SOTAH 20 (10 Sivan) - a week of study material has been dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok Yakov (Irving) ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and is dearly missed by all who knew him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.

The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at http://www.dafyomi.co.il/midos/mids-charts.htm), is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

[20a - 52 lines; 20b - 50 lines]

1)[line 8]דמחמת ביעתותא הוא דאמרהD'MACHMAS BI'ASUSA HU D'AMRAH- that she said it ("Eini Shosah") because she was suddenly frightened

2)[line 13]על הדשןAL HA'DESHEN - [the Girsa of RASHI is AL BEIS HA'DESHEN]

(a)There are three places associated with the Beis ha'Mikdash that are called "Beis ha'Deshen" (ash-pile) (Zevachim 104b):

1.One Beis ha'Deshen was located southeast of the outer Mizbe'ach alongside the ramp, at a distance of three Tefachim (approx. 10.5 inches) from the ramp and 10 Amos north of the foot of the ramp. The Terumas ha'Deshen (a shovel-full of ashes lifted from the bonfire of the outer Mizbe'ach) and ashes from the Menorah and the inner Mizbe'ach were put there every morning. Additionally, when a bird was brought as an Olas ha'Of, the Kohen cut out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines - Zevachim 65a) and threw them onto this Beis ha'Deshen.

2.The second Beis ha'Deshen was located immediately to the east of the outer Mizbe'ach, and was used for burning Pesulei Kodshei ha'Kodashim and the Pesulei Eimurim of the Kodshim Kalim.

3.The third Beis ha'Deshen was also called the Shefech ha'Deshen. Most of the ashes from the sacrifices burned on the outer Mizb'ach were cleared away to the Tapu'ach, a large pile of ashes in the middle of the Mizbe'ach. The Torah states that when this pile becomes excessively large, the ashes must be cleared away to the Shefech ha'Deshen, the ritually clean place outside the camp in the desert or outside of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (Vayikra 4:12, 6:4). The Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim (the oxen and goats the remains of which were burned) were also burned in this Beis ha'Deshen.

(b)The Beis ha'Deshen mentioned in our Mishnah is the second one.

3)[line 18]מערערין אותהME'AR'ARIN OSAH- they force her to drink, i.e. they open her mouth and pour the Mei ha'Marim down her throat

4)[line 19]שפניה מוריקותSHE'PANEHA MORIKOS- (a) that her face would pale; (b) her face would turn yellowish-green (based on TOSFOS to Yevamos 60b DH Siman and to Bechoros 44b DH li'Ydei)

5)[line 20]מתמלאת גידיןMISMAL'ES GIDIN- [the blood vessels of her face swell and] her face appears to be full of blood vessels

6)[line 27]תפלותTIFLUS- promiscuity

7)[line 28]רוצה אשה בקב ותפלות מתשעה קבין ופרישותROTZAH ISHAH B'KAV V'TIFLUS MI'TISH'AH KABIN U'FERISHUS- a woman would rather have one Kav (minimal income) and frivolity than nine Kabin (abundant income) and chastity

8)[line 29]חסיד שוטהCHASID SHOTEH- a foolish pious person

9)[line 30]ורשע ערוםV'RASHA ARUM- and a cunning wicked person

10)[line 30]ואשה פרושהV'ISHAH PERUSHAH- and an (false) ascetic woman

11)[line 30]ומכות פרושיןU'MAKOS PERUSHIN- and a person who afflicts himself in order to prove that he is exceedingly pious

12)[line 31]מבלי עולםMEVALEI OLAM- those who ruin the world

13)[line 33]קנקנתוםKANKANTUM- (O.F. adrement) vitriol, black ink used by shoemakers

14)[line 36]לבלרLAVLAR- a scribe

15)[line 42]"ומחה [אל מי המרים]""U'MACHAH [EL MEI HA'MARIM]"- "and he erases it [in the bitter water]" (Bamidbar 5:23)

16)[line 44]למיחש לזבובL'MEICHASH L'ZEVUV- I am cautious lest a fly [land on a letter Dales, wiping off its corner and changing it into a Reish] (therefore I use Kankantum, (a) which is a fly-repellent - TOSFOS YESHANIM to Eruvin 13a; (b) which is permanent to the degree that the corner will not be entirely erased - RASHI)

