF- the previous [morning]

17)[line 36]עלמא אמאי קא מקיים?ALMA A'MAI KA MEKAYEIM?- [if each progressive day is worse than the previous one,] what causes the world to continue to exist?

18)[line 37]אקדושה דסידראA'KEDUSHAH D'SIDRA- [the world relies] on the responsive prayer of Kedushah that is written into the "u'Va l'Tziyon Go'el" prayer, which is recited even by a person who prays alone (without a Minyan, the quorum of ten where the Kedushah is recited in the repetition of the Shemoneh Esreh prayer). The Kedushah prayer is a sanctification of HaSh-m's Name. Kedushah d'Sidra contains the words of Kedushah and a translation into Aramaic, compelling the one who prays to delve into the meaning of the words. The Gemara in essence is answering that the world continues to exist because of the study of Torah, and the Kedushah d'Sidra prayer is an attempt to have all who pray regularly learn at least a minimal amount of Torah each day.

19)[line 37]ואיהא שמיה רבא דאגדתאV'A'YEHEI SHEMEI RABA D'AGADETA- and [the world relies] on the response, "Yehei Shemei Raba" of the Kadish prayer that is recited after a session of learning Agadeta, the class of Rabbinical literature that contains homiletic interpretations of the verses of Scriptures. Since this phrase is also a sanctification of HaSh-m's Name, the Gemara is again referring to a time when Torah is learned and HaSh-m's Name is sanctified.

20)[line 38]"ארץ עֵפתה כמו אופל, צלמות ולא סדרים, ותפע כמו אפל""ERETZ EFASAH KEMO OFEL, TZALMAVES V'LO SEDARIM, VA'TOFA KEMO OFEL"- "A land of gloom, as darkness itself; and of the shadow of death, without any order, and where the light is like darkness" (Iyov 10:22) - The word "Sedarim" ("Seder" in the singular means "order"), is also used to refer to sections of the prayers; hence the word Sidur, or prayer book). Our Gemara learns that when there are Sedarim, the light ("Tofa," or "eminence") will not be like darkness but rather will emanate from the darkness.

21)[line 39]תופיע מאופלTOFI'A ME'OFEL- [the light] will emanate from the darkness

22)[line 43]אשכחASHKACH- found

23)[line 43]תומרתא דחינוניתאTOMARTA DECHINUNISA- a very fat species of date with an appealing, aromatic smell

24)[line 43]שקלהSHAKLAH- he took it

25)[line 43]כרכה בסודריהKARCHAH B'SUDREI- he wrapped it in his scarf

26)[line 44]מורחינאMORCHINA- I can smell

27)[line 45]אמר ליה בני טהרה יש בךAMAR LEI, "BENI, TAHARAH YESH BACH!"- he (Rav Huna) said to him (Rabah bar Rav Huna), "Son, you must be pure [to have the capacity to discern the smell of this date]!"

28)[line 45]יהבה ניהליהYAHAVAH NIHALEI- he gave it to him (his son)

29)[line 47]שמחת את לביSIMACHTA ES LIBI- you gladdened my heart [on account of your state of purity]

30)[line 47]והקהיתה את שיניV'HIKHEISAH ES SHINAI- but you have set my teeth on edge (you have pained me by giving away my gift to your son)

31)[line 48]רחמי דאבא אבניRACHAMI D'ABA A'BENEI- the love of a father is for his sons

32)[line 49]רחמי דבני אבני דהוו ליהRACHAMI D'BENEI, A'BENEI D'HAVU LEI- the love of sons, is for the sons that they have

33)[line 50]איטפל ביהITPAL BEI- he took care of; raised

34)[line 50]כי גדלKI GADAL- when he grew

35)[line 51]אמר ליה אשקיין מיאAMAR LEI ASHKEYAN MAYA- Rav Acha bar Yakov said to him, "Please give me a drink of water."

