(a)On the first of Adar, Beis-Din ha'Gadol issued two announcements: one concerning the Shekalim, the other, concerning Kil'ayim. Where did they make the former, and what did they announce?
(b)What did the latter announcement comprise?
(c)On the fifteenth of Adar, the walled cities read the Megilah. Why does the Tana not also inform us that on the fourteenth the cities without walls read it?
(a)On the first of Adar, Beis-Din announced in all towns throughout Eretz Yisrael, that every Jew should bring his half-Shekel.
(b)The second announcement (regarding Kil'ayim) consisted of a warning that whoever had Kil'ayim growing in his field, should diminish the second type of seed until less than a quarter of a Kav per Sa'ah (1/24th) remained.
(c)The Tana does not also inform us that on the fourteenth of Adar the cities without walls read the Megilah - because he is not concerned with the Halachos of the month of Adar, only with what happened on the 15th.
(a)They also repaired the paths, the public roads and the Mikva'os. Why did they need to repair the roads specifically now?
(b)They also saw to all the public needs, went out to inspect the fields for Kil'ayim, and marked the graves. What did the latter comprise, what purpose did it serve and why did they choose to do it now?
(a)The roads, which were spoiled during the rain season, needed to be repaired for the Olei Regel, who were due to travel to Yerushalayim in a month's time. Alternatively, for the benefit of the murderers b'Shogeg, who required smooth roads to escape to the cities of refuge.
(b)Marking the graves comprised pouring liquid lime around the graves, and its purpose was to warn the Kohanim to avoid the graves. The reason that they chose to do this now was because, like the roads, the lime will have become spoilt during the rain-season, so that the markings needed to be re-done.
(a)Why did they announce the Shekalim on the first of Adar?
(a)They announced the Shekalim on the first of Adar - so that Yisrael could bring their half-Shekalim in time for the first of Nisan, which was the date from which the Korbanos had to be purchased from money of that year (and not of the previous year).
(a)Why did they choose the first of Nisan as the new year for purchasing the Korbanos?
(b)Rebbi Tavi learns it from a Gezeirah Shavah "Chodshei" "Chodshei". Where are these two Pesukim written?
(c)According to Rebbi Yonah, Rebbi Tavi omitted the first half of the Beraisa. According to him, what does the Gezeirah Shavah come to teach us?
(d)And what does the Beraisa learn from the word "b'Chodesh, l'Chodshei"?
(a)They choose the first of Nisan as the new year for purchasing the Korbanos - because they simply followed the pattern set in the first year after they left Egypt, when the Mishkan was set up on the first of Nisan.
(b)Rebbi Tavi learns it from a Gezeirah Shavah "Chodshei" (i.e. "Zos Olas Chodesh b'Chodsho l'*Chodshei* ha'Shanah" - Naso) and "Chodshei" (i.e. "Rishon Hu Lachem l'*Chodshei* ha'Shanah" - Bo).
(c)According to Rebbi Yonah - we already know of the obligation to begin the year of Korbanos with one particular month, only we do not know which one. That is what the Gezeirah Shavah teaches us.
(d)The Beraisa learns from the word "b'Chodsho l'Chodshei" - that one does not need to draw from the Lishkah each month, only once annually.
(a)The Mishnah in Megilah confines the difference between the first Adar in a leap-year and the second, to Mikra Megilah and Matanos la'Evyonim. Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi adds the announcing of the Shekalim and of Kil'ayim. Why did they announce specifically in Adar Sheni ...
1. ... the Shekalim?
2. ... Kil'ayim?
(b)How many times a year and on what dates did they withdraw money from the Lishkah to purchase the Korbanos Tzibur?
(a)They announced specifically in Adar Sheni ...
1. ... the Shekalim - because to make such an announcement in Adar Rishon, sixty days before they were due, would be too early - and defeat its purpose.
2. ... Kil'ayim - because the plants will not yet be visible, and the whole point of the owners removing what has already grown, will be lost.
(b)They withdrew money from the Lishkah to purchase the Korbanos Tzibur - three times a year, on P'ros ha'Pesach (fifteen days before Pesach), P'ros Shavu'os and P'ros Sukos.
(a)What reason does the Gemara initially give for the three withdrawals annually?
(b)What is the problem with this explanation?