17)[line 45]אתגיה דדלי''תA'TAGEI D'DALES- on the point of the upper-right corner of the letter Dales

18)[line 50]קם אליביהKAM A'LIBEI- to understand his intentions

19)[line 50]וגמר גמראV'GAMAR GEMARA- he learned and memorized the Mishnayos

20)[line 51]סבר סבראSAVAR SEVARA- he learned Talmudic methodology and how to analyze the Mishnayos


21)[line 9]דאינתיק לשום רחלD'INTIK L'SHUM RACHEL- it has been designated for Rachel

22)[line 14]לשום אלות בעולםL'SHUM ALOS B'OLAM- only for the sake of the curses [with which a Sotah is cursed]

23)[line 14]דלהתלמד כתיבהD'LEHISLAMED KESIVAH- that is written from which to learn

24)[line 17]ונמלךV'NIMLACH- and he changed his mind

25)[line 20]לשמהLISHMAH - for her sake

(a)The Torah states (Devarim 24:1) that if a man wants to divorce his wife, he must write a Sefer Kerisus (a document that cuts [the bond between them]) and hand it to her in front of two witnesses. In the language of Chazal, this document of divorce is called a Get (pl. - Gitin).

(b)A Get must contain the full names of the pair involved in the divorce, the places where they are to be found at the time of the writing (or where they live, or where they were born, according to some), and the date and place where the Get is written. If any of these items is missing or mistaken ("Shinah Shemo u'Shemah" - Gitin 34b, Yevamos 91b), the Get is invalid.

(c)A Get must be written Lishmah (for the sake of the woman who is to be divorced), as is learned from the verse in the Torah, "v'Chasav Lah Sefer Kerisus" - "and he must write for her a bill of divorce" (Devarim 24:1). The scribe must therefore write at least:

1.the name of the wife;

2.the name of the husband;

3.the place; and

4.the words "Harei At Muteres l'Chol Adam" - "You are hereby free to marry whomever you wish" - with the intention that this Get will be used to divorce this specific woman (see RAMBAM Hilchos Gerushin 3:7).

(d)The Tana'im argue as to whether Parshas Sotah must be written Lishmah. Rebbi Achai bar Yoshi'ah rules that it does not have to be written Lishmah. The verse in Bamidbar (5:30) only requires "Asiyah" ("doing," i.e. erasing the Parshas Sotah) Lishmah, and not Kesivah (writing) Lishmah. The RAMBAM (Hilchos Sotah 3:8) rules like Tana Kama, that Parshas Sotah must be written Lishmah.

26)[line 31]למחנה לויהMACHANEH LEVIYAH

(a)There are three main Machanos (designated holy areas) within the city of Yerushalayim, corresponding to their respective areas in the Midbar (desert):

1.The entire area within the walls of Yerushalayim, excluding Har ha'Bayis, is Machaneh Yisrael. This area corresponded to the area of encampment of the twelve tribes in the Midbar. Machaneh Yisrael is off-limits to Metzora'im. Metzora'im are also forbidden to enter any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.

2.The area between the Azarah and the wall encompassing Har ha'Bayis, including the Ezras Nashim courtyard (TY #10), is Machaneh Leviyah. This corresponded to the area around the Mishkan, where the Leviyim encamped. Not only are Metzora'im prohibited to enter this area, but also Zavin, Zavos, Nidos, and Yoldos.

3.The entire area within the Azarah (i.e. the Ezras Yisrael (TY #22) and the Ezras Kohanim (TY #25) that contained the Beis ha'Mikdash, the Mizbe'ach (TY #47), and various Lishkos or chambers - but not the Ezras Nashim - is Machaneh Shechinah (excluding the area under the gate to the Azarah known as Sha'ar Nikanor - TY #18). This corresponded to the area of the Mishkan [within the Kela'im/curtains]. This area is even prohibited to a person who is Tamei Mes.

