(a)Which Melachah has one contravened if one pours water onto a solid substance to make a dye?
(b)Who is the author of our Mishnah which maintains that one is Chayav for pouring the water, even without mixing them?
(c)Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah disagrees. In his opinion, one is not Chayav Lishah unless he mixes the two ingredients, even in our Mishnah, where the two ingredients do not really combine when mixed (in the way that flour and water, or dust and water, do). From where do we know that Rebbi Yossi is lenient even in such a case?
(d)We query this however, from another Beraisa, which has the text 'Afar', not 'Eifer'. What is our conclusion?
(a)Someone who pours water on to a solid substance to make a dye - has contravened the Melachah of Lishah - kneading.
(b)The Tana who is Mechayev the person who pours water on to a solid substance, even though he did not mix them - is Rebbi.
(c)Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah disagrees. In his opinion, one is not Chayav Lishah unless he mixes the two ingredients, even in our Mishnah, where the two ingredients do not really combine when mixed (in the way that flour and water, or dust and water, do). We know this - from the Beraisa, where he exempts even someone who poured water on to ashes, even though water and ashes do not mix well.
(d)We have learnt two Beraisos, one speaks of 'Afar' and the other, of 'Eifer'. Since the two Beraisos were not learnt together, it is possible that Rebbi Yossi said his Din by 'Afar', dust, which does mix well (and the Beraisa which quotes 'Eifer', really means 'Afar' - only that particular Tana referred to Afar as'Eifer'). Consequently, we have no proof that Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah is lenient even by things that do not mix well. Perhaps there, he will agree with Rebbi - that he is Chayav as soon as he pours the water.
(a)The Beraisa permits one to turn on a tap on Friday afternoon, for the garden to be watered on Shabbos, to place spices under clothes to be perfumed, sulfur under silver vessels to be smoked, and various salves on the eye and on a wound to cure on Shabbos. The same Beraisa forbids the placing of wheat in a water-mill, unless it can be ground before nightfall. Assuming the author to be Beis Hillel, how does Rabbah explain the difference between the Reisha and the Seifa?
(b)Rav Yossef queries Rabah from a Beraisa, which quotes the Pasuk "u've'Chol Asher Amarti Aleichem, Tishameru"? Based on this Beraisa, how does he explain the above prohibition?
(c)In that case, still assuming the author of the above Beraisa to be Beis Hillel, why do they permit the placing of sulfur and spices under silver vessels to be smoked?
(d)But why do they permit the laying of traps, which do perform an act as they catch the animal?
(a)The Beraisa permits one to turn on a tap on Friday afternoon, for the garden to be watered on Shabbos, to place spices under clothes to be perfumed, sulfur under silver vessels to be smoked, and various salves on the eye and on a wound to cure on Shabbos. The same Beraisa forbids the placing of wheat in a water-mill, unless it can be ground before nightfall. Rabbah maintains that, although, in the opinion of Beis Hillel, there is nothing wrong with vessels performing one's work on Shabbos - the one exception is that of a mill, which makes a noise (and which the Rabbanan therefore forbade, because it is not in the spirit of Shabbos, or because people will think that he is desecrating Shabbos). According to some Meforshim, the Halachah is actually like Rabbah (See Tosfos, DH 've'Hashta').
(b)The Beraisa learns from "u've'Chol Asher Amarti Alechem Tishameru" the principle of 'Shevisas Keilim' - that one's vessels may not do on Shabbos whatever one may not do oneself, and that is howRav Yosef explains the prohibition of placing the wheat in the mill close to Shabbos.
(c)The Beraisa nevertheless permits the placing of sulfur and spices underneath silver vessels and clothes etc. - because those vessels do not perform an act - they work passively.
(d)The traps which the Beraisa permits - are specifically those that do not perform an act, such as a Lechi (also known as a 'Chakeh') which catches the fish when the fish swallows it, and is then unable to release it; and Kukri, which catches the bird when the bird sticks its head in the narrow end and can then not extricate itself.
