[8a - 43 lines; 8b - 55 lines]

1)[line 1]דמסקינן לה ומחתינן להD'MASKINAN LAH U'MACHTINAN LAH- we bring her up [to the Lishkas ha'Gazis (which is located partially in the Azarah) to threaten her] and then take her down [from Har ha'Bayis to wear her out, and afterwards bring her up again to the Gates of Azarah, Sha'arei Nikanor]

2)[line 1]כדי לייגעהKEDEI L'YAG'AH- to wear her out, to make her exhausted

3)[line 3]מסיעיןMASI'IN- move [them] from place to place

4)[line 4]שתטרף דעתן עליהןSHE'TITAREF DA'ATAN ALEIHEN- in order to confuse them [so that false witnesses will retract their false testimony]

5)[line 14]לא מן השם הוא זהLO MIN HA'SHEM HU ZEH- the reason that you (Tana Kama) gave is not the main reason for this Halachah (RASHI)

6)[line 16]רבי שמעון היא דדריש טעם דקראREBBI SHIMON HI, D'DARISH TA'AM D'KERA

Rebbi Shimon used to suggest logical reasons for the Torah's commandments; this is the meaning of "Darish Ta'ama di'Kra," as in Yevamos 23a.

7)[line 19]אין עושין מצות חבילות חבילותEIN OSIN MITZVOS CHAVILOS CHAVILOS

One should not "package" Mitzvos together, but rather perform them one at a time. The RASHBAM (Bava Basra 102b) explains that by doing two or more Mitzvos at one time, it appears that the Mitzvos are a burden to the ones performing them.

8)[line 22]ואין רוצעין שני עבדיםV'EIN ROTZ'IN SHNEI AVADIM (RETZI'AS EVED IVRI)

(a)There are two ways that a Jew can be bought as a slave. Either he may sell himself because he is destitute, or he may be sold by Beis Din to pay back a theft. In either case he is obligated to work for his master for only six years (Shemos 21:2-4) or until the Yovel year, whichever comes first (ibid. 21:6).

(b)If at the termination of six years he expresses his desire to continue life as a slave, the master makes the slave stand near a doorpost and pierces his right ear and the door with an awl. The slave then must continue to serve his master until the Yovel year (ibid. 21:6). This Halachah only applies to male slaves who were sold by Beis Din and not to slaves who sell themselves (RAMBAM Hilchos Avadim 3:6).

9)[line 22]ואין עורפין שתי עגלותV'EIN ORFIN SHTEI EGLOS (EGLAH ARUFAH)

(a)If a Jew is found murdered in a field (in Eretz Yisrael) and it is not known who the murderer is, the Torah requires that an Eglah Arufah be brought in order to atone for the blood that was spilled (Devarim 21:1). The procedure is as follows:

(b)Five elders of the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish Supreme Court) measure the distance between the dead body and the cities around it to determine which city is closest to it.

(c)The elders of the city that is closest to the corpse must bring a female calf that has never been worked to a Nachal Eisan (a swiftly flowing stream - RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2; a valley with tough soil - RASHI). They strike it on the back of its neck (Arifah) with a cleaver, severing its spinal column, gullet and windpipe.

(d)The elders of the closest city then wash their hands there and say, "Our hands have not spilled this blood, and our eyes did not see [the murder]" (Devarim 21:7). This includes a proclamation that the dead man was not sent away from the city without the proper food for his journey or the proper accompaniment. The Kohanim that are present say, "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You have redeemed, HaSh-m, and do not place [the guilt for] innocent blood in the midst of Your people Yisrael" (ibid. 21:8). After this procedure, HaSh-m will grant atonement for the innocent blood that was spilled (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:3).

10)[line 33]האיש מכסין אותו פרק אחד מלפניוHA'ISH MECHASIN OSO PEREK ECHAD MI'LEFANAV- (this refers to a man who receives the capital punishment of stoning; the word "Perek" has two possible meanings) (a) a man is covered with one [small loin] cloth from the front (RASHI); (b) a small portion of a man is covered from the front (RASHI to Sanhedrin 45a)

11)[line 38]ויתגרוV'YISGARU- and he became impassioned by her

12)[line 38]פרחי כהונהPIRCHEI KEHUNAH- young Kohanim

13)[line 39]מסתלקא(MISTALKA) [MISTAKLA]- she is stoned [and will not be alive to attract the Pirchei Kehunah]

14)[last line]כדשניןKED'SHANYAN- like we answered


15)[line 2]משום ''ונוָּסרו כל הנשים''MISHUM ''V'NIVASRU KOL HA'NASHIM''- to fulfill the verse, "[Then I will cause lewdness to cease from the land;] and all the women will be chastised, [and they will not imitate your lewdness]" (Yechezkel 23:48).