36)[line 51]לאו בריך אנאLAV BERICH ANA- I am not your son

37)[line 51]רבי רבי בר ברתך אנאRABI, RABI, BAR BERATECH ANA- raise me, raise me, [but] I am [still] the son of your daughter (and do not have to treat you as if I am your son)

38)[line 52]בפולמוס של אספסיינוסB'POLMOS SHEL ASPESYANUS- during Vespasian's war against Yerushalayim

39)[line 52]עטרות חתניםATAROS CHASANIM- crowns worn by grooms

40)[line 52]האירוסHA'EIRUS- a bell used at parties

41)[line 52]בפולמוס של טיטוסB'FOLMOS SHEL TITUS- during Titus' [first] war against Yerushalayim

42)[line 53]יווניתYEVANIS- Greek

43)[line 53]בפולמוס האחרוןB'FOLMOS HA'ACHARON- during the final war against Yerushalayim [that led to the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash and the city, and was also led by Titus]

44)[line 53]באפריוןAPIRYON- (a) the frame and hangings of a palanquin, especially for a bride in the wedding procession; (b) a sedan chair, to carry a bride to the Chupah in the wedding procession

45)[line 54]מושלי משליםMOSHLEI MESHALIM- those who teach great wisdom through parables

46)[line 55]השקדניםHA'SHAKDANIM- those who learn all day and all night (the phrase, "Shokdim Al Dalsos Beis ha'Midrash" - "always appearing at the doors of the Beis ha'Midrash," is taken from the word Shaked, an almond, which is the first tree to blossom in Eretz Yisrael)

47)[line 56]אנשי מעשהANSHEI MA'ASEH- men of great works

48)[line 56]ר' יוסי קטנתאREBBI YOSI KATANTA- Rebbi Yosi the Small (the last and smallest of the Chasidim)

49)[line 56]חסידיםCHASIDIM- pious ones

50)[line 57]זיו החכמהZIV HA'CHOCHMAH- the radiance of wisdom (see Insights)

51)[line 57]ומתה טהרה ופרישותU'MESAH TAHARAH U'FERISHUS- and purity and abstinence died

52)[line 57]רבי ישמעאל בן פאביREBBI YISHMAEL BEN PI'ABI- see Insights

53)[line 59]ובני חוריןBENEI CHORIN- (a) people of unsullied lineage (RASHI); (b) those who delve into the study of Torah

54)[line 59]וחפו ראשםV'CHAFU ROSHAM- and they covered their heads [in shame]

55)[line 59]ונדלדלוV'NIDALDELU- and they became disregarded

56)[line 59]וגברו בעלי זרועV'GAVRU BA'ALEI ZERO'A- and the ruffians took power

57)[line 59]ובעלי לשוןBA'ALEI LASHON- the slanderers

58a)[line 60]ואין דורשEIN DORESH- there is no one to look out for the good [of the people of Yisrael among the nations of this world]

b)[line 60]ואין מבקשV'EIN MEVAKESH- and there is no one to plea [for mercy for the people of Yisrael in the world of the spiritual spheres such as the Kochavim and Mazalos]

c)[line 60]ואין שואלV'EIN SHO'EL- there is no one to ask [for mercy for the people of Yisrael in the world of the spiritual being such as the angels] (MAHARSHA)

59)[line 60]להשעןL'HISHA'EN- to rely on

60a)[last line]שרו חכימיאSHARU CHAKIMAYA- the Torah Sages [of one generation] started...

b)[last line]למהוי כספריאL'MEHEVEI K'SAFRAYA- to be as important as the teachers of schoolboys [of the previous generation]

61)[last line]כחזניאCHAZANAYA- the sextons who take care of the maintenance of synagogues


62)[line 2]בעקבות משיחאB'IKVOS MESHICHA- [at the end of the current exile,] "in the footsteps" of [the events leading up to the coming of] Mashi'ach

63)[line 3]חוצפא יסגאCHUTZPA YISGEI- impudence will grow to great proportions

64)[line 3]ויוקר יאמירV'YOKER YA'AMIR- (a) and high prices will be scandalous (MAHARSHA) and will rise to unprecedented heights (TOSFOS YOM TOV); (b) honor will be cherished and pursued (TOSFOS YOM TOV); (c) according to the Girsa YOKER YE'AVES - people will not honor each other (RASHI to Sanhedrin 97a); alt. the most honorable person will be a charlatan (RASHI ibid. citing his teachers)

65)[line 4]למינותL'MINUS- for heresy

66)[line 5]תוכחתTOCHACHAS- reproof

67)[line 5]בית וועדBEIS VA'AD- the places where scholars gather to learn the Torah; the Batei Midrash

68)[line 5]והגלילHA'GALIL- the modern-day Galil, north of Megido

69)[line 6]והגבלן ישוםHA'GAVLAN YESHOM- the place called Gavlan will be desolate. Gavlan was a city in the lower Galilee, possibly Gabalah, which was built by King Herod, that was known for its fertility (Kesuvos 112a).