(a)We conclude however, that the author of the Seifa of the Beraisa (which forbids one to place wheat in a mill) is Beis Shamai. How do we now reconcile the Seifa of the Beraisa with the Reisha, which permits the placing of sulfur under the vessels and spices under the clothes ?
(a)We conclude however, that the author of the Seifa of the Beraisa (which forbids one to place wheat in a mill) is Beis Shamai. The Reisha, which permits one to place sulfur and spices under silver vessels clothes - speaks when he places them on the floor, and not in a vessel.
(a)Why do Beis Shamai, who hold of Shevisas Keilim, permit one to leave beer fermenting in a barrel, a lamp burning (which is even a Mitzvah) and meat roasting on a spit-rod - over Shabbos?
(a)Beis Shamai permit one to leave beer fermenting in a barrel, a lamp burning, and meat burning on a spit-rod - only if one first declares the barrel, the lamp and the spit-rod, Hefker.
(a)The Beraisa forbids a woman to fill a pot with Turmus beans, or a baker a barrel of water, and place them in the oven shortly before Shabbos to boil until after Shabbos. What would be the procedure on Motza'ei Shabbos, if one did do it?
(b)Could the author of this Beraisa be Beis Hillel (who disagree entirely with the concept of Shevisas Keilim)?
(c)Why then, do Beis Hillel permit one to leave on the boil ...
1. ... spices and sulfur?
2. ... stalks of flax?
3. ... wool in a caldron? Why are they not concerned there too, that he may come to stoke the coals?
(d)Why are they not worried that he may stir the contents of the pot, which is considered cooking?
(a)If a woman placed a pot of Turmus beans or a baker a barrel of water in the oven shortly before Shabbos, intending them to boil the whole of Shabbos - one would not be permitted to use them on Motza'ei Shabbos until the time it would take for them to boil, in order that one should not benefit from the work that was performed on Shabbos (even though he will have contravened no more than an Isur mi'de'Rabbanan).
(b)The author of this Beraisa could well be Beis Hillel, because, although Beis Hillel do not hold of 'Shevisas Kelim', they nevertheless forbid one to leave food to cook on the bare flame, because he may come to stoke the coals.
(c)They are not however, concerned that one might stir the coals ...
1. ... in the case of the sulfur and the spices - because stoking the coals would cause smoke to rise and spoil the silver vessels and the clothes.
2. ...in the case of stalks of flax - because the wind is bad for the bleaching flax, so he will not evend dare to open the oven door.
3. ... in the case of wool to be dyed - because it is speaking when the pot has already been removed from the stove.
(d)Nor are we worried that he may stir the contents of the pot - because it speaks when the pot is also cemented shut (and by the time he opens it, he will remember that it is Shabbos).
(a)Why may one leave raw meat, or a pot which is fully cooked in the oven (or on the stove - without a Blech), to boil - just before Shabbos?
(b)May one leave a partially cooked pot containing a raw piece of meat to cook on Shabbos?
(c)According to the first Lashon, everyone agrees that one may leave meat of a kid-goat to cook in an oven when it is cemented shut, but not ram's meat, when it is not. Why does Rav Ashi permit a kid-goat even in an oven which is not cemented shut?
(d)Then how does he explain the Mishnah on 19b, which forbids one to leave meat to roast (in an oven which is not cemented shut), unless it is ready before Shabbos?
(a)One is permitted to leave raw meat, and a fully-cooked pot in the oven (or on the stove - without a Blech) when Shabbos comes in, because, since the former, which is obviously intended for Shabbos morning, will be done by then, and the latter is done already, there is no reason to stoke the coals.
(b)One may leave a partially-cooked pot containing a piece of raw meat, in the oven, because the raw meat is a sign that he wants the pot only for the morning, and here too, he will not find it necessary to stoke the coals.