16)[line 12]מכועריםMECHU'ARIM- ugly

17)[line 15]שליח ערטילSHELI'ACH ARTIL- [a person] is stripped naked

18)[line 15]וסיים מסאניV'SAYIM MESANEI!- but he puts on shoes!

19)[line 19]ובצלצולTZALTZUL- (O.F. bendel) a small fine belt or band

20)[line 29]תרגמה אנשיםTIRGEMAH A'NASHIM- render it (the former phrase of the Mishnah) that it is referring to women

21)[line 40]לא פלטLO PALAT- did not escape punishment

22)[line 40]אף על גב ד'מדה' בטילהAF AL GAV D'MIDAH BETEILAH- even though the exact measure (the prescribed punishment given by Beis Din) has ceased

23)[line 41]'במדה' לא בטיל'B'MIDAH' LO BATIL- an equal measure (punishment) has not ceased

24)[line 43]ארבע מיתותARBA MISOS

(a)Arba Misos Beis Din, the four death penalties administered by Beis Din, in their order of stringency are:

1.Sekilah (stoning)

2.Sereifah (burning with molten lead, which is poured down the throat)

3.Hereg (killing with a sword) (Sefer ha'Chinuch #50)

4.Chenek (strangulation) (Sefer ha'Chinuch #47)

(b)According to the Rebbi Shimon (Mishnah Sanhedrin 9:3, Gemara Sanhedrin 49b), the order of their stringency is Sefreifah, Sekilah, Chenek, and Hereg.

(c)If a person commits two capital offences, he is put to death with the more stringent of the two. If a number of people were sentenced to die through different death penalties, and it is not known which sentence was passed upon which person, Beis Din administers to all of them the least stringent of the death penalties to which they were sentenced.

(d)Chazal instituted a practice of burying people who were sentenced to capital punishment in two different cemeteries: one for those who were put to death by Sekilah and Sereifah and one for those who were put to death by Hereg and Chenek.

25)[line 46]דורסתוDORASTO- tramples him to death

26)[line 47]מכישוMAKISHO- bites him

27)[line 50]בסרונכיSERUNCHI- (O.F. bon malant) quinsy, a severe development of heat, pain, redness, and swelling in the throat

28)[line 50]"בסאסאה בשלחה תריבנה [הגה ברוחו הקשה ביום קדים]""B'SASE'AH B'SHALECHAH TERIVENAH; [HAGAH B'RUCHO HA'KASHAH B'YOM KADIM]"- "By measure, by exile, You contended with them; [He removed her by His rough blast in the day of the east wind]" (Yeshayah 27:8).

29)[line 51]סאה/תרקב/קב/רובע/תומן/עוכלאSE'AH/TARKAV/KAV/ROVA TOMAN/UCHLA (DRY MEASURES)

(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:

1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in

2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in

3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in

4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin

5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin

6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin

7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim

(b)A single Beitzah is equal to approximately 0.05, 0.0576 or .1 liters, depending upon the various Halachic opinions. Thus, 1 Se'ah = 7.2, 8.29 or 14.4 liters, according to the various opinions.

(c)Our Sugya adds a number of smaller measures - the Toman and the Uchla:

1.1 Toman = 1/8 Kav = 1/2 Log = 3 Beitzim

2.1 Revi'is = 1/4 Log = 1.5 Beitzim

3.1 Uchla = 1/5 Log = 1.2 Beitzim

(d)Alternatively, Toman and Uchla are referring to weights (RASHI), as follows:

1.1 Litra = the Roman Libra, a pound

2.1 Uchla = 1/8 Litra. (There is no clear definition for the Toman as a weight.)

30)[line 52]"כי כל סאון סואן ברעש""KI CHOL SE'ON SO'EN B'RA'ASH..."- "For all stormy battles are fought with an uproar..." (Yeshayah 9:4) - This verse contains the word "Se'on," which has the connotation of a small Se'ah (i.e. a small measure). Even sins of a small measure will be repaid measure for measure ("Kol Se'on So'en").

31)[line 54]ליראות לוLEIRA'OS LO- to appear to him

32)[line 54]קלונהKELONAH- her shame

33)[line 54]פרסה לו סודרין נאיןPEIRSAH LO SUDARIN NA'IN- she spread beautiful kerchiefs on her head to entice him

34)[last line]קשטה לו פניהKISHTAH LO PANEHA- adorned, beautified her face for him