(a)One is permitted to go out wearing one's Tefilin on Friday close to Shabbos. Why are we not worried that he may come to wear them in the street, after Shabbos has come in?
(b)What is the Kal va'Chomer from Tzitz?
(c)What were Chazal referring to when they said 'Hilchesa Rabsa le'Shabsa'?
(a)We are not concerned that a person who walks out on Friday afternoon wearing his Tefilin might forget and walk with them in the street on Shabbos, because one is obligated to feel one's Tefilin at regular intervals. This will cause him to remember that he is wearing Tefilin, and he will take them off before Shabbos.
(b)The Tzitz contains only one Name of Hash-m, yet we learn from the Pasuk in Shemos ("ve'Haya Al Mitzcho Tamid") that the Kohen Gadol should keep his mind on it constantly; how much more so Tefilin, where the Name of Hash-m appears many times.
(c)'Hilchesa Rabsa le'Shabsa' is said about the obligation to check one's clothes before Shabbos enters, to ensure that there is nothing there that he might carry into the street.
(a)There are two possible reasons for the prohibition of de-lousing one's clothes on Shabbos, one of them is because one might kill a louse. What is the other? What is the practical difference between the two reasons?
(b)If the reason is because one is Chayav for killing a louse on Shabbos, who will the author of the Mishnah have to be?
(c)Why is there no proof from the Beraisa, which writes 'Ein Polin, ve'Ein Korin le'Or ha'Ner', implying that both are forbidden for the same reason - 'le'Or ha'Ner'?
(d)How do we finally establish the reason for the prohibition? From where do we learn it?
(a)There are two possible reasons for the prohibition of de-lousing one's clothes on Shabbos, one of them is because one might kill a louse, the other - because of the fear that he might come to turn the wick (which is certainly the reason that one may not read by the light of a lamp). The difference between the two answers is in daytime, which will be forbidden according to the first reason, but permitted according to the second.
(b)If the reason is because one is Chayav for killing a louse on Shabbos - the author of the Mishnah have to be Rebbi Eliezer, who maintains that one is Chayav Chatas for killing a louse on Shabbos.
(c)True, the Beraisa, which writes 'Ein Polin, ve'Korin le'Or ha'Ner', implies that both are forbidden only 'le'Or ha'Ner'. But then, so does our Mishnah, which uses a similar expression, yet we contend with the possibility that 'Ein Polin' might be for a different reason; if so, we can say the same in the Beraisa, too.
(d)The Gemara quotes another Beraisa, which explicitly states 'Ein Polin le'Or ha'Ner', leaving no doubt as to the real reason for the prohibition.
(a)Only something that requires scrutiny is forbidden by the light of a lamp, but not something that can be seen easily. Why is it, even though one may distinguish between men's and women's clothes using the light of a lamp, this is forbidden in Mechuza (Rava's town)? What was different about the clothes that the people of Mechuza wore?
(b)Does this Chumra apply to all the clothes in Mechuza?
(c)It is forbidden to de-louse one's clothes in the street. What else may one not do in the street, and what is the reason for these prohibitions?
(a)The people of Mechuza were spoilt, they did not work, and their clothes were therefore wide like those of the women. Consequently, distinguishing between them required scrutiny (unlike men's clothes of other communities, which differed radically from women's clothes and which did not need scrutiny).
(b)This applies only to the clothes of old women, which were shorter and which the men's clothes resemble, but not to the clothes of younger women, which are longer and wider, and which one would never confuse with men's clothes - even the men of Mechuza!
(c)It is also forbidden to vomit (Apiktozan) in the street. Both (that and de-lousing) are forbidden because of Kavod ha'Beri'os (human dignity).
(a)According to the Tana Kama in the Beraisa, someone who wishes to remove a louse from his body on Shabbos, may roll it in order to loosen and to weaken it, to prevent it from returning, and throw it away, but he may not kill it. What is Aba Shaul's opinion in this matter?
(b)What is the basis of their Machlokes?
(c)What is the Halachah? (see Tosfos DH 'Rabbah').
(d)What did Rava do with the lice, and what did Rav Nachman instruct his daughters to do regarding them?
(a)According to Aba Shaul, one may take the louse and throw it away, but on no account, may he roll it.
(b)The Tana Kama holds like the Chachamim of Rebbi Eliezer, that killing a louse is only an Isur de'Rabbanan. Consequently, one is permitted to roll it - because even if he does inadvertently kill it, he will have only have transgressed an Isur de'Rabbanan. Whereas Aba Shaul holds like Rebbi Eliezer, in whose opinion killing a louse is an Isur d'Oraysa. So Chazal forbade one to roll it, in case he inadvertently kills it.
