[16a - 52 lines; 16b - 38 lines]

1)[line 1]על פי נביא נאכלת ועל פי נביא נשרפתAL PI NAVI NE'ECHELES V'AL PI NAVI NISREFES- by the command of the prophet it (one loaf) is eaten, and by the command of the prophet it (the other loaf) is burned. This was taught by the prophets Chagai, Zecharyah, and Malachi, who lived during the time of the second Beis ha'Mikdash.

2)[line 3]בכל אלוB'CHOL ELU- any addition to the Azarah that was not made with all of these requirements [has no sanctity]. In order to make the change, it was necessary to have the approval of the king, a prophet, the Urim v'Tumim and the Beis Din ha'Gadol of seventy-one judges, two Todah loaves, and Shirah.

3)[line 5]קדושה ראשונה קידשה לשעתה וקידשה לעתיד לבאKEDUSHAH RISHONAH KIDSHAH L'SHA'ATAH V'KIDSHAH L'ASID LAVO - The first Sanctification brought about sanctity at that time, and brought about sanctity for the future (after the destruction)

(a)Chazal refer to three distinct sanctities when they discuss whether or not Kedushah Rishonah Kidshah l'Sha'atah v'Kidshah l'Asid Lavo: the sanctity of the Beis ha'Mikdash; the sanctity of Yerushalayim; and the sanctity of Eretz Yisrael.

(b)The Beis ha'Mikdash had to be sanctified in order for the sacrifices to be offered there. Similarly, Yerushalayim had to be sanctified in order for Kodshim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni to be eaten there. Shlomo ha'Melech sanctified the Beis ha'Mikdash and Yerushalayim. According to one opinion, their Kedushah remained even after the Beis ha'Mikdash and Yerushalayim were destroyed by the Babylonians and Romans. There is a Tana who argues and maintains that when the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael, this Kedushah ceased and when Ezra returned to Israel, he sanctified it once again.

(c)Eretz Yisrael had to be sanctified in order for the Mitzvos ha'Teluyos ba'Aretz, such as Terumos and Ma'asros, to be practiced. Yehoshua sanctified Eretz Yisrael through conquest. According to one opinion, the Kedushah of the land remained even after the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael and laid waste to the land. Another Tana argues and maintains that when the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael, this Kedushah ceased and the Mitzvos ha'Teluyos ba'Aretz no longer applied. When Ezra returned to Israel, he sanctified it once again - see Insights to Megilah 10a and to Temurah 21a.

4)[line 9]ועזרא קדושי קדישV'EZRA KEDUSHI KADISH- and Ezra sanctified them again for all future time

5)[line 10]אורים ותומיםURIM V'TUMIM

(a)A Name of HaSh-m was written on a parchment that was called the Urim v'Tumim. The Urim v'Tumim was placed in the Choshen, one of the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol (Shemos 28:30). The eight vestments are:

1.Tzitz (forehead-plate),

2.Efod (apron),

3.Choshen (breastplate),

4.Me'il (robe),

5.Kutones (long shirt),

6.Michnasayim (breeches),

7.Avnet (belt),

8.Mitznefes (turban).

(b)It was possible for a king of Yisrael to ask HaSh-m questions regarding the people of Yisrael and receive an answer using the letters engraved upon the gemstones of the Choshen. Letters containing the answer to his question would stick out in their places (in the order of the answer - MAHARSHA to Yoma 73b) or would come together to form the words and sentences of the answer. The Kohen Gadol would assist the Urim v'Tumim in the process of receiving an answer through his power of Ru'ach ha'Kodesh (Divine inspiration).

(c)The Gemara (Yoma 73b) gives two reason as to why the parchment was called Urim v'Tumim. Either they were Me'irin (similar to "Urim") Es Divreihen, they clarify their words, or they were Mashlimin ("Tumim" means Shalem, complete) Es Divreihen, they fulfill their words.