70)[line 6]ואנשי הגבולANSHEI HA'GEVUL- (a) the inhabitants of border towns of Eretz Yisrael (RASHI to Sanhedrin 97a); (b) according to the Girsa ANSHEI HA'GAZIS - the judges of the Great Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court), that convened in the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Chamber of Hewn Stone, TY #27). The Great Sanhedrin was the highest Halachic authority before which the most difficult cases were brought (Devarim 17:8). The Sanhedrin was exiled to ten successive places at the time of the destruction of the Second Beis ha'Mikdash (RASHI to Sanhedrin ibid.).

71)[line 7]ולא יחוננוV'LO YECHUNANU- but they will not find a haven

72)[line 7]וחכמות סופרים תסרחCHOCHMOS SOFRIM TISRACH- the wisdom of the teachers will go sour

73)[line 8]והאמת תהא נעדרתHA'EMES TEHEI NE'EDERES- the truth will be absent

74)[line 9]נערים פני זקנים ילבינוNE'ARIM PENEI ZEKEINIM YALBINU- (a) youths will put the elderly to shame; (b) the unlearned will put the Torah Sages to shame

75)[line 10](מנוול) [מנבל](MENAVEL) [MENABEL]- disgraces (based on Michah 7:6)

76)[line 11]פני הדור כפני הכלבPENEI HA'DOR KI'FNEI HA'KELEV- (lit. the face of the generation will be like the face of a dog) (a) this is to be taken literally (RASHI to Sanhedrin 97a,citing his teachers); (b) no one will be embarrassed to sin in the presence of his neighbor (RASHI ibid.)

77)[line 14]מלחMELACH- rocks of salt, as one may find today at the edge of Yam ha'Melach

78)[line 15]וגפריתGAFRIS- sulfur

79)[line 15]הדסHADAS- myrtle (branches)

80)[line 15]וורדVERED- a rose

81)[line 17]קניםKANIM- reeds

82)[line 17]חילתCHILAS- (O.F. lesche - sedge, a rush-like or flag-like plant that grows in wet places) a type of reed; bullrush

83)[line 18]תני לוי במתניתיהTANI LEVI B'MASNISEI- Levi taught in his Mishnah [and added the words "Af Shel Kanim v'Chilas Asur"]

84)[line 20]טבלא דחד פומאTAVLA D'CHAD PUMA- (lit. a bell with one mouth) a single bell

85)[line 22]טנבוראTANBURA- tambourine

86)[line 22]תבריהTAVREI- he broke it

87)[line 23]מיחלףMICHLAF- it may be mistaken for

88a)[line 23]עביד ליהAVID LEI- make for him [a drum]

b)[line 24]אפומא דחצבאA'PUMA D'CHATZBA- [by stretching a skin] over the mouth of a large earthenware pitcher

89)[line 24]אפומא דקפיזאA'PUMA D'KEFIZA- [by stretching a skin] over the mouth of a measuring cup that holds three Lugin (3.6, 4.14, or 7.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions)

90)[line 27]עיר של זהבIR SHEL ZAHAV- a type of a golden brooch (O.F. nosche) upon which is a design of Yerushalayim

91)[line 29]כיפה של מילתKIPAH SHEL MEILAS- a head-covering of fine white wool or white felt

92)[line 30]זהורית המוזהבותZEHORIS HA'MUZHAVOS- a dome-shaped canopy made from wool that is dyed red into which gold threads are inserted to give it its shape

93)[line 32]פפיריתPAPIRIS- a dome-shaped canopy made of curved tree boughs from which colored scarves and gold foil are hung

94a)[line 34]כשצרו מלכי בית חשמונאי זה על זה היהKESH'TZARU MALCHEI BEIS CHASHMONA'I ZEH AL ZEH- when one of the two brothers Hyrkanus and Aristobulus (two of the last descendents of the Hasmonean kings), laid siege to the other one (there are two contradictory sources as to who laid siege to whom; the next entry follows the Girsa of our Gemara) in order to capture the throne

b)[line 34]מלכי בית חשמונאיMALCHEI BEIS CHASHMONA'I (THE CIVIL WAR)

(a)Before Yochanan Kohen Gadol (Yochanan Hyrkanus), the grandson of Matisyahu, died, he commanded that his reign as ruler of the land of Yehudah be passed on to his wife. However, his son Yehudah Aristobulus, paid no attention to his father's testament. He imprisoned his mother and brothers, except for one brother named Antigonus and seized power for himself. He appointed Antigonus as head of the army. Aristobulus was the first Hasmonean ruler to call himself "king"; all of his predecessors had the title of "prince." He was hostile to the Sages, and pursued them with ruthlessness. He ruled over Yehudah for only one year and died childless in the year 3658 (103 BCE).