(c)Although Rav Huna rules like the Tana Kama, that one may roll the lice and throw them away, but not kill them, the other Amora'im seem to hold like Beis Hillel, who permit one even to kill them as well. (Other Meforshim explain that the other Tana'im agree with Beis Hillel, since he is talking about lice, which are not born from parents, but from dust etc. , whilst they are speaking about fleas, which are born from parents - See Rosh, Si'man 29. The Rosh also differentiates between taking a louse from his body and killing it, which Beis Hillel permits, and de-lousing his clothes, where it is difficult to distinguish between a louse and a flea.)
(d)Rava would throw them into a bowl of water; Rav Nachman instructed his daughters to kill them, so that he could hear the death-throes of his enemies.
(a)Besides arguing over killing a louse on Shabbos, Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel also argue about permitting one to make a Shiduch, finding a Rebbe for one's son and a teacher to teach him a trade. Which other two things are included in this dispute?
(b)What do Beis Hillel learn from the rams' skins dyed red in the Mishkan (the source for the prohibition of Shechitah on Shabbos)?
(c)Raban Shimon ben Gamliel quoting Beis Shamai forbid making a Shiduch, finding a Rebbe for his son or a teacher to teach him a trade. On what basis do ...
1. ... Beis Shamai forbid it?
2. ... Beis Hillel permit it?
(a)Beis Shamai also prohibit comforting mourners and visiting the sick on Shabbos (because they make a person sad, and on Shabbos, one is not supposed to be sad). Beis Hillel permits.
(b)Beis Hillel learn from the rams' skins dyed red in the Mishkan - that only creatures that multiply through mating are included in the Isur of Shechitah, but not lice, which grow from the skin.
(c)Raban Shimon ben Gamliel quoting Beis Shamai forbid making a Shiduch, finding a Rebbe for his son or a teacher to teach him a trade.
1. Beis Shamai forbid it - on the basis of the Pasuk "mi'Metzo Cheftzecha" (effectually forbidding all personal occupations not connected with Shabbos or Torah-study).
2. ... Beis Hillel permit it - on the basis of the word "Cheftze*cha*", implying one's own mundane matters, but not what has to with Hash-m (i.e. what is a Mitzvah).
(a)The Gemara cites a number of opinions as to what one says when visiting a sick person on Shabbos. The ruling is like Shevna Ish Yerushalayim. According to Shevna, what does one say upon entering the room, and what does one say upon leaving?
(b)We do not rule like Rebbi Yossi in the above Machlokes, regarding Shabbos. We do however, rule like him with regard to the wording of a prayer for a sick person. What do we learn from Rebbi Yossi in this regard?
(a)When one enters the room where the sick person is, one says 'Shalom'!, and when one leaves the sick person's presence, one says 'Shabbos Hi mi'Liz'ok, u'Refuah Kerovah Lavo; ve'Rachamav Merubin ve'Shivsu be'Shalom'.
(b)We learn from Rebbi Yossi, in whose opinion one says 'ha'Makom Yerachem Alecha Besoch Cholei Yisrael', that when one prays for the recovery of a sick person, one should include him together with all the other sick people in Yisrael.
(a)It is with great reluctance that Chazal permitted one to comfort mourners and to visit the sick on Shabbos. Why is that?
(b)Rebbi Elazar would sometimes pray for the sick with the words 'Rachmana Yidkerinech li'Sh'lom'. What objection does the Gemara raise to the wording of this prayer?
(c)On what grounds was Rebbi Elazar justified?
(d)What other ramifications does this have, concerning the way one sits before a sick person?
(e)The source for this Chidush is a Pasuk in Tehilim "Hash-m Yis'adenu Al Eres Devai". What else do we learn from the word "Yis'adenu"?
(a)Someone who comforts mourners or visits the sick, is bound to empathize with them, and one should not feel sad on Shabbos.
(b)The Rabbanan objected to 'Rachmana Yidkerinech li'Shlom', because Rav Yehudah has already taught us not to pray in Aramaic, since the angels who carry up our prayers to Heaven do not understand Aramaic.
(c)Rebbi Elazar however, was right. A sick person does not need angels, because Hash-m is with him (and perhaps even supports him), and hears the prayers directly - And He (Kevayachol) certainly understands Aramaic!
(d)Since Hash-m is with the sick person (at the head of his bed), one should not sit higher than he is e.g. on a bed or a chair (se Tosfos d.h. 'Lo').
(e)We can learn from "Hash-m Yis'adenu" etc., that Hash-m visits - perhaps even supports - a sick person.