(c)According to the first Lashon, one is permitted to leave meat of a kid-goat to cook in an oven when it is cemented shut, but not that of ram's meat, when it is not. Rav Ashi permits a kid-goat even in an oven which is not cemented shut - because air is bad for the roasting kid, and we can be certain that he will not open the oven to stoke the coals. This concession is confined to meat that is roasting on an open flame, but not to meat that is cooking in a pot (see Tosfos, DH 'Bashil').
(d)According to Rav Ashi, the Mishnah, which forbids meat to be left in an oven close to Shabbos must be speaking specifically about ram's meat that is left in an oven which is not cemented shut?
(a)In connection with a pot of boiling dye that has been removed from the flame, the Gemara is concerned that one may come to stir it. Which Melachah would one transgress if he did?
(a)Someone who stirs a boiling pot, even after it has been removed from the flame, - transgresses the Isur of 'Bishul' (See also Tosfos, DH 'Dilma').
(a)According to the second Lashon, everyone agrees that kid's meat is permitted even in an uncemented oven, and it is even ram's meat that Rav Ashi permits. How does he then establish the Mishnah on 19b, which forbids one to leave meat to roast etc.?
(b)How does Rebbi Yirmiyah mi'Difti hold in the second Lashon?
(a)According to Rav Ashi in the second Lashon, where even ram's meat is permitted in an oven which is not cemented - we will establish the Mishnah later on, by meat on open coals, which do not even require the opening of a door. (In this Lashon, Rav Ashi holds that, when the door of the oven is shut, we do not suspect that he will even open it to stoke the coals - see Tosfos DH 'Hasam'.)
(b)Rav Yirmiyah mi'Difti holds in this Lashon - that it is forbidden to leave a kid-goat inside an oven which is not cemented, in case he forgets, opens the door and stokes the coals.
(a)Under which of the above categories does a raw pumpkin fall?
(a)A raw pumpkin has the same Din as a kid's meat in the second Lashon - because it too, does not react kindly to fresh air, whilst it is being cooked. Consequently, one may leave it inside the stove close to Shabbos.
Note: This concession applies only to meat etc., which is roasting on an open flame, but not if it is inside a pot, when the air can do it no harm (Rosh Siman 35, quoting Behag).
(a)Beis Shamai forbid one to sell an object to a Nochri, to lend him an object or money, or to give him a present, unless the Nochri has time to reach his house before the advent of Shabbos. Beis Hillel permits it, provided he is able to reach the house nearest the wall when he arrives in his home town. What does Rebbi Akiva hold?
(b)Is Rebbi Akiva citing a third opinion?
(a)Beis Shamai forbid one to sell an object to a Nochri, to lend him an object or money, or to give him a present, unless the Nochri has time to reach his house before the advent of Shabbos. Beis Hillel permits it, provided he is able to reach the house nearest the wall when he arrives in his home town. According to Rebbi Akiva, it is prtmitted provided the Nochri leaves the Jew's house before Shabbos enters.
(b)Rebbi Akiva is not citing his own (third) opinion - what he is saying is that Beis Hillel did not ssay what the Tana Kama quoted him as saying, but what he (Rebbi Akiva) was now sasying in his name.
(a)Beis Shamai forbid one to sell Chametz to a Nochri, unless he is able to finish it before Pesach. What does Beis Hillel say?
(b)What does Rebbi Yehudah say regarding Kutach ha'Bavli?
(c)Why thirty days?
(a)Beis Shamai forbid one to sell Chametz to a Nochri, unless he is able to finish it before Pesach. According to Beis Hillel - as long as one is permitted to eat the Chametz, he is also permitted to sell it.
(b)Rebbi Yehudah holds - that it is forbidden to sell Kutach ha'Bavli (a condiment containing bread) for the entire thirty days before Pesach, because, since it is eaten in the form of a condiment, it lasts a long time - and Rebbi Yehudah follows the opinion of Beis Shamai.
(c)The thirty days is due to the fact that one begins to Darshen the laws of Pesach thirty days before Pesach. Before that time, one is not required to take Pesach into consideration in one's day to day life.