6)[line 13]שני ביצעיןSHNEI BITZ'IN- two swamps

7)[line 13]בהר המשחהB'HAR HA'MISHCHAH- in the Mount of Olives ("Mishchah" means oil)

8)[line 16]בעולי גולהB'OLEI GOLAH- with the Jews who came up from the Babylonian exile to Yerushalayim. Several years after the first wave of returnees from the Babylonian exile and their rebuilding of the Beis ha'Mikdash, Ezra, a Kohen and a great Torah scholar, led another group of exiles back to Yerushalayim. (According to Seder Olam, this happened one year after the Beis ha'Mikdash was reconstructed; according to others it was several years later - see Malbim to Ezra 7:1.) Upon their arrival they brought a number of sacrifices, as enumerated in the following verse (Ezra 8:35): "Those returning from the captivity - the people of the exile - brought Korbanos to the G-d of Israel: 12 bulls for all of the [tribes of] Israel, 96 rams, 77 sheep and 12 goats as sin-offerings; all were burnt-offerings to HaSh-m."

9)[line 18]עמי הארץAMEI HA'ARETZ- unlearned Jews who are lax in their Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b

10)[line 19]חבריםCHAVERIM- Talmidei Chachamim

11)[line 25]שאין מוסיפין על העיר ועל העזרותSHE'EIN MOSIFIN AL HA'IR V'AL HA'AZAROS

(a)The Mishnah earlier (14a) states that when the Beis Din ha'Gadol decides to extend the boundaries of Yerushalayim and/or the courtyards of the Beis ha'Mikdash, the approval of the following are needed: the king, a prophet, the Urim v'Tumim and the Beis Din ha'Gadol of seventy-one judges itself.

(b)In order to extend the boundaries of Yerushalayim, the Beis Din ha'Gadol brings two Korbenos Todah (for a description of the Korban Todah, see Background to Bava Kama 110:23:13) and takes from them two of the Lachmei Todah, specifically, two loaves of the leavened bread. A procession starts from the Azarah, led by Kohanim carrying the two loaves, one after the other. The Beis Din ha'Gadol follows them, and at each corner and at every large stone (i.e. every new landmark) added to the city, the procession stops to play musical instruments and to sing the verses of Tehilim 30, the "Psalm of the Dedication." At the outskirts of the area being added to the city the procession stops for the last time and one of the Lachmei Todah is eaten there and the other one is burned. The prophet is responsible for revealing which one is to be eaten and which one is to be burned (Shevuos 15a-16a, RAMBAM Hilchos Beis ha'Bechirah 6:11-12).

(c)In order to extend the boundaries of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, a similar ceremony is performed. However, a Korban Minchah is brought instead (for a description of the Korban Minchah, see Background to Kidushin 36:13). The addition to the Azarah is sanctified by a procession with loaves of the Sheyarei ha'Minchah (the remainder of the Minchah) (RAMBAM Hilchos Beis ha'Bechirah 6:13).

12)[line 27]ובסנהדרין של שבעים ואחדUV'SANHEDRIN SHEL SHIV'IM V'ECHAD - the court of seventy-one

(a)Most Halachic judgments are administered by three distinct courts: courts of three judges, who are fit to adjudicate in monetary matters; courts of twenty-three judges, who are fit to adjudicate even in capital cases; the Beis Din ha'Gadol of seventy-one judges, the Jewish "Supreme Court," that convenes in the Lishkas ha'Gazis in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

(b)The Beis Din ha'Gadol is known as the Sanhedri Gedolah. It is responsible for appointing the king of Yisrael and the Batei Din of twenty-three judges (Sanhedri Ketanah) in every tribe and city in Eretz Yisrael. In addition, only the Beis Din ha'Gadol may judge an entire tribe that was led astray and was convinced to worship Avodah Zarah (see Background to Sanhedrin 2:26 and 56:47). The capital cases of the Kohen Gadol and a Navi Sheker (see Background to Sanhedrin 84:9) are also judged by the Beis Din ha'Gadol. Similarly, the Beis Din ha'Gadol is the only court that can judge a Zaken Mamrei (see Background to Sanhedrin 84:8), an Ir ha'Nidachas (see Background to Sanhedrin 76:16), and the Sotah woman (see Background to Shevuos 5:4). Lastly, only the Beis Din ha'Gadol may enlarge the boundaries of Yerushalayim and the courtyards of the Beis ha'Mikdash (see above, entry #11), decide to wage a Milchemes ha'Reshus (see Background to Sanhedrin 2:29), and measure the distance between a murder victim found in the fields and the nearest town (see Background to Makos 10:48, Eglah Arufah) (RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 5:1).