(b)He was succeeded by his widow, Queen Shlomtziyon or Shelomis [Salome] Alexandra, a sister of Shimon Ben Shetach, the leading sage of the period, to whom she was loyal even when married to an archenemy of the sages. After her husband died, she freed his brothers from prison. The oldest brother, Alexander Yanai, performed Yibum with her, and later succeeded his dead brother to the throne.

(c)Under the influence of his wife, Yanai halted the suppression of the Perushim and the Sages for a time, so that he could pursue the war against the hostile Nochri enclave in the Land of Yisrael. He did this throughout most of the twenty-seven years of his reign, motivated by lust for battle and glory. As time went on, however, he used the foreign soldiers in his army to suppress his own people and hunt down the Perushim.

(d)During the next 11 years, when Shelomis was queen, peace and tranquility reigned in the land. It was the only golden era during the time of the Second Temple. The last testament of Queen Shelomis declared Hyrkanus, her firstborn son, to be the legal ruler of the land, but he held power for only three months. Her younger son Aristobulus put together a large army and fought his brother near Yericho. Aristobulus won the battle and Hyrkanus abdicated the throne and withdrew from public life. But Antipater the Edomite provoked Hyrkanus into reopening the war against his brother. They asked Aretas, the Arab king of the Nabateans, for support, and marched with a large army to the gates of Yerushalayim. Hyrkanus's supporters let him into the city, forcing Aristobulus and his soldiers to retreat behind the massive fortifications of the Temple Mount. Aristobulus's forces demolished the bridge that connected the Temple mount with the Upper City of Yerushalayim, leaving a deep valley between themselves and the attackers.

(e)At this time the Roman general Pompey was conquering the lands of Asia Minor one after the other. In 63 BCE, Hyrkanus and Aristobulus turned to Pompey's proconsul in Damascus to intervene in their dispute. Rome's representatives were notorious for their greed, and when the messengers of Aristobulus offered the larger bribe, the Roman proconsul decided in his favor. King Aretas and Hyrkanus were commanded to lift the siege and leave Yerushalayim.

(f)When Pompey returned to Damascus after completing his victorious military campaigns, the two brothers appeared before him. Because Pompey was interested in imposing the imperial rule of Rome upon the land of Judea, he preferred Hyrkanus, the weaker and more submissive of the two brothers, and declared him to be both king and Kohen Gadol. He also commanded that Aristobulus surrender all the fortresses of the country. Aristobulus meekly capitulated to his demands. His men, however, decided to defend the city against the approaching Roman army. Hyrkanus's men opened the city gates for Pompey, while Aristobulus and his soldiers withdrew behind the fortifications of Har ha'Bayis. Eventually, the Romans succeeded in breaching the walls of Har ha'Bayis. Some 12,000 Kohanim and defenders were killed. Aristobulus and his two sons and two daughters were taken as captives to Rome for a victory procession before the Roman populace. One of Aristobulus's sons managed to escape and returned to his homeland to encourage the people to continue their resistance against the invaders.

(g)Pompey thus put an end to Judean political independence and imposed a tax upon the land. The coastal cities, as well as the cities of Transjordan, were excluded from Jewish rule. All that remained of the Jewish State was Judea, part of Edom, the Galilee, and a narrow stretch of land in the south of Transjordan. Even in this limited territory Jewish rule was not sovereign, for it came under the jurisdiction of the Roman proconsul in Damascus. (-From The History of the Jewish People/The Second Temple Era, Artscroll Publishers, Brooklyn, New York, 1982, adapted by Rabbi Hersh Goldwurm from Dr. E. Ebner's translation of Yekusiel Friedner's Divrei Yemei ha'Bayis ha'Sheni, pages 103-107)

95)[line 36]משלשליןMESHALSHELIN- lower

96)[line 38]בחכמת יווניתCHOCHMAS YEVANIS- a sign language invented by the Greeks using non-verbal gestures

97)[line 38]לעז להםLA'AZ LAHEM- he communicated to them in Chochmas Yevanis

98)[line 40]נעץ צפרניו נזדעזעהNA'ATZ TZIPORNAV BA'CHOMAH- it stuck its hoofs (lit. nails) into the wall

99)[line 40]נזדעזעהNIZDA'AZE'AH- trembled

100)[line 40]ארבע מאות פרסהARBA ME'OS PARSAH- 400 Persian miles, approximately 1459.2, 1536, or 1843.2 kilometers, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

101)[line 42]עומרOMER

(a)There is a Mitzvah to bring the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.2, 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is kneaded and offered as a Korban Minchah on the 16th of Nisan. It is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim (Vayikra 2:14-16).