(a)May one read by the light of a lamp which is a hundred stories high, where he is unlikely to (inadvertently) turn the wick any higher?
(b)When are two people permitted to read by the light of a lamp, and when are they not?
(c)In which case is it always forbidden even for two people to read by the light of a lamp?
(d)Why is an Adam Chashuv always permitted to read by the light of a lamp?
(a)Chazal forbade one to read by the light of a lamp, irrespective of how high or how many stories up it is. They did not differentiate between heights (Lo P'lug).
(b)Two people are permitted to read by the light of a lamp if they are reading the same Parshah, because then the one will stop the other if he makes a move to turn up the wick. If they are reading in two different Parshiyos, then they are forbidden to do so.
(c)Even if two people wish to read one Parshah, they are forbidden to do so by the light of a bonfire, since (both because they are no longer sitting in such close proximity to each other, and because of the closeness of the logs), each one is less likely to notice what the other one is doing; nor will he have time to stop him, even if he does.
(d)An Adam Chashuv is not used to performing such tasks as turning up wicks, because he has servants who do it for him. Consequently, the concern that one might inadvertently turn up the wick, does not apply to him.
(a)According to the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, Rebbi Yishmael ben Elisha gave testimony that he once almost turned up the wick. What is Rebbi Nasan's version of the story?
(b)What did Rebbi Yishmael declare
1. ... according to the Tana Kama's version of the story?
2. ... according to Rebbi Nasan's version?
(c)But did we not just learn that an Adam Chashuv is permitted to learn by the light of a lamp?
(a)According to the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, Rebbi Yishmael ben Elisha gave testimony that he once almost turned up the wick. Rebbi Nasan maintains that he actually turned it up.
1. According to the Tana Kama's version of the story - Rebbi Yishmael declared how wise (and far-sighted) Chazal were in forbidding reading by the light of a lamp on Shabbos.
2. According to Rebbi Nasan's version - he recorded in his note-book that he was would bring a 'fat Korban Chatas' when the Beis-Hamikdash will be re-built.
(c)Even though we just learned that an Adam Chashuv is permitted to learn by the light of a lamp - nevertheless Rebbi Yishmael was different. His keenness to learn was so strong, that he behaved like an ordinary person, and not like an Adam Chashuv
(a)One Beraisa permits a servant to wash up cups and disshes by the light of a lamp on Shabbos; another, forbids it. How do we differentiate, in the first answer, between two kinds of servants? What is the reason for this difference?
(b)According to the second Lashon, when is even a permanent servant permitted to wash up by the light of a lamp?
(c)What is the Machlokes between Rav and Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba regarding a short-term servant examining dishes by an oil-lamp?
(d)What did Rav Asi's wife have to say when Rav Yirmiyah's servant examined vessels by the light of a lamp? What did Rav Asi answer her?
(a)One Beraisa permits a servant to wash up cups and dishes by the light of a lamp on Shabbos; another, forbids it. In the first answer - the second Beraisa, speaks about a permanent servant, who is is afraid that his master might find the vessels dirty which will cost him his job; whereas the first Beraisa is speaking about a short-term servant, who is permitted to examine vessels by the light of a lamp, because he does not take the trouble to scrutinize the vessels he is examining properly, seeing as his job is not at stake.
(b)According to the second Lashon, even a permanent servant is permitted to wash up by the light of a parafin lamp, which, due to its unpleasant smell, he is unlikely to turn up (whereas the Beraisa forbidding it speaks about an oil-lamp).
(c)Rav and Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba dispute - whether the concession for a short-term servant to examine vessels by the light of an oil-lamp, is a Halachah which may be publicized (Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba), or whether it should be kept quiet, and permitted only discreetly (Rav).
(d)When Rav Asi's wife saw Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba's (short-term) servant examining vessels by the light of a lamp, she said to her husband 'But you don't do that'! Upon which, he answered 'Leave him alone. He holds like his master'.
(a)The Tana of our Mishnah permits the Chazen to watch where the children reading by the light of a lamp. But did he not just forbid reading by the light of a lamp?
(b)Why might we be more lenient with the children in this regard, than with grown-ups?
(a)The 'Chazan' is forbidden to read the Parshah just like everybody else. He is however, permitted to look over the beginning of each Parshah (e.g. Sheini,, Shelishi etc.), in order to be conversant with them. Then tomorrow, when the seven Keru'im are called up to the Torah, he will be able to help them to read and to Lein correctly, if necessary.
(b)According to one opinion, children (whose Rebbe is with them) are permitted to read by the light of a lamp, because in the presence of their Rebbe, they will not dare to turn up the wick without his permission.