13)[line 29]שתורפה של ירושלים היתהSHE'TORFAH SHEL YERUSHALAYIM HAISAH- that it was the exposed point of Yerushalayim. This made it easier to conquer Yerushalayim.

14)[line 33]שמקריבין אף על פי שאין ביתSHE'MAKRIVIN AF AL PI SHE'EIN BAYIS- [I heard from my teachers] that we may offer Korbanos [where the Beis ha'Mikdash stood] even when there is no Beis ha'Mikdash standing

15)[line 39]לצניעותא בעלמאL'TZNI'USA B'ALMA- merely for privacy. It is not proper that the place that contains the Menorah, Shulchan, and Mizbe'ach Ketores, as well as the Kodesh Kodashim, should be exposed to public view, and that any passerby should see the Kohanim performing the Avodah.

16)[line 43]"... ששים עיר כל חבל ארגוב ממלכת עוג בבשן. כל אלה ערים בצורות חומה גבוהה...""... SHISHIM IR KOL CHEVEL ARGOV MAMLECHES OG BA'BASHAN. KOL ELEH ARIM BETZUROS CHOMAH GEVOHAH [DELASAYIM U'VRI'ACH...]"- "... These included the entire Argov group of sixty cities that constituted Og's kingdom in the Bashan. They were all fortified cities with high walls, [gates and bars...]" (Devarim 3:4-5). (See Background to Megilah 10:4.)

17)[line 47]ומנאוםU'MENA'UM- and they (the Chachamim) counted these cities on their way back to Eretz Yisrael

18)[line 47]כל שתעלה בידך מסורת מאבותיךKOL SHE'TA'ALEH B'YADECHA MASORES ME'AVOSECHA- any city about which you have a tradition from your fathers


19)[line 4]אם אינו ענין... תנהו עניןIM EINO INYAN... TENEHU INYAN

(a)There are times when the Torah appears to teach that which is unnecessary, since it has already expressed another similar teaching. The rule of "Im Eino Inyan la'Zeh, Tenehu Inyan la'Zeh" may then apply. This rule means that "if it is unnecessary for what it appears to be teaching, you should apply it to a different, related teaching." Through this rule, laws may be derived from verses that do not discuss explicitly that area of Halachah.

(b)In the case of the Gemara here, if one verse has no application to Tum'ah contracted outside of the Azarah, then you should apply the verse to Tum'ah contracted inside the Azarah.

20)[line 6]וקראי מיתריV'KERA'EI MEYATREI- are these verses really extra?

21)[line 11]משוח בשמן המשחהMASHU'ACH B'SHEMEN HA'MISHCHAH- the Mishkan was anointed with the anointing oil. After Benei Yisrael constructed the Mishkan in the desert, HaSh-m instructed Moshe Rabeinu to anoint the Mishkan and all of its utensils. Moshe was commanded to make Shemen ha'Mishchah (Shemos 30:22-33) for this purpose. The Shemen ha'Mishchah is the spiced oil that was used for anointing (and thereby consecrating) the Mishkan and its utensils, the utensils of the Beis ha'Mikdash, the kings of the House of David and the Kohanim Gedolim.

22)[line 16]מכדיMICHDI- let us see

23)[line 29]כריעה בעלמאKERI'AH B'ALMA- it is merely kneeling. A bowing down that does not involve any tarrying is considered only kneeling and is permissible

24)[line 29]פישוט ידים ורגליםPISHUT YADAYIM V'RAGLAYIM- prostrating oneself while extending the arms and the legs

25)[line 32]חד אמר כמימריה דהאי פסוקאCHAD AMAR K'MEMREI D'HAI PESUKA- one said the measure for tarrying is as long as it takes to recite this verse

26)[line 32]וחד אמר כמויכרעו לסיפאV'CHAD AMAR KEMI'VA'YICHRE'U L'SEIFA- and one says as long as it takes to recite [the second half of the verse] from, "And they kneeled," to the end of the verse

27)[line 34]קידהKIDAH- a method of bowing, where only the head and thumbs are on the ground. When reverting to a standing position, only the thumbs are used, and not the arms (RASHI Sukah 53a DH v'Zo and DH Itla)