(b)In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah (Vayikra 23:12).

(c)The Korban ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year, and as such it removes the prohibition against eating from the new grain.

102)[line 42]מגגות צריפיםGAGOS TZERIFIM- a coastal town in Eretz Yisrael, near the modern-day Ramleh

103)[line 42]ושתי הלחםSHTEI HA'LECHEM

(a)The Shtei ha'Lechem is an offering of two loaves of bread (that are Chametz) that is brought on Shavuos. It is baked from the newly grown wheat (Vayikra 23:17). One loaf is given to the Kohen Gadol and the other is divided among the rest of the Kohanim in the Mikdash at the time. They are eaten on the day of Shavuos and the night afterwards, until midnight (RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:11).

(b)Afterwards, all new wheat is permitted to be used for Menachos.

104)[line 42]מבקעת עין סוכרMI'BIK'AS EIN SOCHER- from the valley of Ein Socher, a fertile valley in the Shomron near Shechem, believed to be the modern-day Arab village of 'Askar

105)[line 42]בארץ ישראל לשון סורסיB'ERETZ YISRAEL, LESHON SURSI LAMAH?- In the land of Yisrael, why should the Syriac language be spoken?

106)[line 45]"עיני עוללה לנפשי מכל בנות עירי""EINI OLELAH L'NAFSHI MI'KOL BENOS IRI"- (lit. "My eye has aggrieved my soul") "My eye has brought me grief (i.e. My eyes grieve when I am introspective and view my condition) because of all the residents of my city" (Eichah 3:51) - Our Gemara notes that Raban Shimon Gamliel used this verse to describe the circumstances of his household, interpreting the end of this verse as, "...more than all of the residents of my city."

107)[line 46]בעסיאASYA- (a) Tosfos to Yevamos 115a DH Amar brings the Gemara in Bava Basra 56a that identifies Asya with Keini mentioned in the Torah (Bereishis 15:19). It seems that the Keini lived near Moav, to the west of the Dead Sea. They lived in Ir ha'Temarim (Palm City), which may be Chatzatzon Tamar, to the west of the Dead Sea. The Targum translates Keini as Shalamite, an Arabic tribe (RABBI ARYEH KAPLAN); (b) possibly Callirhoe and its surroundings, on the east side of the Jordan River, near the Dead Sea; (c) Asia Minor, or rather the Roman province embracing the Western part of the peninsula of Asia Minor, bequeathed by King Attalus to the Roman republic; (d) a town called Essa, east of Lake Kineres

108)[line 47]מספר קומיMESAPER KUMI- the Nochri fashion of cutting and wearing the hair

109)[line 47]מדרכי האמוריDARCHEI HA'EMORI

(a)Darchei ha'Emori refers to those customs of the Nochrim that have no logical foundation, but are not idol worship.

(b)Their prohibition is learned from the verse (Vayikra 18:3), "uve'Chukoseihem Lo Seileichu" (RASHI to Shabbos 67a), or from the verse (Shemos 23:24), "Lo Sa'aseh k'Ma'aseihem" (RASHI to Chullin 77a, RAMBAN to Shemos ibid.).

110)[line 50]נגנז ספר תורהNIGNAZ SEFER TORAH- a Torah scroll was hidden away (he was likened to a Torah scroll because of his vast knowledge)

111)[line 51]בטלו זרועי תורהBATLU ZERO'EI SORAH- (lit. the "arms" of the Torah were annulled) those who possess depth of analysis and who are able to base the teachings of the Oral Law on scriptural sources

112)[line 51]ונסתתמו מעיינות החכמהV'NISTATMU MA'AYANOS HA'CHOCHMAH- and the wellsprings of wisdom were sealed

113)[line 51]עטרות חכמהATROS CHOCHMAH- the crowns of knowledge

114)[line 52]"עטרת חכמים עשרם""ATERES CHACHAMIM OSHRAM"- "The crown of the wise is their riches" (Mishlei 14:24).

115)[line 54]עלה גובאיALAH GOVAI- a plague of a very destructive, uncommon species of locust struck

116)[line 55]לא תיתניLO SISNI- do not learn in the Mishnah