27)[line 35]שמא תפרוס נדהSHEMA TIFROS NIDAH- lest she experience menstrual bleeding

28)[line 36]דבעיתותא מרפיאD'BI'ASUSA MERAPYA- that a sudden fright loosens [and opens the Makor and makes blood come out]

29)[line 37]"ותבואנה נערות אסתר וסריסיה ויגידו לה ותתחלחל המלכה מאד; ותשלח בגדים להלביש את מרדכי ולהסיר שקו מעליו, ולא קבל""VA'TAVONAH NA'AROS ESTHER V'SARISEHAH VA'YAGIDU LAH, VA'TISCHALCHAL HA'MALKAH ME'OD; VA'TISHLACH BEGADIM L'HALBISH ES MORDECHAI UL'HASIR SAKO ME'ALAV, V'LO KIBEL" - "And Esther's servants and valets came and told her, and the queen shuddered violently; and she sent clothes to dress Mordechai, and to remove the sack-cloth from on him, but he did not accept them" (Esther 4:5) (ESTHER'S REACTION TO MORDECHAI'S BEHAVIOR)

(a)Mordechai was well aware of Haman's fateful decree, its causes, and its consequences (see Background to Megilah 15:4). Esther, on the other hand, knew nothing of what was happening outside the palace, so she was shocked to hear that Mordechai was publicly mourning for something of which she was unaware. Moreover, since it was forbidden for anyone wearing sack-cloth to enter the palace gates, she had no direct access to him.

(b)Presumably, she attributed his strange behavior to a private calamity that had befallen him, and thus she attempted to calm him down by sending him a set of clothes into which to change. When she saw that her efforts bore no fruit, she sent Hasach (a courtier, whom some say was none other than Daniel) to find out the cause of Mordechai's distress.

(c)Mordechai told Hasach everything that had transpired, and instructed Esther to enter Achashverosh's inner chamber uninvited, in spite of the law that anyone doing so would be put to death. Notwithstanding initial misgivings, Esther agreed.

30)[line 38]חרדה מסלקת דמיםCHARADAH MESALEKES HA'DAMIM- trepidation prevents the appearance of Dam Nidah

31)[line 39]פחדא צמיתPACHADA TZAMIS- anxiety constricts [the Makor so that no blood comes out] (Pachada is the same as Charadah)

32)[line 46]"זרע יעבדנו יסופר..."; זרע הראוי לספר"ZERA YA'AVDENU YESUPAR [LA'SHM LA'DOR];"- ZERA HA'RA'UY L'SAPER- "Their seed shall serve Him; it shall be told [of HaSh-m to the coming generation]" (Tehilim 22:31) - The Gemara interprets the beginning of this verse as, "Their seed that will live to sing the praises of HaSh-m shall serve Him...," referring to babies that are born after nine months (RASHI).

33)[line 49]"להן מלכא מלכי ישפר עלך וחטאך בצדקה פרק ועויתך במחן ענין הן תהוה ארכא לשלותך. כלא מטא על נבוכדנצר מלכא""LAHEN MALKA MILKI YISHPAR ALACH VA'CHATA'ACH B'TZIDKAH FERUK, VA'AVAYASACH B'MICHAN ANAYIN, HEN TEHEVEI ARCHA LI'SHLEVSACH. KOLA META AL NEVUCHADNETZAR MALKA. [LI'KETZAS YARCHIN TREI ASAR AL HEICHAL MALCHUSA DI VAVEL MEHALECH HAVAH]" - "'In truth you are king; may my advice be good in your eyes. Your sins you will redeem with charity, and your iniquities by being gracious to the poor, they will extend your tranquility.' All of this (Daniel's interpretation of Nevudchadnetzar's dream) befell King Nevuchadnetzar. [After twelve months, he was walking besides the royal palace of Bavel]" (Daniel 4:24-26) (THE DECREE ON NEVUCHADNETZAR IS POSTPONED FOR ONE YEAR)

(a)Even though Daniel's intentions (in advising Nevuchadnetzar to postpone his evil decree by giving charity) were good, he was nevertheless taken to task for helping a Nochri postpone his punishment. Some say that Daniel (alias Hasach) was deposed from his greatness (as the verse mentions in Megilas Esther). According to others, he was punished by being thrown into the lion's den (Bava Basra 4a).

(b)One year later, the king mysteriously disappeared to live with the animals and the beasts, as Daniel predicted. His son E'vil Merodach took over the throne until his father's reappearance seven years later. (See Background to Moed Katan 3:32, and Background to Sotah 21:1.)