(c)What then, is the significance of three withdrawals?
(a)the Gemara initially suggests that the three annual withdrawals were to accommodate people who came from near, from far and from very far, respectively (and the Gemara will hold that the withdrawn half-Shekalim cover only those who have already brought their half-Shekel, but not those who have not).
(b)The problem with this - is that, in fact, we hold that the withdrawn half-Shekalim cover even those who have not yet brought their half-Shekel, in which case there is no reason why one withdrawal should not cover the entire year (even on behalf of those who have not yet paid).
(c)The purpose of the three withdrawals was to create publicity (at the times when the whole of Yisrael was present) to serve as a reminder), that everyone was obligated to bring their half-Shekel - as soon as they were able (those who lived close in time for Rosh Chodesh Nisan, those who lived far in time for Shavu'os etc.)
(a)What is frightening about the following pairs of Pesukim:
1. "Kol Nediv Lev Yevi'eha es Terumas Hash-m" (Vayakhel) & "Vayisparku Kol ha'Am" (Ki Sisa)?
2. "Vayotzei Moshe es ha'Am" (Yisro) & "Vatikrevun Elai Kulchem" (Devarim)?
3. "Az Yashir Moshe u'Venei Yisrael" (Beshalach) & "Vatisa Kol ha'Eidah es Kolam" (Ki Sisa)?
(b)Rebbi Chiya bar Ba makes a similar observation from the Pasuk in Tzefanyah "Achein Hishkimu His'ivu". What point is he making?
(c)Rebbi Ba bar Acha expressed surprise at the Jewish people, who always give. To what was he referring?
(d)How does the Beraisa solve his problem from the Pasuk in Terumah "v'Asisa Kapores Zahav Tahor"?
1. "Kol Nediv Lev Yevi'eha es Terumas Hash-m" indicates that only the generous-hearted donated towards the construction of the Mishkan, whereas when it came to the Golden Calf, "Vayisparku Kol ha'Am" - everyone did!
2. "Vayotzei Moshe es ha'Am" indicates that Moshe had to lead the people out to meet Hash-m at Matan Torah, whereas when it came to sending the spies, "Vatikrevun Elai Kulchem" - they approached Moshe of their own accord!
3. "Az Yashir Moshe u'Venei Yisrael" indicates that they only raised their voices in song to Hash-m after taking their cue from Moshe, whereas when it came to crying after the return of the spies, "Vatisa Kol ha'Eidah es Kolam" - they cried of their own accord!
(b)Rebbi Chiya bar Ba makes a similar observation from the Pasuk in Tzefanyah "Achen Hishkimu His'ivu" - meaning that because by the Golden Calf they got up very early (as the Pasuk in Ki Sisa writes "va'Yashkimu ba'Boker"), whereas when it came to donating for the Mishkan, the term 'Hashkamah' is not mentioned.
(c)Rebbi Ba bar Acha expressed surprise at the Jewish people, who always give - when they are asked to donate gold towards the Golden- Calf, they give; when they are asked to donate towards the Mishkan, they give. Who can make sense of that?
(d)The Beraisa solves his problem from the Pasuk in Terumah "v'Asisa Kapores Zahav Tahor" - from which we learn that the donations towards the Mishkan served as a Kaparah for the sin of the Golden Calf. So of course they had to give - that was the Kaparah!
(a)To what do the following Pesukim in Terumah refer:
1. "Daber el Bnei Yisrael v'Yikchu Li Terumah"?
2. "me'Es Kol Ish Asher Yidvenu Libo Tikchu es Terumasi"?
3. "v'Zos ha'Terumah Asher Tikchu me'Itam"?
(b)What does the Gemara mean when it says 'Terumas Shekalim l'Korban Mah she'Yirtzu Ya'asu (Yavi'u)'?
(c)By which of the three gifts does the Torah write "The rich shall not give more, nor the poor, less"?
(d)Where else are the three gifts hinted?
1. "Daber el Bnei Yisrael v'Yikchu Li Terumah" - refers to the donation of the silver for the sockets (the Terumas Adanim).
2. "me'Eis Kol Ish Asher Yidevenu Libo Tikchu es Terumasi" - to the donation of the half-Shekel.
3. and "v'Zos ha'Terumah Asher Tikchu me'Itam" - to the donation of the thirteen raw materials.
(b)'Terumas Shekalim l'Korban Mah she'Yirtzu Ya'asu (Yavi'u)' - means that the half-Shekel was not fixed, and they were permitted to add to the amount (as e shall see later, on Daf 6a).
(c)The Pasuk "The rich shall not give more, nor the poor, less" - refers to the Terumas Adanim.
(d)The three gifts are also hinted in Parshas Ki Sisa: "Machatzis ha'Shekel Terumah la'Hashem" ... "Yitein Terumas Hash-m" ... Laseis es Terumas Hash-m".
(a)How does Rebbi Chelbo, who says that even a person who lived in a walled city can be Yotzei Mikra Megilah on the fourteenth, explain our Mishnah, which gives the time for a walled city-dweller as the fifteenth?
(b)How does ...
1. ... the Talmud Bavli explain the word in Megilas Esther "bi'Zemaneihem"?
2. ... Rebbi Chelbo explain the word in Megilas Esther "bi'Zemaneihem"?
(c)How do we attempt to reconcile Rebbi Chelbo with our Mishnah, which emphatically states that the time for people in a walled city to read the Megilah, is the fifteenth?
(d)What is then the Kashya on Rebbi Chelbo from the Beraisa 'Makom she'Nahagu Likrosah Shnei Yamim, Korin Osash Shnei Yamim'?
(a)Rebbi Chelbo, who says that even a person who lived in a walled city can be Yotzei Mikra Megilah on the fourteenth, explains our Mishnah, which gives the time for a walled city-dweller as the fifteenth - to mean if he so wishes.
1. ... the Talmud Bavli explains the word "bi'Zemaneihem" - to mean that unwalled towns read the Megilah specifically on the fourteenth of Adar, and walled towns specifically on the fifteenth.
2. ... Rebbi Chelbo explains it to mean that one may read it either in Adar Rishon or in Adar Sheni.
(c)We try to establish our Mishnah, which emphatically states that the time for people in a walled city to read the Megilah is the fifteenth, by l'Chatchilah, whereas Rebbi Chelbo speaks by b'Di'eved - if people in a a walled city already read on the fourteenth.
(d)If as Rebbi Chelbo maintains, once someone from a walled city has read on read on the fourteenth, he is Yotzei, why does the Beraisa say 'Makom she'Nahagu Likerosah Shnei Yamim, Korin Osash Shnei Yamim'. Why should there ever be a need to read the Megilah twice?
(a)How do we reconcile Rebbi Chelbo with the above Beraisa?
(a)Rebbi Chelbo will explain that, in reality, once someone has read on the fourteenth, he is Yotzei in any case. Nevertheless, they retained the custom to read on both days - because, if one were to stop someone who read on the fourteenth from reading on the fifteenth, then people would think that one only reads on the fourteenth, and not on the fifteenth. In this way, it would result in the whole Takanah of reading on the fifteenth (in honor of Yerushalayim, as we shall see in Megilah), becoming extinct.
(a)Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi rules like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel concerning Adar Rishon and Adar Sheni. What does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel say with regard to the Mitzvos that apply in Adar Sheni. Which are the only two Mitzvos that apply in both Adars according to him?
(b)'Rebbi Chana d'Tzipori Hinhig k'Raban Shimon ben Gamliel'. What is the difference between Halachah and Hinhig?
(c)According to Rebbi Meir, in documents one writes 'Adar Rishon' in Adar Rishon (according to the text of the Gra) and 'Adar' in Adar Sheni. What does Rebbi Yehudah hold?
(a)Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi rules like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel who says that all the Mitzvos that apply to Adar Sheni, cannot be fulfilled in Adar Rishon, except for the prohibition of making a Hesped and fasting, which apply to the fourteenth and the fifteenth of both months.
(b)'Rebbi Chana d'Tzipori Hinhig k'Raban Shimon ben Gamliel' - means that although, he maintained, one was permitted to follow Raban Shimon ben Gamliel's opinion, he would not actually issue rulings like him.
(c)According to Rebbi Meir, in documents one writes 'Adar Rishon' in Adar Rishon (according to the text of the Gra) and 'Adar' in Adar Sheni. In the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, they would write 'Adar' in Adar Rishon, and 'Adar Sheni' in Adar Sheni.